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Bosworth (Rev. Joseph, D.D., F.R.St F.S.A., &c.). 

A Compendious Anglo>$axon and Eilglish Dictionary. Demy 
8vo. 12*. 

Halliwell (James Orchard^. A Dictionary of Archaic 

and Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs, and Ancient 
Customs, from the Fourteentli Century. Fifth Edition. Two 
Vols. DemySvo. 996 pp. 27«. 

Nares (Robert). A Glossary or Collection of Words, 

Phrases, Names, and Allusions to Customs, Proverbs, JiiAi., 
which have been thought to require Illustration in the Wurkn 
of English Authors, puticularly Shakes];)eare and his Contem- 
poraries. A New Edition, with considerable Additions, )K>th 
of Words and Examples, by James O. Halliwell and Thomas 
Wright. Two Vols. Demy 8vo. 992 pp. 21*." 

Walsh (William S.). Handy Book of Literary Curio- 
sities. Large ci-own 8vo. 1104 pp. 12«. Qd. 

A few of the aiticlesin this curious, amusing, and instnuttve 
volume may l)e mentioned :— Acrostics — Alliteration — A na- 
^ms — Bibliomania — Binding — Book«Plates — Cryptograms— 
Coincidences— Dedications- Epigrams — Epitaphs— Fottjeries- 
Indexes— Lost Treasures— Mistaikes of Authors— Mixed Meta- 

fhors— Names, Curiosities of— Parody— Plagiarism— Puns— Real 
eople in Fiction — Reviews, Curiosities of — Typograpliiial 
Eri-oi-s, tfcc. 

*' Of really remarkable merit."— .S^x-c^ator. 

Curiosities of Popular Customs, and of Rites, 

<'ei*enionie8, OI»servances, and Miscellaneous Antiquities. Ac. 
r^nfe crown 8vo. Illustrated, lin. 












" cadentque 

Qufe nunc sunt in honure vocabula."— Hop. 




JAMES 0. HALLIWELL, Esq., r.R.S., Ac. 


THOMAS WRIGHT, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Ac. 

VOL. II. K— Z. 

1 % s 

•■ « 



■ : . / . ' .' \ 

I hi 

• /i.u:/ 6lhHF0m JR. UNMRSt'f^ 

a. 51S70 


• 1 

; ^^ 


• • • 



KA MB, AND I'LL KA THEE, prov,, 
or more commonly, in an abbreviated 
form, KA ME, KA THEE. A pro- 
verbial phrase, considered as parallel 
with the Tiatin adage, ''Mali mutu6 
scabunti" but cf Scottish origin, in 
which dialect ca, pronounced caw, 
means call, or invite ; as they use fa 
for fall, a for all, &c. See Jamieson 
in Call, Ray has it among his Pro- 
verbs, p. 126, but without notice of 
its real origin. His illustrations are 
merely these : " Da mihi mutuum 
testimonium.'* Cic, Orat, pro Flaci 
Lend me an oath or testimony ; swear 
for me, and FU do as much for you ; 
or claw me, and Til claw you ; com- 
mend me, and 111 commend you. 
Pro Dello Calauriam. Neptune 
changed with Latona "Deles for 
Calauria." But none of these come 
exactly to the point: "One good 
torn deserves another," is quite as 
parallel as any of them, and "claw 
me,*' &c., much more so. See Claw. 
In Kelly's Scottish Proverbs it stands : 

Kae me, and I'll kae thet. Lett. K J I. 

With the marginal interpretation in- 
viie, and an explanation subjoined, 
''Spoken when great people invite 
and feast one another, and neglect the 

Id England it was sometimes pro- 
noanced kai/ ; whence, in the follow- 
ing passage, it is printed with the 
letter k alone, and is so punned upon 

as to prove that it must be pronounced 
kai/j or key : 

Thou art pandar to me for my wench, aod I to thee 
for thy cousenage. K me, k thee, runs through court 
nnd country. Secur. Well said, my subtle Quick- 
silvpr. lliose Ks ope the doors to all this world's 
felicity. Eastw. Hoe, 0. PI., iv, 331. 

Ket/ itself was often pronounced kay. 
See Kay. 

We cash'keepers 
Hold correspond^vce, supply one another 
On all occasions. I cau borrow for a week 
Two hundred pounds of one, as much of a second, 
A third lays down the rest ; and when they m'ant. 
As my master's money comes in, I do repay it. 
Ka vie, ka thee. Mtueinger*» City Madamt ii, 1. 

Also act iv, sc. 2. 

Ka mf, ka thee, one good toume asketh another. 

Heyieood^e Poems, oh Proverb, £, 1 b. 
Let's be friends; 
Yon know the law has tricks ; Ka me, ka thee. 

Bam Mley, O. PI., r, 494. 
To keepe this rule — kawe me, amd I kawe thee; 
To play the saints whereas we divels be. 

Lod^e, Satire 1st. 

Ill one passage we find a ridiculous, 
and probably an arbitrary, variation 
of it : 

If you'll be so kind as to ka me one good turn, I'll bo 
80 courteous to kob you another. 

tFiteh ofBdm. by Rowlqf, i-e., ii, 1 
\ But kay me, lie kay thee ; give me an men to day, 
lie give thee an ell to morrow. 

Jrmin., Nest of NiutUes, 1606. 
f Epig. 6. Ka mee, ka thee. 
My nmse hath vow'd, revenge shall have her swindge 
To' catch a parret m the wo^cocks sprindge, Scc- 

Taylor's Workes, IGSO. 
tManus manum fricat ; ka me, ka thee, one good turne 
requireth another. 

mthal^ Dictionary, ed. 1634. p. 565. 

KAM. Crooked. " Kam, in Erse, is 
squint-ey'd, and applied to anything 
awrv.'* Johns. Thus camock means 
a crooked tree (see Camock) ; and it 
is most probable that they are both 
from the same origin. Minshew has 
ca,nois, crooked ; from which he de- 
rives kamme, and adds forte a xafi- 
iru\us. Mr. Steevens sa'^*. fcam \^ 




hlso Welch for crooked. Camus, 
flaty or snub-nosed, in French, is by 
Menage derived from camurus, Latin 
for crooked. " Camuris sub corni- 
bus." Firg. Clean ham means all 
vrong or crooked, and was corrupted 
into him ham. 

Sic. This is clean lutm. 

Brut. Merely awry: wlien lie did love Mb coQntnr, 

It honoar'd bim. Coriol., ui, 1. 

Cotgrave in Contrepoil, or ^ Contre- 
poll, "Against the wooU, the wrong 
way, clean contrary, quite Aamme.** 
Kim ham occurs in the following pas- 
sage, and in one cited in Todd*s John- 

The warering commons in kym kam sectes are haled. 

Stanyhurst's Virg. 

Coles has kim kam, and renders it by 
prcepoaterk. Dr. Johnson's remark 
seems to imply that it was still in use 
in his time, for he says, " Clean kam 
is, by vulgar pronunciation, brought 
to kim kam,*' 
tKANGLED. Perhaps an error for 

I parte tlie kangUd locks. 

KendalFt Fltmers of Bpigrammes, 1577. 

fKANIRER. One who sells ale, to be 
taken away in cans, and not drunk 
on the premises. 

Also in townes which are no thorow-fare, the jastices 
shall doe well to be sparing in allowing of any ale- 
house, (except it be at the suit of the cniefe inhabi- 
tants there, and to supply the necessary wants of 
their poore) : and then Kanikers (onely to sell to the 
poore, and out of their doores) would suffice, if they 
were enabled by a law. 

DeitotCt Countrey Justice, 1620. 

KARKANET. A necklace. See Car- 


K ARROW, or C ARROW. An Ii-sh 
word, thus explained by Spenser : 

There is another much like, but much more lewde and 
dishonest, and that is of their earrows^ which is a 
kinde of people that wander up and downe to gentle- 
men's houses, liring only upon cardes and dice, the 
which, though they have little or nothing of their 
owne, yet will they pUy for much money, which if 
they wmne, they waste most lightly, and it they lose, 
they pay as slenderly, but make recompense with one 
st^tn or another ; whose only hurt is not that they 
themselves are idle lossells, but that thorough gaming 
they draw others to like lewdnesse and idleness. 

Vino oflrel., p. 398 Todd. 
There is among them a brotherhood of irarrovM, that 
prefer to play at chartes all the yere long, and make 
It their ouely occupation. HoUnsk., vol. i, B 1, col. 2. 

KASTRIL. A base species of hawk; 
called also the stannel, or the wind- 
hover. See Castrel and Kestrel. 

^Vhat a cast of kattriU are tlicse, to hawk after ladies 
tlUM 1^ ^ SVn. I, and to strike at such nu eagle as 
" * e. B. Jons. Epicane, iv, 4. 

KATE ARDEN. A female of no good 
fame, in Ben Jonson's time, whose 
name seems to have been almost pio> 
verbial. On the burning of the Olobe 
theatre on the Bankside, he says, 

I'ay. aiffh'd a sister, 'twas the nnn Kate Arden 
Kindled the fire ! but then, did one return. 
No fool would his own harvest spoil or bum. 

Bxecrution upon Ftilcem, vol. vi, 410l 
The meat-boat of bear's colleffe, Paris garden. 
Stank not so ill ; nor, when sne kiss'd, Kkte Ardrn. 

Id. ^ngrams. No. ISi 

KATEXIKENE, more properly K ATBX- 
OCHEEN, signifying, chiefly, or above 
all others. A Greek expression Kor* 
cfox»?»'> incorrectly represented in 
English letters, and made into one 

You are a lover already. 
Be a drunkard too, and after turn small poet. 
And then you are made, Katexikene the madman. 

Meuinger'g GnardtMHy iii, 1. 

KAY. The word keg was often so pro- 

And commonly the gawdjr livery weares 
Of nice corruptions, wmch the tiroes doe tway. 

And waites on ui* humour of his pulse that bearea 
Uis pasaions set to such a pleasing kay. 

Daniel, MusopkUu*, p. 97. 

Also p. 101. 

How 80, QUoth I f the dtikea are gone their waiea» 
Th' have oar'd the gates, and borne away the kaioi. 

Mirror for Mag,, p. 407. 

t7V> KEAKE. To cackle, like a goose. 

Helpe, sportfuU muse, to tune my gander ktai^ 
quill. A Berrinas TayU, 4to, 1196. 

The base, the tenor, trebble, and the niemie. 
All acting various actions in one sceane ; 
The sober goose (not thinking ought amisse) 
Amongst the rest did (harshly) keake and hiaae ; 
At which the peacocke, and the pydc-coate jay. 
Said, take the foolish gaggling goose away. 

Taylor's Work$$, ISSQl 

\To KECK. To blame? or, perhaps, 
to check. 

Excuse me, reader, that my muse 
Should such indecent language use. 
I'm forc'd to keek my self; 'tis true ; 
I wish yon may not do so too ; 
But beastly words best suit the nature 
Of such an ill-look'd beastly creature. 

Hudibras Sedivivus, pari 13, 1707. 

KECKSIES, for kexes. See Kex. 

KEECH. The fat of an ox or cow 
rolled up by the butcher in a round 
lump, a good deal resembling the 
body of a fat man, is called a keeek. 
We are assured by Dr. Percy, that 
this is the proper term, and still in 
use. It is applied by Shakespeare 
to a butcher, and to Wolsey, the 
the reputed son of a butcher. 

Did not Boodwife Keeeh, the butcher's wife, come n 
then, ana call roe gossip Quickly. 2 Hen. IF, ii, L 

I wonder 
That such a keeeh [as Wolsey] can with his very bulk 
Take up the rays o' the beneficial sun 
And keep it from the earth. Hrd. VIII, i, L 




Hence, though not certain, it is highly 
probable that tallow-keech is the right 
reading in 1 Hen. lY, ii, 4. See 
To KEEL. To cool; from OBlan, to 
cool, Saxon. A keel, or keeUvat, was 
the vessel in a brewery now called a 
cooler. See Skinner, Minshew, and 
Coles. Dr. Goldsmith says, in a note 
on Shakespeare, that to keel the pot 
is still used in Ireland for to scum it. 
It may be so, and yet the original 
meaning might be also to cool it, by 
acnmming, stirring, &c. ; which par- 
ticular way of coding should, as Dr. 
Fanner suggests, be considered as 
implied in that phrase. 

Wldle flreasT Joan doth keel the pot 

L99^S L. L. T 2. 
fUth, Doricot, thj bnin boili, keel it, keel it, or 'all 
the fiift in the fire. 
Mmntom'e Whmtfw tcill, 1007. Anc. Drama, ii. IW. 

Latterly it seems to have been applied 
only to the cooling of boiling liquor ; 
inChaucer*8 time it was more generally 

And dovne on knees fnll humbly can I knde. 
D ca eghy ng her my fenrent wo to kele. 

Court of love, 775. 

It was used also bv Gower. Coles, 
in his Dictionary, has, " to kele, frige- 
facio." Kersey has also, ''to keel, 
to cool." 
KEEL, KEIL, or KAYLE. A nine-pin ; 
from mgille, French. 

in the nuries are at a game caUed nine-pins or keilt, 
made of old nsarers' hemes, and their sous looking on 
with ddicht, and betting on the game. 

B. JoHs. CUoridia, a MaMine, ri, Sl«. 
And now at keels they try a harmeleaee chaunce ; 
And now their corre they teach to fetch and daonce. 

Pembr. Jreeutia, lib. I, p. 83. 

Coles has, " a keaf, metula lusona," 
&c. ; and Cotgrave, under Quille, 
says, " the keele of a ship ; also a 
keyle, a big peg, or pin of wood, used 
at ninepins or keyles*^ &c. 
fKBEL. A kiln. 

Odearia fomax, Plinio. »wvbf . A lime keelt. 


To KEEP, V. n. To live, or inhabit ; 
the 5th sense in Todd's Johnson. 

Scrrik to all the sldey infioences 
Tkat do this habitation, where then keea^ei, 
Hovlj afflict ifew.>brlf.,iU.l. 

A phfne i^on 't ! it is in Okmeestershire ; 
Twas where the mad-cap dnke his nncle kepi, 
fIianu:leTork,-lcc li7M./r,i.S. 

Here stands the palace of the noblest sense. 
Here Tisos ketpt, whose court than crystal smoother. 
And clearer seems. FUiektr, Pmrple leL. v, 35. 

The hi^ top'd Hrres iriiich oa that mirantain keepe, 
Hnre ever nnee that time beene scene to weepe. 

Browu, Brit. Puit., I, ir. p. 87. 

Wonid it not rex thee, where thy sires did keep. 
To sec the dunged folds of dac-tail'd sheep? 

Hail, Satires, t. 1, p. 86 

In the university of Cambridge this 
sense is Htill preserved ; they say 
there. Where do you keep ? I keep 
in such a set of chambers. 
fKE BP. To keep counsel, to be discreet. 

First and foremost trll me this : can this fellow keep" 
eounsell * Terence m English, 1614 

To keep talk, to converse together. 

Bat whilest we hare kept talke, they are left a great 
war behinde. IHd. 

KEEP, 9. The chief strong hold of an 
ancient castle. 

Bat this daT their speech was the sooner broken of, 
br reason that he who stood as watch upon the top of 
the keepe, did not only see a great dust arise, but, «r. 

'Pembr. Jread.,p. 349. 

A word now well known, from anti- 
quarian researches. 
KEEP, s. Care, notice. 

For in Baptista's keep my treasure lies. 

Tnm. ofSkr., i, 2. 

Johnson -has observed this sense in 
Dry den. 

To take keep was to notice, to pay 
attention to anything. 

And onto Morpheas comes, whom drowned deepr 
In drowsie ftt ne Andes ; of nothing he takes keepr 


Spens. F. 


G-, 1. 1. 
If when this breath from man's frail body flies, 
The soul takes keep, or know the thini^s done here. 

Fairf. Tasso, v, 21. 
And, gazing on the troubled stream, took keep, 
How the strong wares together rush and fight. 

liiiL, xir. 6a 

Also to take care [an early English 
phrase] : 

Bat he forsakes the herd-groom and his flocks. 
Nor of his bag-pipes takes at all no keep. 

Drayt. Eel., viii, p. 14:^7. 
Fond man so doteth on this living clay, 
His carcase dear, and doth its joyes porsue. 
That of his precious soul he takes no keep. 

H. More, Cupid's ConM., p. 311. 
-f Finally not to take sucke keepe of their ^aietie. 

f She takes no keepe of augurs* skilL 

lAican, by Sir A. Gorges, 16 U. 

To KEEP TOUCH. To be faithful, to 
be exact to an appointment. 

I hare kept touch, sir, which is the earl, of these. 

B. and Ft. Beggar's Bush, t, 1. 

He had been appointed to meet them. 
Coles has, *' to keep touch, facere quod 
dixeris.*' See Touch. 

tThis scene containeth the gre<fe of Pamphilos as 
touching the marriage : where likewise he promiseth 
to keepe faithfull touch with Glyceric, yea wnether his 
father will or no, if cause so require. 

Terence in English, 16U. 
f Firmarit fidvn. He hath surely kept his pronuse : 
hee hath made an aasumnce to ken touch with ms : 
hee hath given an infallible token tiiat he will per- 
forme promise. Ibif. 

-f And that they should keepe touch with me I lookc . 
Foure thousand and five hundred iKwkes I gH\ e 
To many an honest man, and manv a knave. 





t5/r. D'ye think we have no religion in us ? 'tis a roost 
corrupt ume, vhen such as we cannot kerp touch, 
and be faithful! one to another. 

Caf-^rrighCt RoyaU Slave, 1651. 

t2b KEEP CUT. 

A pretbr phiy •felloe , /liirp it would. 

And hop and fly to fist ; 
Keff cut, as twere a usurer's gold, 

And bill me when I list. 

Cotgrave's WiU JnterpreUr, 1671, p. 176. 

fKEEP-FRIEND. Sufficiently explained 
in the example. 

And he had besidef two iron rings about his neck, the 
one of the chain, and the other of that kind which nre 
called ft keep-friend, or the foot of a friend, from 
whence descended two irons unto his middle. 

HUtory of Don Quixote, 1678, f. 45. 

fKEEFING. Upon my keeping, t. e., 
upon my guara. 

I doo promet yon that I am upon me kypying every 
daye. MS., Utter dated 1562. 

KEI6HT, for caught. 

Betwixt her feeble annes her quickly keighl. 

Spent. F. Q., Ill, u. 30. 

KEISAR. See Keysae. 

KELL, the same as caul. Of uncertain 
origin, but signifying ahy covering 
like net-work, as the omentum in the 
intestines, a net for hair; also the 
cones of silkworms, &c. 

Bury himself in every silk-worm's keU, 

is here unravell'd. B. Jons. Devil is an Ass. li, 6. 

Is here, is put for which is here, Ac. 

With caterpillers* kells, and dusky cobwebs hung. 

Drayt. Polyolb., Song hi, p. 707. 
fMens bones and horses mixed 
Being found, I'll find an urn of gold to inclose them, 

and betwixt 
The air and them two kels of fat lay on them. , 

Chapm. Jl., xxiii. 

Also a thin film, grown over the eyes : 

His wakeful eyes, that, &c., he., 

Kow cover'd over with dim cloudy kels. 

And shrunken up into their slimy shells. 

Drayt. Owl, p. 1810. 

In the following it means the caul 
coTering the intestines : 

Jae him, gentlemen, 
I'll have him cut to uie kell, then down the seams. 

B. and Fl. Philaslcr, v. 4. 

fKELL. A net. 

As often as knotts ben knitt on a kell. 

Ballad of Childe Maurice, Percy MS. 

'fKELL. A sort of soup was called 
keil, and may be here alluded to. 

Thy breakfast thowe gott every day, 

Was but pease bread and kel full gray, 

Is turned nowe to chere full gHv, 

Served to thy table in riche nniv. MS. Lansd., 241. 

tKELL. A kiln. See Keel. 

Yea, as deep as a well, 

A furnace, or kell, 

A bottomless cell, 

Some think it is hell. Cl'teland's Works. 

KELD, for kelled. Covered with scales, 
like net-work ; from the prectding. 

The otter then that kt-i-ns 
In their wild rivers, in their banks, :in«l si « ps, 
And feeds on fish, which under watci htill 
Be with his keld feet, nnd keen ti-ctli doth k II. 
fc Drayton. .Y'^i/.'i fk. . p. 1534. j 

KELTER, 3. Order, good conditioD, m 

If the organs of prayer be out of kelter, — ^bov em at 
pray ? Barrow, cited l^ JiAamm. 

I have not met with it elsewhere. It 
is said to be provincial, and derifed 
from the Danish. See Todd. 
To KEMB. To comb; from aBwOmi, 

Yet are the men more loose than th^j 
More kemil'd and bath'd, &c. 

B. Jons. Catil., tcti, dMnt 
No impositions, taxes, grievances. 
Knots in a state, and whips nnto a subject. 
Lie lurking in this beard, out all keini*d oat, 

B. /• Fl. Beggar's Bmak, ii, L 

Dryden has used it. See Johnson. 

iFrom whence, the people with much •piinckt 
water, softening that which the trees yeeld and 
forth like unto certaine fleeces, kewibe a most fine i 
tender matter, mixed of a kind of downe and fifril 
substance, and spinning thred hereof, make sflke. 

Holland's Ammiattus MareeiUmu, '. 
f Nor any barber did thy tresses pleat ; 
'Tis strange ; but monsieur I conceive the feat. 
When you vour hair do kemb, you off it take. 
And oiiler 't as you please for fashion sake. 

Witts RecruUians, ItSt. 
• tCome, beauteous Man 

I'll kemb thy hair smooth as the ravens feather. 
And wcsvc^ those stubborn locks to amorom bracdets. 

Randolph's Jealous Lofgerg, lUl 

KBMLIN. See Kimnel. 

KEMFo SHOES. To throw an old 
shoe after a person, was considered 
as sending them off with a lucky 
omen. Kemp's shoe is archly men- 
tioned by Ben Jonson, as if prover- 
bially old. Kemp the actor was doaliU 
less meant ; and Mr. Gifford coojw- 
tures, not improbably, that he migfat 
play the very part in which his sluMi; 
are thus mentioned, that of CSario. 

I warrant you, I would I had one of Kemp's Atm ti i 
throw after you. Beery Man out of kit JST- ir, ^ ] 

Throwing the shoe is introducea bf.j 
Jonson elsewhere : 

Hurl after an old shoe, 

I'll be merry whatever I do. 

Masque of Matamorph. Gipsies^ tqL f^l^j 

About the time when this plmy 
Every Man out of his Humour 
acted, Kemp had produced his MmI 
Days' Wonder, and was sufficiefljdv 
popular to make a good-humoUKoj 
jest upon him well received. 
KEMPT, for kembed, the participle 

There is nothing valiant or solid to be hoped te ] 

such as are always kempt, and perfum 
day smell of the tavlor. 

2r. Jons. Discoveries, vol. tU, 

The old edition has kempt* d, ii 
is a mistake. 




L To see; and Ken, sight. 

words, though not current in 
ou usage, have heen so preserved 
etic language, that they cannot 
riy be called obsolete. Instances 
merous in writers of very modern 

See Johnson's Diet. In Scot- 
tbese words are still in full 

is suffice, that tliry are safely come within a 
DoTrr. whirh the maistcr espying. «ith a 

all vovce. making thcni, began lo utter these 

into them. Lylir's Euphnes. 

oU^nance of al which, time and travrll had 

>u;^ht us in kntne of a very pleasantly scituated 

faire and lumptuously builded. 

Rtncley, Search for Money, KWQ. 

L GREEN. A sort of forester's 

cloth, for the manufacture of 

, Kendal, in Westmoreland, was 


ais-begotten knaves in Kendal green.,u,A. 
Fitt. Then Green-hood. 
Acci. He's in Kendal green. 
As in the forest colour, seen. 

B. Jon*. Undene.f Tol. Tii, 34. 
irdr plowman doth the soldier see 
ried with py'd colours to the knee, 
Indian piUage hath made fortunate ; 
w he '^ns to loathe his former state. 
>th he inly scorne his Kendall greene. 

Hairs Satires, IV, 6, p. 76. 

s the uniform of Robin Hood's 

All the woods 
1 of oat-laws that, in Krudall green, 
'd the ontlaw'd carl of Huntington. 

Robert, Earl of Huntington, 1601. 

al was very early, what it still 
Ques, a flourishing place for the 
log trade in general ; and Fuller 
them a kind hint upon the 

Uie townsmen thereof (a word is enough to 
le) will make their commodities so substantial!, 
southern town shall lake an advantage, to 
lat tr^n^ away from them. I speak not this 
iie least distrust of their honesty, but the great 
of their happiness, who, being a Cambndge- 
mt of tympathy wish well to the clothiers of 
3, as the first founders of our Sturbndge fair. 

Worthies, vol. ii. 

[EL. A pack of dogs. 

the and hit oompanions opened their mouths 
Jier, and called me citiien, for it is a word of 
o which that kennell doth give to those whom 
itecn to he simple fellowes. 

Comicali History ofFrancion, 1655. 

lEli-KAKERS. Low people. 

heard behind them so great a hooping and 
inf of men and boys, and an outcry of women, 
b^ were inforced to look back, and presently 
iaeovered a Toung man, who had nothing but 
xt on hit back, and not so much as shoes on 
i, who was followed by a number of the kennel- 
, who made a perpetual shout. 

Comieedl History ofFrancion, 1655. 

f ING. The yital part of the egg. 

Ovi umbilicus. The streine or ktnning of the egge. 

Homendator, 1585b 

KENTAL, for quintal. An hundred 
weight. Quintal, French ; because 
divided into five parts or five score. 

I give this jcwell to thee, richlv worth 
A kental, or an hundreth-uaignt of gold. 

Blind Begg. oj Alex., A S. 

KERNE. A foot soldier of the Irish 
troops ; represented always as very 
poor and wild. 

Now for our Irish wars ; 
We must supplant those rough rug-headed kemM^ 
Which hve like venom, where no venom else. 
But only they, hath privilege to live. Bich. 11, ii, 1. 
The wild Oneylr with swarms of Irish kemes 
Live uncoutrul'd within the Knglish pale. 

Bdv. II, o. PL, ii, ssa 
See the Image of Ireland, by John 
Derricke, quarto. 

Also the same kind of troops from 
other parts : 

From the western isles 
Of kems and gallowglasses is supplied. Mach., \, S. 

Also for any kind of boor, or low- 
lived person : 

They han fat kems, and leany knaves, 
Their fasting flocks to keep. 

Spens. Bclog., July, IW. 

Sometimes kerne is used plurally, or 
as a collective name : 

They came running with a terrible veil, as if heaven 
and earth would have gone togi titer, which is the 
very intake of the Irish hubub, which their kertie use 
at their hrst encounter. 

Spenser, View of Irel., p. 370. Todd. 
They are desperate in revenge ; smd their kerne thiuta 
no man dead uiitill his head be off. 

Gainsford's Glory of Enql., p. 149. 

For the supposed etvmologies, see 
KERSEN'D. A corruption of christened ; 
an CuRSEN*D, supra. 

Pish, one goodman Caesar, a pump*maker, 

Kersen'd him. B. ^ Fl. Wit. at set. Weap., iii, 1. 

To KERVE. To cut ; the same as carve. 
Altered for the sake of the rhyme. 
[But see the second example.] 

Released her that eUe was like to stenre, 
Through cruell knife that her deare heart did k«n€. 

Spens. F. q., IV, i, i. 

It is, however, nearer to the original 
word, ceorfan, than carve, and was 
common in older timeo. 

f Kirst she would sell lier milk for \\d., and witti this 
\\d., buy 12 egs, which she wold set to brood under 
a hen, and she wtmld have 12 chickons, these chykon* 
being growne up, she would kerve them, and by that 
meanes. they should be capons ; these capons woald 
be worth (being yong) five pence a piece ; Uiat is just 
a crowne. Mirrour of Mirth, hy B. D., I58S 

To KEST, for to cast; for the rhyme 

Chaunst to espy upon her yvory chest 

The rosie marke, which she remember'd well 
That litUe infant had, vhicYvtotV^mV^ htst. 




Only that nmu heav'n's roUins circlet kest, 
Sooth'd mortal caret, and lull'd the world to rest. 

Faitf. TtMO, ii. 96. 

KESTRELLy the same as Castbil, or 
Kastril. a hawk of a base UDser- 
viceable breed, and therefore used by 
Spenser as an adjective, to signify 
base. See Stannel. 

Ne thought of honour ever did assay 
His baser brest, but in his katrell kvnd 
A pleasant veine of glory he did fynu. 

Spen4. F. Q., II, iii, 4. 

tKETCHES. Catches? 

Rock-monday, and the wake in samnier, shrovinfrt, 
the wakeful ketches on Christmas-eve, the hoky, or 
seed-cake, these he yearly keeps, yet holds them no 
relics ofpopery. 

tKETHER. A term of contempt. 

Mut. Hei, heil handsom, ketket ! sore somebody 
has been routing hira in the rice ; sirrah, you a spoil'd 
your clothes. [Offers to beat it off. 

'tkav. Nay, what de do, faather r now to see your 
kniorance, why 'tis all tiie fashion, man ; it came over 
from Enelandwith the last ship came in here, there's 
no-body Took'd upon ihal is not bedon zo; nay, they 
zay the fine ladies like it so hngeously. thev powder 
their dogs and monkevs. Unnatural Mother, 1698. 

KETTLE, for kettledrum ; by abbrevia- 

And let the kettle to the trumpet speak. 

The trumpet to the cannoneer without. 

The cannons to the hcu>'n8, the heav'ns to earth, 

>'ow the king drinks to Hamlet. Haml., v, 2. 

So in the former part of the same 
play this custom is described : 

Tlie king doth wake to-nitrht nnd takes his ronse, 
Keeps waksel, and tlie 8W!i}f};crine npsprine reels ; 
And as he drains hix drnui;ht9 of Khentsh down, 
Hie kettledrum and trutiipct thus bray out 
The triumph of his pledge. i, 4. 

KETTLE-PINS, for skettle-pins, nine- 

Billiards, kettle-pins, noddy-boards, tables, truncks, 
■hovel-boards, fox and );eese, and the like. 

SheUon, Fref. to Don Quit., cited by Todd. 

tKEWWAW. Askew. 

The picture topsie-tuivie stands kevtraio: 

The world tum'd upside downe, as all men know. 

Taylor^s Workes, 1630. 

KEX, or RECKSIE. A dry stalk of 
hemlock, and sometimes of other 
kinds. Perhaps kecksies is only a 
mistaken form, instead of the plural 
of kex, kexes ; and kex itself may 
have been formed from keck, some- 
thing so dry that the eater would keck 
at it, or be unable to swallow it. It 
can hardly be a corruption o{ cigue. 

And nothing teems 
But hateful docks, roush \.\\\%x\Ki,kecksies. burs, 
Loaine both beauty and utility. Hen. V, v, 2. 

As hollow as a gun : or as a Jtex. Fay's Frov., S22. 

It is DOW common to say " as dry as 
a kex:' See Todd. 
Cotgrave under Canon has, "Canon 
de sulsj a kex, or elder stick ; also a 
potgun made thereof;" he gives it 
too MM the translation ot.Cigue. 

It was written also kix, whic 
remote from eigues : 

If I had never seen, or never tasted 
Hie goodness of this kis, I had been a m 


By kix, he means the empt] 
coxcomb, his companion. 
Coles inconsistent! V renders , 
cremium, which means bavic 
brush wood ; and kex by cieu 
KEY-COLD. Very cold, as c 

Poor key-eold figure of a holy king I Bx 

Heav'n further it 

For till they be key-cold dead, there's 

of 'em. B. and Ft. Wild^oose 

And then in key-cold Lucrece' bleedme at 

He falls, hx. Bape of Luer.^ Suppl. to Sha 

It is oddly used in Decker'f 
mastix, for the disorder called 
but then it is in the mouth ( 
correct speaker : 

Sir Adam, is best hide your head for fea 
brains take key-eold. Hau:k. Oria. of 

There was one Mr. Key that oflfcndpa iher 
tans of Cambridge], and one said in a s 
of all complexions the worst were such i> 
ecid. Harr. Nttpie, ii, 159 

spelling for Caesar, and us 
verbially for an emperor ; pan 
in the expression Kings and J 
which very frequently occurs. 

Thou art an emperor, Cfiesar, Keisar, nnd 1 

And treadeth under foot her holy things. 
Which was the care of Kesars and of kmri 

Spens. Tears of 
For myters, states, nor crownes may not c 
Popes, mightie kings, nor Keysars from th 


Tell me of no queen or Keyuw. 

lamngt. Jrio4 


Jons. Tale cf 

See also George a Greene, 0. 
49 ; Mirr. for Mag., p. 293. 

SEY. A ludicrous word, of 
nite meaning, except, perh 
imply restlessness; from ki 
wince, in allusion to a restive 
applied by ParoUes, in Alfa v 
ends well, to a wife : 

He wears his honour in a box unseen. 
That hugs his kieksy-wicksy here at hon 

Taylor the water- poet has 
similar term, apparently desii 
convey by it his determination 
and wince at his debtors, havii 
that name to a poem written 
them. He calls it, "A Kicknt 
or a Lerry-eum-twang:* Tl 




burleeqae word ocean also in a comedy 
of Alex. Brome, where it signifies an 
unmly jade. Act i, p. 1 7. 
In the following passage it seems to 
mean fantastic or uncertain : 

Perhap* an izau fatuos now and then 
Starts np in bolrs, ttinks, and goes out agen ; 
Such kicktee-^cksft flnmrt shew bat how dear 
Thy great liglits rcsnrrection would be here. 

Ponu suij. to B. FUicher's Spiff., p. 168. 

fKICKUMBOB. A whirligig. 

It is big enough to bold two men. and it is for this 
pnrpose if any one or more do rob gardens or orchards, 
or curne fieldcs, (if they be taken; he or they are put 
into this same whirligig, or iiViifaiM, and tlie irybbet 



ug turned, the offender hangs in this cage frum tlie 
mer some 13 or 14 foot from the water, then there is 
a small line made fast to the parly some a ur G fadome, 
and with a tricke which they have, the liottonie of the 
'- cage drops out, nnd the thiefe fals sodenly into the 
> water. Ta^ior's Worku, 163U. 

BUD-FOX has been supposed to mean 
I discoTered or detected fox. Kidde 
^ certainly meant known or discovered, 
in Chaucer's time. See Mr. Tyrwbitt*s 
Glossary. It may have been a tech- 
nical term in the game of Hidefox^ 
kCj as old terms are sometimes longer 
preserved in jocular sports than in 
common usage. 

The musick endeil. 
We'll ftt the Hi-fox with a pennyworth. 

Much Ado, ii. 3. 

Tliis is said of Benedict, who has just 
been observed to hide himself. Some 
editors, therefore, have read hid-fox^ 
but without support from the old 

^ editions. It might also mean simply 
wnmgfox. See Hide fox. 
fiFF. See Kith, of which it !» a cor- 
[LKENNY RING. What thi<« means, 
remains to be discovered. A >^'il(l 
Iriah footman is so called in ridicule : 

Jf. What's he would speak with me ^ 

8. A JDttffMNy ring ; 

Hmto he staDda, madam. B. and Fl. Coxc, ii, 3. 

Mr. Weber conjectures rung, a Scotch 
word for coarse heavy stuflf; but why 
a Scotch word should be applied to 
an Iriahman, does not appear. If 
ruM^ waa ever current in England, it 

I waa for aome kind of wooden spar. 

IKILL-CALF, and KILLCOW, s. and 
mdj. A mnideroua fellow ; a butcher. 

Aad then tlwy wukt private shambles with kil-cal/e 
VBcHf, sad theene-aUnghtering murther. to the 
•hue of Lent, the oecetTug of the informers, and the 
ficKt fridii of eTez> "eakms fishmonger. 

Taytor^s Worices, 1C30. 
Bat in the B^t^ yet then take heed ol tiKise 
^ 'Hmg rsMalla, for their kill-calf e Uw. 

CUmtir$ MtcamUtUm </m ill-Ud Lift, 1034. ; 

Of all occupations that now adsys are used 
I would not be a butcher, for that's to be refused ; 
For whaterer is gotten, or whaterer is rained. 
He shall be calt'd Kilf-cotr, and so shall be named. 


KIMNEL is said to mean the same as 
kemling, which the old Dictionaries 
interpret a brewer's vessel, or a pow- 
dering tub. So Coles, " Kiinnel, or 
kemlin, Orca, cadiis salsamcntarius." 
Ray's Xorth Country JVords. 

She's tuimcwhat sitnplr indintl. «iir knew not what a 
kiMM'l was, she wants gtKMl nurluro rait;btily. 

It. and Fl. Cixcomh, ir, 7, 

Chaticrr wrote it kemelyn. See Todd. 
fKlNCHIN. An old cant term for a 
child. ' ''Kinchin, n little child." 
Dunton's Ladies^ Diet. 

KjfHchiit wtortt are girls of au year or two «)U1, which 
the morts their mothers cnrrv M ilicir iiarks in xlulet 
or sheets ; if lliey have no children uf their own. thcT 
will steal or boirow them from others. Hid. 

KIND, s. Nature, natural disposition, 
or tendency. 

Why birds and beasts, from quality and HhJ, 
Why all these things change frum'their onlinunce. 

Jul. Crf., i, S» 
Fitted by kind for mpe and vill-iinv. Tit. .4udr., ii, 1« 
That, nature, blood, and hiws uf ki,t<(. forhul. 

H. Ji-rts. S^jnnft, ii, k 
So much, that li,id 
May seek itself there, and not find. 

Ibid.. Ciiilinr, Chorus 1. 
Time and sufficed fates to former k'nid 
Sliall us restore. Sih-ns. F. Q., I, ii, 43. 

To do his kind, is to act according to 
his nature : 

You must think this, look you, that the worm will do 
his kind. Ant. and CUop., v, 2. 

I did but fNjf kind, I ! he was a kni;)it. and I was At 
to be a lady. Easlic. Hot, O. IM., iv, -281. 

KIND-HEART. A jocular name for a 
tooth-drawer. It appears from two 
passages in Jonson*8 Bartholomev 
Fair, that Kind-hearty the tooth- 
drawer, was a personage, who, in still 
older times (called by him "the 
sword-and-bucklcrage of Smithfield") 
regularly appeared at that fair. He 
tells his audience that, in this fair, 
*' for Kind-heart J the tooth-drawer." 
they will have "a i\\\e oily pig- 
woman," &c. Induction to Barth. 
Fair, He had been alluded to before 
as a customary personage. So, in 
another old comedy, where one cha- 
racter says, 

Mistake me not, kindkeart ; 

The person addressed is immediately 

He calls you toolh-drawfr. 

BowUy's Nae Wonder, i\'\, 1 

We are indebted for this remark, 
without which the laU^t ^^^mi^^ 




would be unintelligible, to the editor 
of the Ancient Drama, vol. v, p. 279. 
To KINDLE, ». To inflame, and thence 
to incite, to stimulate ; that is, to 
inflame the mind. 

But that shall not be so long; this wrestler shall clear 
all. Nothing remains, but that I UndU ilie boy tliither, 
which now I'll about. M you like it, i, 1. 

He means, ** that I excite the boy to 
it." So in Macbeth, wiien Banquo 
means to say, **such a prophecy, if 
believed, might stimulate you to seek 
the crown," he thus expresses it : 

That, trusted home, 
Might yet inkindle you unto the crown, 
Besides the thane of Cawdor. Act i, bc. S. 

KINDLE SS, from the above sense of 
Kind. Unnatural. 

Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kituUeu villain. 

Haml., ii, 2. 

•fKING. ** The kinff can do no wrong." 
Howell, "The king cannot die." Ibid, 
"The king^s cheese goes half away in 
paring, viz., among so many officers." 
Howell, 1659. 

One little piece of bread they reckond more 
Then erst thejr did of bags of gold before. 
One scrap, which full teif corps away doe fling, 
With them had bin a raiuomfor a king. 

Taylor's Wurkes, 1630. 

geant of the three kings of Cologne. 
See Lysons* Environs of London, 
from the churchwardens' account at 
Kingston-on-Thames. In similar 
accounts of St. Giles's parish, Read- 
ing, there is a charge " of the kyng- 
play at Whitsuntide, xxxvj«. viijrf." 
Coates's Heading , p. 378. Which is 
doubtless the same thing. 

tKlNG-BY-YOUR-LEAVE. The name 
of an old game. 

Apodidrascinda. Pueritis ludus, quo obstructis ei qui 
in medio sedet oculis, aeteri in latebraa sese abdunt ; 
mox dalo signo dum ille latentes vestigat, hi ad sedem 

a' us tanqnam ad metam recipientes se, nneverterc 
um satagunt. airodijpaotctyfia, Poll. The playe 
called king by your leave, or the old shewe. 

Nomenclator, 1585. 
Yet I remember an old schoole-lioyes game of king by 
your leave ever since I was a boy myselie, and so 1 
am afraid you will cry, '"King, bjf your leave, we are 
to have a bout with you ; bear it off with the head 
and sliuuMeis how you cuii." 

King's Ualfe-Pennyworth of Wit, 1«18. 

fKlNG-I-AM. The name of an old 
English game mentioned in Useful 
Transactions in Philosophy, 8vo, 1709, 
p. 43. 


Pimm regium, Piin. minimo pedicnlo quaai leitile. A 
i'/Mfjfearg with a very litle ttaike. A0 

fKINGSTON, on the Thames, a] 
to have been formerly celebrat 
its beer. 

The said recorder passing along the street, axu 
a souldiour in an ale-house callinz for a i 
jaot of benre, straight stept in unto liini. and 
him of high treason, saying: Sirrah, often hav 
and tasted of a penny not of beere, iinil foum 
the price, but of a kingstone pot of beer 
heard : sure it is some couuterfeit coyue, aii 
know how thoa cams't byit. 

Copley's Wits, Fits, and Fane, 

fKINRED. Kindred. 

Affinities cannot have greater glory then, « 
father is wise ; the children vertuous ; the 
kinde; the cosins loving; and Hit kinredconi 
Rich Cabinet furnished with Varietie of . 
Discriptiotu, 1616. 
But (as hee wss a prince too much bent to t 
throw of his Hnrea) closely lay snares for liii 
hee tooke him once at unawares in a trip, wi 
sure to put him to death. 

Ammianus MarceUin 

KINSING. Some operation perf 
for the cure of a mad dog. 

I ask't physitiobs what their counsell was 
For a mHd dogge or for a mankind asse ? 
They told me, &c. 

The dogge was beat cured hv cutting and kh, 

JJaJl's Epigr. against . 

This was an allusion to Mar 
assumed name of Kinsayder; 
in other places also brings ii 
mention of a dog. Joiin Mi 
being named, it is said, 

What, monsieur Kinsayder, lifting up your 
p — SS — g against the world. 

Ret. from Parn, Or. of Dr., 

Marston himself introduces the 
of Kinsayder y in his comedy of 
you will, and there again it is i 
with cur : 

Away, idolater ! Why you don Kinsayder, 
Thou cauker-eaten rusty cur. 

Act ii, Anc. Dr., ij 

The person so addressed is a 
named Lampatho Doria, who 
appears intended to personate Mi 
tKIRLE. A curl? 

Juyce of lemonds made in pomatum, mith th 
of egges, oyle of tartar, oyle of talco, reub 
phur, perls water, lye of lime, to colour tht 
with a thousand other dusts and artes to stifl 
kirles on the temples, and to adome their for 

Passenger of Benvenu 

KIRSOME, corrupted from Chr 
and used to signify Christian. 


As 1 am a true kirsome woman, it is one 
chrystal glaases my cousin sent me. 

B. 4 Fl. Coxcoi 

Kyrsin is the same : 

Mo, as I am a kyrsin soul, would I were liang 
If ever I— B. Joits. Tale of a I 

Kursin'd also for christenec 
named : 




tirtr year e'en as this day now, 
jne 8 day, of all days kurnn'd 


B. and Ft. Coze., ii, I. 

1 upper garment, a sort of 
. Cyrtelj Saxod. 

thou have a kirlU of? 2 Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

's loose gown : 

r discolour'd say 

, ypiiyated full of eies. 

Spfns. F. Q., I, It, 31. 

, weare long kyrtiU to the foote like 

Jtek. Toxophilus, p. 26, new ed. 

Id not mean petticoats, as 
guessed, otherwise haff- 
Id be half-petticoats, which 
lot. See Half-kirtle. 
that prison. 

s, for refusing to distrain, have Hssed 
nd some have taken up their lodgings 
It have been since released. 

J>Uer dated 1626. 

'HE HANDS, to salute, 
refined form, to fciss the 

mes to kisse your hand* from fair 
e so bentifuJl. 

UoweWs Familiar Letters, 1650. 
kitse their claws, with, Jade, how is't? 
(hake me kindcly by the fist, 
with dilatory coeges. 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 
itliee well with all niv heart, 
ng'd to driuke nith thee a quart. 
I this drossc had beene pure gold, 
y 1 have beene bought and sold 
ke (for no desert and cause), 
JLtndly cap'd and kist their clawes. 


[E HARE'S FOOT, prov. 
to one that comes so late 
latb lost his dinner or 
i2ay, p. 195. Probably it 
such a one coming too late 
of the hare, had no better 
n to kiss the foot, and get 

le with all, and we had need 

ay, unless we meane to speed 

lat kisse the hare's foot ; Rhumes are 

)ing suppvrlesse to bed, 

ve not. lirovne, Brit. Past., ii. 2, p. 67- 

the hare's foot, post festuni veuisti. 

CoUs' Diet. 
ions this consort of companions (upon 
with duke Humphfrie, or to kisse the 
ippeare at the first call. 

herring-man's Comfort, sign. C *. 

HE POST. To be shut 

• me, Xcd ? If 1 shall be thy host, 
ou art best, for fear Ihon kiss the post. 
Ueytcood's King Edward IF, 1600. 
ntries travels throngh the same, 
oney want, may kisse the post. 

PasqutVs Mghi-Cap, 1613. 
e men by ryot arc confounded, 
ouldiers'iu'ihe wars were wounded. 

Man yeddf to Venus, gown-men rule the rost now. 
And men of war may fast, or kisse the post now. 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

KISSING-COMFITS. Sugar-plumbs 
perfumed, to make the breath sweet. 

Let it thunder to the tnne of jgreen-sleeves, hail 
kissing-comfits, kc. N^rry W. of W., t, S. 

Sure your pistol holds 
Nothing but perfumes or kissinff-comfits. 

Webster's Dutchess of MM, 1623. 

The same are meant, doubtless, here : 

Faith, search our pockets, and if you find there 

Comfits of amberarease to help our kisses. 

Conclude us faulty. Massinger's Very Woman, \, 1. 

She had before said. 

Nor does your nostril 
Take in the scent of stronjg perfumes, to stifle 
The sourness of our breaths as we are fasting. Ibid, 

See also Harr. Apol. for Ajax, M iii. 
A receipt to make hissing-comfits may, 
perhaps, be acceptable : 

To make Muskedines, called Rising-Comfits or Kissing' 

Take half a pound of refined sugar, being beaten ana 
searched, put into it two grains of musk, a grain of 
civet, two grains of ambergreele, and a thimbIe*Ml 
of white orris pouder; beat all these with gum-dragon 
steeped in rose-water ; then roul it as thin as yon can« 
and cut it into little lozenges with your iging, [qu. 
iron ?] and stow them in some warm oven or stove, 
then box them and keep them all the vear. 

May's Jcconiplished Cook, 1671, p. 271. 

They were called sometimes kissing* 

Behind her bark the streamers fly, 
And kissing -st lings hang duii'zling by. 

London Ladies Dressing' Room, 1705. 

fKITCHEN. The clerk of the kitchen 
'* takes care of such provicion as is 
brought into the bowse, and has an 
espetial eie to the several I tables that 
are kepte either above staires or in 
the kytchin and other places." MS. 
dated 1643. 

KITH and KIN. Friends and relations. 
Kith means acquaintance. To kith 
anciently signified (o know, or make 
known. Kin requires no explanation. 

Neither father nor mother, kith nor kin, shall be her 
rnrrcr in a husband. Lyly's Mother Bombie, i, 8. 

Mark wiih what meed vile vices are rewarded; 
Thro' envy I must lose both kith and kin. 

Mirror for Magist., p. S9L 

At the end of Aubrey's Biographical r 
Sketch of John Hales, we find kiff 
for kith. 

lie WRS no kiff or kin to him. 

Letters, ^cfrom Bodl. Libr., vol. ii, p. 86i. '^ 

Which corruption was, perhaps, com- 
mon, as it occurs elsewhere : 

Forsaking father and mother, kiffe and kinne. 

Camd. Remains, p. 314, ed. 162S. 
WIio (worse than beasts or savage monsters been) 
Spares neither mother, brother, kiff nor kin. 

Syln. Du Bart., ^^ a,^,l,^«e«.V 

But kiff^ ^\iereNW lox\\\^/\^ ^ ^ottxi^- 




tion, the origin being guth, notus, or 
kyth, the same. 
tKITLING. A kitten. 

No more btse 
Than are a newly kittened kitliHi/s cries. 

Chapm. Odyu., xiu 

tKIXE. Akex. 

He hath a certaine covetous fellow to his father, 
miserly, and as dry a* a kixe. Terence in English, 1614. 

tKLUKES. Claws. 

An ancient Epitapk on Martin Mar-Prelate. 
The Weuhnian is hanged, 
Who at our kirk flanged. 
And at her state baneed, 
And breaded are his bukes. 
And though he be hnnged, 
Yet he is not wrunged. 
The devil has htm ranged 
In his kruked klukes. 

Wilts Recreations, 1654. 

KNACK. Originally a trick, or display 
of dexterity ; as in the title to an old 
play, " A Knacke to know a Knave," 
printed in 1594. Hence, a joke; also 
any toy, or pretty trifle. In the 
latter sense it is now obsolete; which 
Johnson has not noticed, and has 
placed the last first. Skinner derives 
It from knawan, to know ; but Mr. 
Tyrwhitt, with more probability, from 
the snapping of the fingers by jugglers. 
To knack was the same as to knock, 
snap, or crack. Thus Minshew, 
under to Knock, has to knack nuts ; 
and Coles ** to knack, crepa, crepito.*' 
Cotgrave, as Mr. Tyrwhiit remarks, 
under Matussiner des mains, says, 
**to move, knacke, or waggle the 
fingers like a jugler, player, jeaster, 
&c. ;'* and under Nique, "a knicke, 
tlicke, snap with the teeth or fingers ; 
a trifle, nifle, l>able, matter of small 
value ;*' and under Nique has the 
expression of "to make it to knacke.'* 
The flrst two senses m«v be seen in 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, v. 4049. and 
vol. iii, p. 215. The remoter origin 
is probably the German, knacken, to 

Sooth, when 1 was young, 
And handed love, as you do. I was wout 
To load my she with knacks ; 1 wtuthl have rausack'd 
The pedlers silken treasury, and have pour'd it 
To her acceptance. WhUrr's Tale, iv, 3. 

Why, 'tis a cockle, or » walnut shell, 
A Icnack, a toy, a trick, a baby's rnp. 

Taming of Shr., iv, 3. 
queen EmiJ'.a, 
Fresher than May, sweeter 
Than her gold buitons on the boughs, or .ill 
Th' enaraeli'd knacks o' th' mead or ^nrdi-n. 

B. .f* Fl. Ttro i\uble Ktnsmr,i, lii, 1. 

Hence ftic^-naci's by reduplication. 

fKNAGS. Knobs. 

The knags that sticke out of a harts hornet neare tti 
furhead. Nomenclator, 1593. p.lL 

The KNAP of a hill. The top or bod 
of it; the same as Jenop, or huik, 
Cnap, in Welch. 

Hark, on knap of yonder hill, 

Some sweet shepherd tunes his quill. 

Browne, Skiph. Pip«, id. L 
It is a knappe of a mountaine very steepe and shaiM 
of all aides, with a narrow point like a pine nppla, ij 
reason whereof we do call it Orthopaeuni. 

North's Pint. Sylla, p. W. 

Johnson quotes Bacon for it. 

tAnd both these rivers running in one, caryiDC i 
swift streame, doe make the knappe of the tny^^ 
very strong of scituacion to lodge a canipe upon. 

P/W«rcA» 1191. 

tKNAP. A clapper ? 

As once a windmill (out of breath) lack'd arinde, 
A fellow brought foure bushels there to ninde. 
And hearing neither noyse of knap or tiller. 
Laid dowoe his come, and went to seeke the miOflr. 

Taylor's Workts, lOd 

To KNAP. To strike. Erse. 

He with his sheep-hooke knaps them on the pates, 
Schooling his tender lambs from wanton ntn. 

Reference kit 

Also to snap, as in the psalm : 

He breaketh the bow, and kuappeth the spear ii 

KNAT, more usunllv KNOT. The name 
of a small English bird of the snipe 
kind ; the tringa Canutus of Linn8eai» 
being said to be named from Canate; 
in which case its name should rather 
be Knute than either of the abofe. 
These birds frequent the coasts of 
Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. 

Of partridge, pheasant, woodcock, of wiiich ioase 

May yet be there ; and godwit if we can ; 

Knat, rail, and ruff too. B. Jons, i^jrr., lOl. 

For knot, in this sense, see 9. Knott 
in Todd*s Johnson. 
KNAVE. A boy or servant. Saxon. 
It is also in the Flemish. 

My i^>od knate, Eros, now thy captain is 

Kven such a body ; here I am Antony, 

Vet cannot hold this visible shape, my hmpe. 

Ant. and Cteop., iv, IS. 
Tis pnllrr to be Ctesar; 
Not beiiiK Fortune, he s but Fortune's knate, 
A minister of her will. liid., r, 1 

It has been asserted that there is an 
English translation of the Bible, in 
which, at the beginning of the Epistle 
to the Romans, was read, " Paul, a 
knave of Jesus Christ." The assertion 
came originally from one Benjamin 
Farley, a quaker or seeker ; bat no 
such book has ever been seen. 
H. Wanley*8 account of a forged 
Bible of this sort, sold as a curiosity 
to the duke of Lauderdale, is curious 
and entertaining. It is inserted in 




Lewis's History of English Transla- 
tions, p. 47. The book was then in 
the Harleian Library, most singularly 
made up and manufactured by a 
knavish bookseller. What became of 
it when that library was dispersed, 
I have not heard. It is shortly de- 
scribed at No. 154, vol. i, of the 
Harleian catalogue of printed books. 
There is a letter on this subject from 
Mr. Wanley to Dr. Charlett, printed 
in Letters by Eminent Persons, pub- 
lished in 1813, vol. i, p. 95. It is 
dated Sept. 17, 1699. But it is 
perfectly true that knave-child is used 
for man-child, both by Wicliff (Rev. 
xii, 5 and 13)» and by Chaucer in the 
Man of Lawes Tale, 1. 5130. 
In Shakespeare*8 time, the sense of 
rogue was as currently applied to 
this word as the above, which is the 
original meaning. 

Tliat is worthie to bee beaten or icoanred : they cal 
it knwHi grtatt. ffitkaU* Dictionaries ea. 1606, p. 73. 


Your worth, enftred by my kneed quUl. 

Whiting's Jtkno MndBelUmti, 1638. 

the custom for the actors in every 
theatre, at the conclusion of the play, 
or of the epilogue, to kneel down on 
the stage, and pray for their patrons ; 
the royal companies for the king or 
Queen, &c. 

My tongue is weary ; when mv legi are too, I will bid 
you good night: and so kneet down before gou; but 
UMieM to pray for the queen. Efnl. td S Hen. IF. 
FMyw. Pray, erandsire. gire me your blessing. Sir B. 
Who? son Fouvwit! Follow. This shows like kneel- 
i$»ff after the flag; 1 praying for my lord Owemuch 
and his gooa countess, our honourable lady and 
aiistress. A Mad World, #-c., O PI., v, 398. 

Sir John Harrington also alludes to 
it in the conclusion of his Metamor- 
phosis of Ajax : 

But I will neither end with sermon nor prayer, lest 

tome wags liken me to mr 1 players ; 


[doubtless my lord Somebody's players] who, when 
ded a baudie comedy, as tliousrh that 
itire to devotion, i-M^vdowne solemnly, 

they have ended a baudie comedy, as tliousrh that 

prepantive to devotion, kneHe downe soli 
and pray all the companie to pray with them for their 


gooa lord and master. 

It is evident from the above quota- 
tion, that in 1596, when that tract 
appeared, the custom had fallen a 
good deal into disuse, and that parti- 
calarly it was avoided after pieces of 
great levity ; but that the players of 
tome particular lord were weii known 

for doing it, without any considera- 
tion of that circamstance. We find 
it at the end of only one of Shake- 
speare's plays, but that may be owing 
to the loss of the epilogues. In the 
older interludes, moralities, and plays, 
it occurs perpetually; as. New Cus- 
tome, 1573 : 

Defend thy church, O Christ, fce. 

Pre8er\-e our noble queen EluabeUi, and her oonnoell 

With thy heavenly grace, sent from thy Mat super- 

Graunt her and them long tolyve, hertoraigne, them 
to see 

What may alwaies be best for the weale publiqae'a 
comniotlitie. O. PL, i, 291. 

Also in Lusty Juventus : 

Now U't us make uur supplications together 
Fur the prosperous estate of our noble and ver- 
tuoua kin);, 
Tliat in his urodly procedynges he may stil persever. 
Wliicli sekith the glory of God above al other 
thing, Sec. Lusty Jtiventus, Origin of Dr., i,163. 

This latter is extended to 17 lines^ 
and includes all the nobility. Appius 
and Virginia, 1575: 

Beseeching God, as duty is, our gracious qucene to 

The nobles, and the commons eke, with prosprous 

life 1 crave 

At the end of the Disobedient Child> 
an interlude, by Tnomas Ingeland, 
hi. lett., no date, it is said, " Here 
the rest of the players come in, and 
kneele downe all togyther, eche of 
them sayinge one of these verses." 
"And last of all," &c. &c. 
See the notes at the end of the 
Second Part of Henry IV, in John* 
son and Steevens's ed. 
tKEENSTEAD. The place of the 

Sugar candie she is as I gesse fro the wast to the 

Nought is amisse, no fault were fouud, if soule were 

amended. Greene's Farewell to Folly, n. d. 


Sir, the knee tinker of your voiage is money ; spare 
your purse in this particular, for upon my life you 
nave a sutHcient paroon for all that is passed already, 
the king having under his broad seal oiade you 
admirall of your fleet, and given you power of the 
martiHll law over your officers and soldiers. 

Howell's Familiar Letters, 165U. 

KNIFE was often used for a sword or 

That my keen knife see not the wound it makes. 

Mod., if 5. 

But in Shakespeare's time it meant 
rather the latter, as in the above 
passage, and here, where they are 
expressly distinguished : 

. I wear no kwft to xauidet i\«e<(fvt^^^^\ 
But here^a a vvn^cM vwoic^t tuiNni irvN^ twM^ 




Tliat shall be scoured in his rancorous heart 
That slanders me with murder's crimson badee. 

2 Hen. VI, ui, 2. 

Spenser, who purposely employed a 
phraseoli gy more antiquated than his 
time, often has used it for a sword : 

Lo there the worthic meed 
Of him that slew Sansfov with bloody knife. 

F. q.. I, ui, 86. 
And after all hit war to rest his wearie imfe. i 

Ibid., Ill, ivM- 

It seems rather odd that knives or 
daggers should have heen a part 
of the customary accoutrements of 
brides; but the truth was, I fancy, 
that they were commonly worn by 
ladies, and especially in full dress, 
and that the wedding knives were 
only more highly ornamented than 
others. In the old quarto of Romeo 
and Juliet, 1597, she says. 

What if tltis potion should not worke at all. 
Must I of force be married to the countie f 
This sliail forbid it. Knife, lye thou there. 

In a former scene, with the friar, she 
bad expressed the same resolution : 

Give me poine sudden counsel! ; els behold 
Twixt my exireanii'S and me this bloodie knife 
Shall play tlie unipcere. iv, 1. 

In the subsequent editions it is 
altered to 

Vo i no, this shall forbid it. Lye thou there. 

By which it does not appear what 
is to lie there, without reference to 
the original edition. The modern 
editors, indeed, have added a marginal 
direction: "Laying down a dagger." 
The custom of wearing knives or 
daggers in wedding dresses, is well 
illustrated by Mr. Steevens; but it 
appears from the above quotations, 
that Juliet wore one in her common 
dress, at the friar*8 cell, and that it 
was not left among the things *' be- 
hoveful for her state.'* The citations 
adduced by Mr. Steevens, in con- 
firmation of wedding- knives, are 
these : 

See at my girdle hang my wedding-knives. 

Decker's Match me in London, 1631. 
Here by my side do bang my weddina-knives ; 
Take thou the one, and witli it kill tny queen. 
And with the other. Til dispatch my love. 

King Edw. III. 1599. 

fKNIGHT. The knave at cards. "The 
knight, knave, or varlet." Nomen' 
da for, 1585, p. 294. 

a man who gained his living by giving 
f/fUe evidence on trials or false bail ; 

in a secondary sense, a sharper in 

A knight of the post, quoth he, fn so I am tearmei; 
a fellow that will sweare you any thing for twelvs 

eence. Nash, Pierce Fenilesse, 1S98. 

lut is his resolution any way infracted, for that mae 
refractarics are (like knights of the po$t) hired to 
witnesse against him ? Ford^s JJme of Life, \&k 

fKNIT-KNOT. An ornament of dress. 

Not to spend their time in kmt-knots, patch-wo^ 
fine twihghts, and such like fooleries ; to study notluBf 
hut wliat they muii wear, or eat and drink ; that tb^ 
are grown to such a heighth of pride and lust, 'tis weU 
if many an honest man lias not a bad bargain of then. 
The Country Farmers Catechism, ITOS. 

tKNITSTER. A woman who kniu. 

My two Troilus's transform'd to knitsters. 

Maine's Amorous Warre, lft4& 


NoTT-PATED ; also Not-ked, in Todd's 
Glos^arv to Illustrations of Chaucer. 


To KNOLli, V. a. To ring a knell, or 
funeral peal ; from knell. 

Had 1 as many sons as I have hairs, 

1 would not wish them to a fairer death. 

And so his knell is knolPd. JSfacb., t, 7. 

V. neuter, to sound as a bell : 

If ever you have look'd on better days. 

If ever been where bells have knolCd to church. 

Js you like it, ii, 7. 
And what we look'd for then, sir. 
Let such nooT M-eary souls that hear tbe bell kfioU, 
And see tne grave a digging, tell. 

B. and Ft., Humorous LieuL, ii, 4 

Knell is derived both from Welch 
and Saxon ; and those, more remotely, 
from Nofa, which in low Latin signi- 
fied a bell, church bells having been 
first used by St. Paulinus, bishop of 
Nola, in Campania ; whence such a 
bell was also called Campana, 
KNOP, the same as knob. See Todd's 

tBouton, bourgeon. Tlie bud, knop, or button. 


fKNOT. A species of bird. See Knat. 

S^u. Six brace of partridges, and six pheasants in a 
disli. Godwits, knots, ouails, and the rest of Uie 
meats answerable, for lialf a score, or a dozen persons 
of the best quality : whom 1 will think of presently. 

Brome's Northern Lass. 

KNOT-GRASS. A well-known grass; 
the ^o/y^o7}um aviculare of Linnaeus. 
It was anciently supposed, if taken in 
an infusion, to have the power of 
stopping the growth of any animal. 

Get y(m gone, you dwarf. 
You minimus, of liindring knot-grass made. 

Mids. N. Dr., iu, 2. 
Come, come, George, let's be merry and wise, the 
child's a fatherless child, and sny they should put 
him into a strnit pair of iraskius. 'twere worse tuan 
knot-grass, he would never irrow nficr it. 
B. and Ft. Knight of the Burning Festle, act ii, p. S8S. 

B. ant n. Caanmi. ii. p. 181. 
ot aj bot that he miT pw fur mn faiiiDTinn 
itft wtiany i he ii nnrtor Hie liie of t)ia» 

)WLEDGE, for to acknowledge. 

ban prrcrptH. vhicb the; iciU noi fuLf;!!, 

FM d«if aiiuphei. which kmotelcJoe nic toi 
iwin^lnd ibw't^/^JHf the barbunma nuJeJie 

. A comiptioD of Gnoffb. 
. A knot, or knob. 

Small pieces of bread ; also the 
word ill a drnma, more corn- 
written eite. Kite is absurdly 
d for kie in the old edtlioii of 
itiirne from PernasBus, but eor- 
by Hawkins in iliis pHssage : 




NE. One of the English cor- 
ns of the name of Cologne ; the 
iretended king', whose bodies 
here Bhown, being famous per* 
I the history of superstition. 

Til lioie 70D •■eve b; our den Ivlj of 

iiiiilonc. and uiDt Itonnilce, vilh the three 
[aaffoUi'K. Gt,i»aaurh*.O.V\:o.Vi. 

:BcriptioD of the eshibitioo of 
relics, as seen by Theopli. 
gton in 1596, miiy be worth 
Thing. The object of his tra- 
u to note the prevailing super- 

onlT what S«IM the cwnnt o( Hit hEull of 
B, or the tope of llim ilLiillg. fur llio llnnn 
he o^oiir of >biiU>. No pcmm ta luSercd 

t thcK thivfi were ; hut nmny prople ahout 
lupmlltion 10 give tlie pritatt lliinj^t 10 he 
hr Uieie uncd iwilillea, wliirii he look and 

in Ut Ru^iiit cLicl, p. 939. 

Dill itiU ahe repbeil, kooU tir. ta-tee. 

L.ACED MUTTON. A cant Mpreasion 
for R prostitute. Mutton means the 
same ; wliy, 1 um not prepared to say. 
That term, however, being once ealab- 
lished, a faced mutton might only 
mean one finely dres-ied, in lace, &C. 
In the following pnssage it is jocularly 
joined with lost mutton, or lost sheep. 
It is not impossible that loit sheep, 
applied to sucli females, might be the 
original notion i from which the other 
by jocular perversion : 


Ui. Fileber. Cii|>iii halh i 

V dW &«.. S, pi. 1, p 


lace wouU lerre. SInrI M<ulft OmtliUi. aign. B. 

They were sometimes also laeed by 
the whip at the house of correction ; 
which kind of discipline is called 
lacing by Decker: 

The iturdy bLxanr. and (ha Itijr lown^ 
Get! here liuU hatida. or tae^J cofrecCion. 

flciiril ir4.,0. n.,iii,M8. 

See Mutton. " Laced-multon, scor- 
tum." Coirs' Did. in loe. 
fLACHBYMABLE. Sorrowful. 

CioSil"!/"™'"™'"" ""' ' 

title of a musical work, composed by 
John Dowland, in the time of James 1. 
The full lillc was, "Lachrimte, or 
seven Teares figured in seaven pas- 
sionate FaTans, with divers other 
Favana, Galiards, and Almands, set 
forth to the Lute, Viols, or Violins, 
in fire Parts." See Hawkins's Hiat. 
of Music, Tol. iii. p. 325. The popu- 
larity of the work appears from tlu 
frcqnent nlWrnouk U> \\. 




No, the miiii 
I' th' moon dance a comnto ; hit bush 
At's back a fire ; and his dog piping laerynue. 

B. Jons. Masque of Ti$M Vindie. 
In brief he is a rogne of six reprieres, 
Four pardons o' course, thrice pilloried, twice sung 

To th' Tirginals of a cart's taile. 

B. tmd Fl. Fair Maid, ^c, p. 400. 
X would have all lovers begin and end their pricksoug 
with laehrynue, 'till they have wept themselves as drv 
as 1 am. Microeosmus, 0. PI., ix, 132. 

Such mnsick as will rnnke your worships dance 
To the doleful tune of laerymse, 

Massinger's Maid of Honour, \, 1. 

It is mentioned as Dowland's in one 
of Middleton's pieces : 

Now thou plaiest IkneloMd's Lackryvue to thymaster. 

No Wit like a Woman's. 

Dowland is celebrated in the 6th 
sonnet of the Passionate Pilgrim, 
usnally attributed to Shakespeare. 
See Snppl., i, 713. 

Many other such allusions may be 
LACK-LATIN, from lack and Latin. 
One ignorant of Latin, an uneducated 
ignoramus. Lack was formerly pre- 
fixed at pleasure to words of all kinds, 
like the Greek alpha privativa, to 
denote deficiency. Thus we have 
lack' beard, lack-brain, lack-linen, 
lack-love, lack-lustre, all in Shake- 
speare. King John also was surnamed 
lack-land; in French, sans-terre. 

They are the veriest laek-latines, and the most un- 
alphabetical mgahashes. Disc, of a New W., p. 81. 

From lack, by common analogy of 
language, was formed lacker, for one 
who lacks, or wants; which is ex- 
emplified by Todd from Davies. 

-f Except it be'cause would hee eate and feed, 
Hee'i starve two cures, for he can liardly reade. 
This sir John Laeklatins true course doth keepe. 
To preach the vestry men all fast asleepe. 

Tayhf's Workes, 1530. 

fLACKEY. A footman. 

A memoria: he that is the princes reroembraunce. 
A pedibus : a foote man or lackey. 

Eliotes Dictionarie, 1569. 

-fTo LACKEY. To act as a footman 
or lackey, t. e., to go on foot. 

Whither tends thy gait. 
That Toid of horse and chariot fit for thy sov 'reign 

Thou tackiest here. Chafm. II., xiv, 253. 

fLADRON. A thief. From the Spanish. 

Fed. Was ever man of my great birth and fortune 

Affronted thus? I am become the talk 

Of every picaro and ladron. Shirley's Brothers, 1653. 

LADY-LONGINGS. A popular name 
for some kind of fruit or vegetables. 
In making out tweWe quibbling 
dishes, for a man who was to marry 
an u^ly woman, there are said to be 

For fruit these, fritters, medlers. hartichokct, aat 
lady-longings. Lyly's Endymion, iii, 1. 

LAG, adj. Late, last, or slow ; probably 
from the Swedish lagg, the end. This 
word, though not entirely obsolete^ 
occurs only in a few phrases, and in 
mere colloquial use. It is ne?er 
employed now as in the following 
passages : 

Some tardy cripple bore the countermand 
That came too lag to see him buried. Rich. Ill, ii, 1. 
For that I am some twelve or fourteen moonshines 
Lag of a brother. Lesir, i, S. 

Also as a substantive, for the last or 
lowest part : 

The senators ot Athens, together with the conunoa 
lag of people. Timon of Athens, m, ft. 

Hence lag-end, used for latter end : 

I could be well content 
To entertain the lag-end of my life 
With quiet hours. 1 Hen. ir,v,\, 

-fib LAG. To run. 

Away the glutton tagged, and Mockso highed to the 
door'e, expecting, that as he m as larded, so hee would 
be gardeu with some or other. 

Man in the 3Ioone, 1609. 

fLAID. Buried. 

He had struck up h>ud musirk, and h:id plaitl 
A jig for jov that Calamv was laid. 

Il'ild's Iter Boreale, 1 670, p. 81 . 

LAIIi. The haunt or resting place of 
a beast, >*ild or tame. Foreign ety- 
mologies have been attempted, but it 
seems most naturally deduced from to^ 
lay; layer, a place where they lay 
themselves down. The word is still 
occasionally used in poetry, having 
been preserved by Milton and Dryden. 
It is now applied only to wild beasts 
of the savage kind ; but the following 
authorities show that it was used also 
for other species. In hunting it was 
a technical term. 

The impression where any deer hath reposed or 
haxboured, we call a layr. 

Gentleman's Recreation, 8vo ed., p. 1ft. 
They oft dislodg'd the hart, and set their hoaseft- 

He in the broom and brakes had long tame made his 

leyre. Drayton, Polyolb., xiii, p. 914. 

She once should see 
Her flocke agnine, and drive them merrily 
To their flowre-decked layre, and tread the shores 
Of pleasant Albion. Brovrue, Brit. Past., U, i, p. 18. 

Used here for pasture : 

More hard for hungry steed t' abntaine from pleasant 
lare. Spens. F. Q, IV, viii, 39. 

Spenser has used it for the ground : 

This gyant's son that lies there on the Inire, 
And headlesse heape, him unawares there cniight. 

Ibid., IV. viii, 61. 

TuBser spells it layer, and seems to- 
use it for country, speaking of hi» 
own birth : 

A»llur-i Lifr. p. IVI, cd. lO. 

«. A colloquUl contractioD of 
in, which is a dimiiiiitive of 
rment for lady. Thus omlakin 
lur lady, and meant the Virgin 

tel». • pvloui for. VUi. K. Dr., Hi, 1. 

IT iMtim, BjT» not b) By vill- 

SktUtH'i ItMgvfctticr. 

the editors of Shakespeare 
d it a: one word in the Tempest, 
> two in Mid«. N. Dr., I cannot 
See Br'R lakin. 
DR. A reputed conjurer in the 
of James the First, who, after 

tried for witchcraft, and for a 
was at length murdered by the 
on the supposition th«t, with 
d of the devil, fae assisted the 
of Buckingham in misleading 

B. Jomt. S:iirlt iif fiwi. lit InlcRnaiD. 
njond iu Tatllc-Bclda, and how mmnT, when 
ver nme Ami ind *hich bo^ nJe upoD 

probably alluded to under the 
of Dr. LambatoHet, in BeanraoDt 
letcher'H Fair Maid of the Inn. 
aid to a conjurer, 

t the hdtIJ a'a rin ilull ncyct fane 

'd yotneit Dr. Umiilinri. Act v, p.' tlO, 

^STE. To beat severely. 

ZWirm' o/Vbc ffui-'w, p. lis. 

■Ilowing is probably the same 

k Ikn dMu luililic Jsakiri-f. 
j: rnilli. liaUk ^Jhi. £. ofHnl.. lizu. K 1. 

ir. Hud nve udLo laim limlfc ■ bcvtc oI kuthJ 
'f witli tfacir rvd^U. 

Grmu'l IMirotirf cfCo<niuic.\m. 

IBERTS DAY. The seven- 
of September. This saint, 
original name was Landebtrt, 


but contracted into Lambert, was & 
native of Msestrieht, in the serentb 
century, and was assassinated early 
in the eighth. See Butler's Lives of 
the Saints, at Sept. 17. 

Bt raSj. u yoiir Mrei ilmll ■niirer it, 
liXC-nrclr], tfoa SI. Lnmicrei Dmi. Bick. ll.i.'i- 

\To LAMBSKIN. To beat. 

I w«1d bin Kiwi'd irj ipiriu, belibasr'd bt 
inTcption. I>ntcii nj bnitin, thanp'd, bumbuled, 
itriip*da«d. Umhtki'iid,%rAv\iiwtrr\AW i my wiU, to 
luTf moviitcdbapniHotjeuid thirtiFTuiUbcTflnd 
the moHM. roylor'i korla. tSSO. 

LAMBS-WOOL, *. A favorite liquor, 
among the common people, composed 
of ale and roasted apples ; the pulp' 
□f the roasted apple worked up with 
the ale, till the mixture formed a 
smooth beverage. This is clearly 
implied in the following prescription 
for mixing apples with water in the 
same manner ; 

Tfa< pnipe of Ihe mlrd apptei. in nmnber Soon or 
»-<e. «Pcunlin( to (lie iitcitiieiM of Iht applet lufe- 

«tcr, lihtilied lollElllcr mlill it nm libtti ifpUl 

Jukmim't Ornrd, f. lUO. 

iZ i:;iv uil ft' llilirr, Frrefi Btli^ua, Hi, lU. 

L>:r a cnb in tbe A 

'«M, p 37«. 


. Fanciful etymologies for this popular 
word have been thought of; but it 
was, probshly, named from its smooth* 
ness and softness, resembUug the 
wool of lambs. 
LAMENT, a. Lamentation. 


This word, perhaps, hardly required 
to be here iutroduced. 


1 ceidd DD rtrnrne but bequath it la tbe priiia,. 
leire b; haTc >• I lad it, it wai u uglj. doibdliciJI. 
indlu-u*. Sak, Pimi fniilim.VM. 

LAMM,d. Aplate; from /amino, Latin. 

he lutred tb«^iiTimthereof,udiiHdehiifi(adtlin[jat 




What it menns in the following place, 
I have not discovered : 

Can'st thou, poorc lambr, become another's !amrne. 

Ibid., p. 396. 

It is addressed to a lamb, and appears 
to he intended for some play upon 
that word. 
To LAMP. To shine. 

Ykindled first nbove, 
Emoiigst th' et«mall spheres, and lamping sky. 

Spens. F. (^., 111, iii, 1. 
And happy lines ! on which witli starry li^ht 
Those lamping eyes will deign sometimes to look. 

Ibid., Soniut, 1. 
A cheerliness did with her liopes arise. 
That lamped deerer than it did before. 

Daniel, Civ. Wars, viii, 64. 

•LAM PASS, 3. A disorder incident to 
horses and other cattle. ** An excres- 
cence of flesh above the teeth.'' 
Markham, Way to yet Wealth, p. 

His horse possest with the glanders, troubled with 
the lampass. Tani. Shr., ii. 1. 

Havade bestias, the lam pas, a disease in the mouth of 
beasts, when such lonjf barbies grow in their niouilies, 
that they cannot well feed. Minsk. Span. Diet. 

Hava is Spanish for a bean. 
-fLAMPORS. Asort of thin silk. From 
the Dutch. 

Before the stoole of estate satt another nmyde. all 
clothyd in wliitc; and her face covcryd with white 
lampvrs. In her right hand a red crosse, and in her 
left hand a chalice, with the sacrament. 

Letter datrd 1559. 

-fTo LANCE. A sea-term. 

That whether we did Koe by sunne or nioone, 

At anytime, at midnight, or at noone, 

If we'did lauHce, or if to land we set, 

We still were sure to be halfe snnke, and wet. 

Taylor's IVorkes, 1630. 

XANCEGAYE. A kind of spear, pro- 
hibited to be used by the statute of 
7 Rich. II, cap. 13. Cowel. Two 
writers in the Censura Literaria, have 
mistaken the latter syllable, gaye, for 
a separate word, and endeavoured in 
vain to explain it. See vol. x, 158 
and 368. Camden mentions it in 
his Remains, but does not explain its 
form : 

To speakr of Icsse weapons botli defensive and oflTen* 
sive of our nation, ns their pnvitd. bHseinrd, Inuneegay, 
&c., would be cndlesse and iieedlesse, when we can 
do nothing but name them. Remaines, p. 209. 

The other two are not much better 


Tyrwhitt remarks that the prior 

editors of Chaucer had improperly 

split the word into two, and quotes 

the Rolls of Parliament for it. 

And the said Evan, then and there, with a lanneegay 
smote the said William Tresham thruughe the iKxIy u 
foote and more, whereof he died. 

2iot€ OH Cant. Tales, r. 13682. 

LANCE-KNIGHT, «. Said to mean t 
common soldier, and to be a Flemish 
term. See GifFord on the following 
passage, where Brainworm, disguised 
like a maimed soldier, says. 

Well, now I must practice to get the true garb of on« 
of these lance-knights, my arm here, and mjr — 

Ev. Man in hisH.,u, S. 

The context seems rather to imply 
that it meant a disabled soldier, cue 
who had received a kind of knight- 
hood from the point of a lance, dis- 
charging him from common service ; 
but I know of no other example of 
the word. 
LANCEPRISADO. An officer under 
a corporal, or a commander of ten 
men, the lowest officer of foot. It is 
more accurately defined by Grose : 

The lancrpesata, anspesade, or, as the present term is, 
lance corporal, was originally a man at arms or trooper, 
who, hnvmg broken his Inure on the enemy, and lost 
his horse in tight, was entcrtHim-d as a volunteer 
assistant to n captain of foot, receiving his pay as a 
trooper until he could remount himself; from being 
the companion ot the raptain, he was soon degraded 
to the assistant of the corporal, and at present does 
the duty of that officer, on the pay of a private 

A note adds, 

Lanceprsate is a word derived from the Italian, Innce- 
spesata, which is a broken or spent lance. 

Milit. Antiq. 

Lance-pessade, French. Lanceprezado 
Match is one of the characters in 
Hevwood's Roval Kins: and Loval 

Quit your place too, 
And say you're counseird well, thou wilt be beaten 

By thine own lancepriradoes, when they know tliee. 
That tuns of oil of roses will not cure thee. 

B. .y Fl. Tkirrru /- Theod.. ii, 2. 
But if it [desert] ever iret a <-onipany 
(A company, pray mark nie.) without money. 
Or private ser\ice done for the general's mistress, 
With a eommendntory epistle from her, 
I will turn lancrprsude. 

Massinger, Sfaid of Hon., iii, 1. 
But. noble landprisdo, let us have a sen-sonnet beforo 
we lanch forth in our adventure frigot. 

Lady Alimony, sign. Y 4. 
f And some (through want) are turu'd base pimps and 

Tlie watchfull corponll and the Innffrerado 
Are marclianta turii'd, of smouky Trinidado. 

'Taylor's rc»r*M,1630. 
|To th' Indies of her arm he flies. 
Fraught both with east and western prize ; 
Which when he had in vain ussaid, 
Arm'd like a dapper lancepresade 
'With Spanish pike, he broucht a pore, 
And so both made and lieal'd the sore. 

Cleaveland's Poems, 1651. 

LANCER, the same as lancet. 

And cut themselves, after their manner, with knivet 
and lancers. 1 Kings, xviii, 28. 

This word has been silently changed 




to lancets, in modern editions, and 
even in some as old as 1708. It was 
not noticed in Johnson, before Todd's 
edition ; but is in all the early con- 
cordances. Bullokar has the odd and 
vulgar corruption, Launcelot, as the 
right word. The same word is appa- 
rently intended here ; bat in the sense 
of lance-bearer : 

It into shivers splits my quivering milt. 
To see tliy laneeere notes so run a tilt. 

Clirosophut, lines prefixed to Gay ton. 

Lancer is now revived, and made a 
modem word, by the institution of 
troops bearing lances. For the early 
use of it in that sense, see Todd. 
tLANDCOAL. According to Fuller, 
this term was applied to coal brought 
from Mendip, Bedworth, &c. 

To LAND-DAMN. A word used by 
Shakespeare, which has occasioned 
some controversy. If it be derived 
from land in the usual sense, it pro- 
bably meant to close up and confine 
with earth, a^^ water is held in by a 
dam ; in which case we must read 
dammy not damn. If the latter ter- 
mination be preferred. Dr. Johnson's 
interpretation will appear the best : 
" I will damn or condemn him to quit 
the land." Sir Thomas Hanmer 
derives it from lant, or land, urine; 
and explains it to stop his urine, 
which he might mean to do by total 
mutilation ; and there is this to be 
Said iu favour of his explanation, that 
it suits best with the current and 
complexion of the whole speech, which 
is gross with the violence of passion, 
and in other parts contains indecent 
images of a similar kind. See Lant. 
Dr. Farmer's conjecture of* laudanum 
him," in the sense of " poison him," 
has no probability to recommend it. 

You are abus'd, and by some putter-on 

That will be danin'd for*t ; would I knew the vilbnii. 

I would Und-damn him. Wlnt. Tale, ii, 1. 

LANDERER, originally LAUNDER. A 
man employed to wash ; whence 
laundress. But query, is this word 
contracted from lavandihre, French, 
or made from the English word laund, 
a lawn, on which clothes were usually 

Disenses that new land are dry throatet and wet 
backes. For the first, tlie fiirst part of cancer [can] — 
is very sovereigne ; but the latter must be beholdea 
to the landerer. OwWt Jlmanacke, p. 28. 

See Laund, &c. 

A vagabond. 

£i ro. . . . Rodeur, coureur, vagabond. A roge : 
a laud leaper: a vaj^abond : a runagai^. Nomenclator. 
You are sure where to find me, wheras I was a land* 
lopfr as the Dutch-man snif h, a wanderer, and suiiject 
to inceriiiin remnves, and short ftojoumi in divers- 
i.lncfs lieforc. HoKflVa Familiar Letters, 1650. 

Wlifth'-r the jfovernors of the communw^th have 
Bufi^en-d palinesters, fortune-tellers. sUige-playert, 
sawce-hoxcs. enirrluders. puppit players, loyterers, 
va<;.-il)oiids, fauJleapers, and such like rozening raake> 
shifts, to pnictige their cogs;in{( tricks and rozish 
trades within the cirriiite of his authoritic, and to 
deceive the simple people with their vile forgerie and 
palterie. Newton, Try all of a Man's owne Selfe, 1592. 

fLANDSKIP. The old form of the 
word landscape. In the second of 
these extracts the word is curiously 

Well-shadow'd landskip, fare-ye-well ; 
How I have lov'd you, none can telL 

jyats Beereations, 1664^ 
Thou hast thy lantS'Chips, and the painters try 
Wiih all iheir skill to please thy wanton eye. 
Here shadowy groves, and craggy mountains there. 

Itandolph's Poems, 16*:?. 

fLAND-WHEALE. A land-blister? 

And all this hurlv burly, is for no other purpose but 
to stop the mouth ofthIs/aN(/-K7Ar<i2(r Shrove- Tuesdav. 

Taylor's ll'orkes, 1030. 

LANFUSA, by whom sir J. Ilarriug- 
ton makes Ferraw swear, without 
authoritv from his author, in tlie 
following lines, was not a deity, but 
the mother of Ferraw ; 

But he that kill'd him shall ubuy therefore, 

By Macon and Lanfusa he doth sweiire. 

And stmight perform'd it, to the knight's great paine,. 

For with his poUax out he dasht his brnine. 

Uarringt. Arxost., xvi, 54. 

Stanza 73 of this book of Ariosto, has 
no mention of these oaths; but the 
poet makes the same person swear so 
in another place; as, 

And hv Lanfusa's life he vow'd to oie 

No hefmet till such time he got the same 

Which, Stc. B.l,8t.80. 

In the original, 

Che giuro per la vita di LanfumL. iltf. 

Harrington here observes, in the mar- 
gin, '*This is a tit decorum, so to 
make Ferraw to swere by his mother's 
life, which is the Spanish manner." 
The Italian commentators say the 
same. The excellent Latin version a' 
Marchese Barbolani gives it thus : 

Per caput, o Lampkusa. tuum,dehinc semper apertum 
I'erre vovet frontem, nisi ctisside contegat iila 
Bolandus ouam victor, in Asphmontis arena, 
AbstuUt Almontis quondam de vertice si£vi. ^t. SO. 




tLANGOON. A sort of wine. 

SiMDition then I washt awajr 

With old UmgooH and cleansing whey. 

Gallantry a la Mode, p. 15. 

LAN6RET, from being long. A sort of 
false dice, that more readily came up 
quater, or tray, than any other 
number; exactly contrary to those 
which were so formed as to avoid 
those two numbers. See Bar'd 


Firit yon must know a langrel, which it a die that 
fimple men have leldom heard of, but often seene to 
their cost ; and this \9 a well Tavoured die, and seemeth 
good and squHre, yet it it furged longer upon the 
enter and trea than any other « ay, and thereiore it it 
called a ^»^rc/. JrtofJuggling,\t\%Q^. 

As for dice, he hath all kind of sortea, follama, 
latiffrets, bard quater traiea, hie men. low men, some 
stopt with qnicksilver, some with gold, some ground. 

Wil*t Jittery, G. 

SjANGUISH, 8,, for languishment, or 
the state of languishing. The languUh 
of the eye, or of the manner, is still 
used; but that refers to the ap- 
pearance only, this to actual weak- 

What, of death too, that rids our dogs of Umgmthf 

Ant. ^ CUop.y V, 3. 
One desperate grief cures with another's languuk. 

Rom. jf* Jul., i, 2. 

Mr. Todd lias added nn example of 
languishes in the plural, as from AlPs 
Well, i, 2 ; but all the editions have 
lanifuishings, in tliat place. 
SCANNER. A kind of hawk. Lanier, 

The leunrr is a hawk common in all countries, espe- 
cially in France— she is lesser than the falcon-gentle. 
You may know the lanners by these three tokens : 1, 
they are bhicker hawks than any other ; 2, they have 
less beaks than the rest ; 3, and l.-istly, they are less 
armed and pounced than other faulcons. 

Oentl. Recr., 8vo ed., p. 61, 62. 
The tanner and the lanneret are accounted hard 
hawks, and the very hardiest of any that are in ordi- 
nary, or in common use amongst us at this present 
time. Latham, voL ii, p. 9. 

That young lannerd 
Whom yon hare such a mind to ; if you can whistle 

To come to fist, make trial, play the youn^ fNlooner. 
Middl. /* Rowley's Spanish Gipsie, act iv. 

liANSKET. I have no knowledge of 
this word ; but by the context in the 
following passage, it seems to mean 
the pannel of a door, a lattice, or 
something of that kind. A man who 
has been relating the proceedings of 
some women who were shut up 
together, is a^ked how he knows it, 
and his answer is 

1 peep'd in 
At a looM IsMsiet. B. irii. Tawter Tamtd, ii, 6. 

LANT. Urine. Saxon. Coles has 
" Lant, urina ;'* and *' to lant, urinl 
miscere." The latter. Skinner also has. 

Your frequent drinking coun^ ale with lant iii*t 

Glaplhome's Wit w a OmtakU^ 16S9. 

To LANT, V, To wet with urine. Colei 
has "Lant, urina;" and ''to loHt, 
urina miscere." Skinner has the 
same, and derives it from hland, 
lotium, Saxon. 

But were soon returned to their quondam dejection, 
when thev found thrir ears unguented with wum 
water, well lanted with a viscous ineredient. 

The Spaniard, a Novel, Lond., 1719. 

It had been before said, that madam 
Gylo had " extracted it like a spider 
from her own bowels." Sec the 
notes to the passage quoted under 

fMv hostess takings will be very imall. 
Although her lanted ale be nere so strong. 

Marriage Broaier, 166S. 

anciently accounted one of the cries 
of London, being the usual words of 
the bellman. It is mentioned as such 
in the following passage : 

Lanthom and candle light here. 
Maids ha light there. 

Thus go the cries, &c. Heyie. Bap* oflAtcrete. 
Dost roar, bulchin, dost roar ? th' ast a good roundval 
voice to cry lantern and candle light. 

Decker's Satirom., Or. of Dr., iii, 17a 
No more calling of lanthom and candle light. 

Heyvc. Edward IV, 1696. 

Hence two tracts of Decker's had the 
title of Lanthom and Candle-light, or 
the Belman, &c. 

[Two other tracts, also by Decker, 
are entitled ''English villanies, &c., 
discovered by lanthorne and candle- 
light, and the help of a new cryer, 
called O-Per-Se-O, 1648," &c.] 

fit is saide, Lawrence Lucifer, that you went up and 
downe London crying then like a lanteme and candle 
man. Nash, Fierce FtnUsue , 1593. 

LANTERN-LERRY. A term either 
coined or applied by Joiison to Inigo 
Jones, in the verses called an expostu- 
lation to him. It seems to mean sdme 
trick of producing artificial light. 

1 am too fat for envy, he too lean 

To be worth envy ; henceforlh I do mean 

To pity him, as smiUuK at his feat 

Of lanlem'lerry, with fuliginous heat 

Wliiriin^ his whimsies, by a subtilty 

Suck'd trom the veins ot shop-philosophy. 

Epigr., 136, Whalley. 

These lines seem to give some colour 
to the usual application of Lanthom 
Leatherhead ; but see the following 




Bartholomew Fair of Ben Jonson, has 
been generally thought to have heen 
drawn for Inigo Jones, against whom 
the poet has vented his ire in various 
ways. Some degree of rivalry re- 
specting the court masques, for which 
Jonson was the poet, and Jones the 
machinist, or some misunderstanding 
in the conduct of them, probably 
occasioned their quarrel. Mr. Gifford, 
however, has given strong reasons 
Against the supposition that Inigo 
was satirised in tliis character; or 
that their disagreement had com- 
menced so early. It appears, indeed, 
that Jones was certainly in Italy when 
this play was produced. 

To LANTIFY. To moisten with urine. 
In the following passage, probably, 
moistened only ; but used as a con- 
temptaous word *. 

A good]y peece of puff pac't [paste], 
A little Untified, to hold the inlains;. 

A Wilton's Incoust. Lady, act li, f c. S, p. 37, Arst 
printed from MS. Oxon., 1814. 

LAP. Cant term for porridge. 

Here's pannom, and lap, aud good poplars of yarnim. 

Jovial Crew, 0. PI., x, 367. 

LAP, TO LIE IN. To lie at a lady's 
feet, reclining the head on her 
lap, was sometimes termed lying in 
her lap, and was not an unusual 
point of gallantry. Hamlet says to 

Lady, shall I Ut in your lap f 

(Ljfina down at Ophelia' a feel.) 

And directly after adds, 

I mean «y hood upon yomr lap. Haml., iii, S. 

Thus Oascoigne : 

To Ue along in udiea* lMpe$. 

Green Kmgkt^s Farewell, 8u:. 

I suppose, therefore, Benedict means 
to die in this posture at the feet of 
Beatrice, when he says, 

I win live in thy heart, die in thy lap, and be buried 
in thiM Cfyes. Much Ado, v, 2. 

This piece of gallantry was often ex- 
hibited even in public : 

Ushers licr to her coach, lies al herfut 
At sdemn masques, applauding vhat she laughs at. 

B. and Fl. Queen qf Corinth. 

To lay anything in a peraovCs lap, 
meant to put it totally into their 
possession : 

Kow have I Qui which I desir'd so long, 
Luj^d imwtylaphj thia foud wosoan here. 

IkmM, FkUoUu, p. 801. 

[Left in the laps, embarrassed.] 

tViden me tuis consiliis impeditum esae. Dost thou 
not see me bronght in the oriars, or left in the lap», 
through thy devise and counsaile P 

Terence in Bylisk, 1614^ 

lOjf voith your lap, a drinking 

f I my selfe have oftentimes dined or supped at a great 
mans boord, and when 1 have risen, tne servants of 
the licnsc have enforc'd me into the seller or buttery, 
where (in the way of kindnesse) they will make a 
mxns belly like a sowse-tub, and inforce mee to drmke, 
as if tliey'had a commission under the divels great 
scale, to murder men with drinking, with suoh a ueale 
of complemcntall oratory, as, off with your lap, wind 
up your bottome, up with your taplash, and many 
more eloquent phrases, which TuUv or Demosthenes 
never heard of. Taylor's Workes, 18.10. 

LAPWING, *. The green plover, or 
pe-wit. Tringa vanellus. This bird 
is said, and I believe truly, to draw 
pursuers from her nest by crying in 
other places ; other birds also do it, 
as the partridge. This, however, was 
formerly the subject of a proverb: 
"The lapwing cries tongue from 
heart ;" or, ** The lapwing cries most, 
furthest from her nest.** Ray^s Prov., 
p. 199. 

Though 'tis mj familiar sin 
With maids to seem the lapwing, and to jest 
Tonjnie far from heart. Afeas.for Meas., i, 6. 

Far from her nest the lapwing cries awav. 

Com. of Errors, iv, 2. 
Wherein you resemble the lapwing, who crieth moat 
where her nest is not. 

JUx. and Campaspe, ii. 3, 0. PI., ii, 106. 
H'as the lapwing's cunning, I'm afraid, my lord. 
That cries most when she's fHrtliest from the nest. 

Massiftger's Old Law, iv, 2. 

The translator has introduced the 
allusion into the following passage of 
Tasso, but without any authority from 
the original : 

Like as the bird, that having close imbarr'd 

Her tender yuung ones in the springing bent. 
To (Ir.iw the searcher further from the nest. 
Cries and complains most where she needeth least. 

Fair/. Tasso, vi, 80. 

Another peculiarity of this bird was 
also proverbially remarked ; namely, 
that the young ones run out of the 
shell with part of it sticking upon 
their heads. It was generally used to 
express great forwardness. Thus 
Horatio says it of Osrick, meaning to 
call him a child, and a fine forward one: 

This lapwing runs away with the shell on his head. 

Haml., ▼, 2. 
Forward lapwing I 
He flics with the shell on his head. 

White T>evil,O.V\.,ri,Wa, 
Such as are bald and barren beyond hope 
Are to be separated and set by 
For ushers to old countesses : and coachmen 
To mount their boxes reverently, and drive 
Like lapwings with a shell upon their heads 
Tborow the atreeta. B. Jons. Staple of Newt, iii, S. 

LAR 4 

The bald bead being uncovered, would 
make that ftppearance. See B&KE. 
LARDARIE. A larder. Laniarium, 
]ow Lntin. 

ThcD viL I bj out ill D17 loraEim 

liARE. See Laib' ' ' " *™ ' '* ' " * 

+LARDING-STICK. Tlie praclice bere 

alluded to still prcTaiU in France. 

Laj;dinDiii.qu<tcoquican]etcannfUjitimiiiuio ittido. 
Lvdoirt. A Urging uick, vlifTCHLth cwkro uie la 
dfuwe lud thruugb flcab, fiomeneUtor, 

LASK, I. A corruption of lax, a flux. 
Colea, and all the old dirtiouarj- 
makere, bave it. "A lax, dysenteria, 
&c. to bave a lutk, dynenteri^ Inbo- 
rare." Colet. So aleo Cotgrave: 
"A laake, fluxe de ventre," &c. So 
also Minshev, Skinner, and Junius; 
and Howell, Lex. Tetr. 

•Uiclli llic flun of tUf brill callcil iKe Utit. 

Pkil. UoUa-^iP" ^. - .1 - 


ounc upon liini tm\ 


caiiKd 1dm, &c. 


, I. 0/ ITo^. 

Tha politbed re 


[of Chr.uu 

.] to^W^d 


he hik 

. lilt bkodj 

iii«, at. 



0,1833, p. 13S, 



ASKING, occurs 

a a eea-term. 

%1li(ll OIlUilH 

WrdileU iKCCFmnir 

■nio being 






a bmre » 




ei iiure up m 



7b LATCH. To catcb, in a general 
sense. Thus, a Intcli to a door 
meant originally a catch to it ; from 
Iscran, Saxon. We now use tbe 
verl) only as derived from tliai noun ; 
as, to fasten by the latch : but the 
old sense w wA to be still current in 
tbe iiortb. The first folio of Sbake- 
speare has lateh, in tbe following 
paMflge, where the aubsequeot edi- 
tions, before Capell'c, and the Vari- 
orum of Xm'i, hnd substituted ca^cA: 

Tlihl would Lt 1,o« 111 oul m llic dwrt .b-, 

Wbicb, though it now sounds 
strangely, was probably the original 
word. Spenser, in his Sbep. Kal., 
March, says that Cupid often latched 
the stones which were thrown at him 
(t. 93); and this U expluDCd by 

16 LAT 

E. K. "caught." Where latditi 
occurs in Mids. N. Dr. the com- 
mentators (after Hanmer) explain i 
as from lecher, French, to lick a 
smear over ; but, as no other instance 
of it in that sense has occurred, I 
should rather understand it, caught, 
or entrapped : 

Whh'tlie line juicc'u 1 did'bid Ibee dof , 

It is true tbe direction given I 
been, "anoint his eyes." 
LATED. Arriving late, surprised by 
the night. We now say belated. 

'I'o E>in Ibe limdj'iOD. jr*ct., i 

See also Ant. and Cleop., iii, 9. 
It is cited also from Greene's Orpha- 
rion. See Todd. 
tLATHE. An old north country tf 
for a bam. 


idelh lu 

Kordi. CWlf't Engliili ScioolrmBiIrr, itSl 

LATTEN. An old word for brass; 
from laiton, or Uton, French. Used 
also as an adjective. Kitaon says it 
is "certainly tin " {Remark* on 
Shakttpeare, p. 13) ; and Kersey's 
Dictionary says, " Iron tinned over," 
which is exHctly our piste-tin ; hut 
that both are wrong, the following 
authorities show. Jonson uses it a 
answering to orichalcum, and so all 
the old dictionaries and vocabularies 
explain it. The etymology also points 
out the same. Laiton, says tbe 
French Manuel Lexique, "Metal 
Gomposd de cuivre rouge et de cala- 
mine," which is brass. 

I combat chillmie of thii taUrn bilboc 

Jtfn-. r. r., i, 

This is sneeringly said by Pistol of 
Master Slender, whom be means to 
call a base useless weapon, as one of 
brass would be. See Bilboe. The 
passage is perfectly clear, and re- 
quired neither the conjectures wa 
amendments of the commentators, 
after Theobald had restored it. 

Tbo hiDHiaj not, u nov, mth IsIIn boniid, 

Art 'fFoHry, p. UL 




he word?, 

I, at nunc, orichalco vincta, tubnque 

ig English tin, Grecian gold, Roman latten, 
imp. Lingua, 0. PI, v, 175. 

latter passage a pun seems to 
ided between latten and Latin, 
ibject of the speech being 
^es. There is also a colloquial 
Shakespeare's, on the same 
recorded by L*£strange (the 
r of sir Roger) in the foUow- 

are was godfaUier to one of Ben Jonson's 
and after the christening, bcine in a deep 
nion came to chear him up, and asked him 
as so melancholy ? No, faith. Ben, says he, 
tit I have been considering a great while 
iitd be the fittest gift for me to bestow upon 
hild. and I hare resolved at last. I prythee 
ivs he. I faith, Ben. I'll e'en give him a 
6d latUn spoons, and thou shalt translate 

Harl. MSS., No. 6395. 

sant raillery enough on Jon- 
love for translating; it is 
d by Capell in his notes on 
\riIL See Spoons and Apostle 
J. The truth of the tale has, 
T, latterly been questioned. 
iR'D, for lap-eared. Long, or 

r'd assc with gold nmv trapped be. 

HaWi Satires, li, 2, p. 29. 

^aving is used for lapping or 
g, by the same author : 

hang laving like a new-lugg'd swine. 

iv, 1, p. 65. 

later lip is, probably, only 
r form of the same word, 
lorically used ; hanging lip, 
ap-ear'd lip : 

Let his later lip 
in reproach of nature's workmanship. 

Marston, Sat., r, p. 159. 

lER. Properly to work a ship 
; the wind, by tacking, or 
ng its course. Instanced from 
ce and Dryden, in Todd's 
•n, but very imperfectly de- 
It is not now in use, unless, 
s, in nautical language ; but 
larendon has the substantive 
rom it. 

lER, g. One who thus tacks, 
ks up against the wind. 

le schoolmen] are the best lateeren in the 
id would hare tauxht a ship to have catchcd 
]. that it should nave giiined half in half, 
t had been contrary. 

Essays, vol. i, p. 253, repr. 1816. 

)ER. This plant was con- 
l as an emblem oi affection. 

Some of such flowVt as to his hand doth hap. 
Others, such as a secret meaning bear; 
He from his lass him lavender hath sent 

Shewing his love, and doth requital crarej 
Him rosemary his sweetheart, whose intent 

Is that be should her in remembrance have. 

Drayton, Eel., ix, p. 14S0. 

To lay in lavender was also a current 
phrase for to pawn ; because things 
pawned are carefully laid by, like 
clothes which, to keep them sweet, 
have lavender scattered among them : 

Good faith, rather than thou shouldst pawn a rag 
niore, I'll lay my ladyship in lavender, if I knew 
where. Eastward Hoe, 0. PI., iv, 279. 

In R. Brathwaite*s Strappado for the 
Devil, is an epigram " Upon a Poet's 
Palfrey lying in Lavender for the 
discharge of his Provender ;*' p. 154. 
The same allusion is also in the 
following passage, where a horse is 
spoken of: 

Sander. The ostler will not let me hare him, yon owe 
ten pence for his meate, and sixpence for stuffing my 
mistriss saddle. Fer. Here, vulaine, goe pay him 
strait. Sander. Shall I gire them another pecke of 
lavender? Fer. Out, slave, and bring them presently 
to the dore. Taming Skr., 6 pi., vol. i, p. 186. 

But the poore gentleman pales so deere for the 
lavender it is laid up in, that if it lie long at a broker's 
house, he seems to buy his npparell twice. 

Greene's Quip, in Uarl. Misc., v. 406. 

These quotations fully illustrate the 
following passage of Ben Jonson's 
Every Man out of his Humour, 
which would be otherwise obscure : 

And a black sattin suit of his own to go before her 
in; whicli suit (for the more sweet'ning) now lies 
in lavender. Act lii, S. 

In Coles's Dictionary, " to lag in 
lavender*' is translated ^'pignori 

Hence a pawnbroker is thus "de- 
scribed in some old drama, whose 
name is not given : 

A broaker is a city pestilence, 
A moth that eats up gowns, doublets, and hose. 
One that with bills loads smocks and shirts together. 
To Hymen close adultery [qu. ?], and upon them 
Strews lavender so si rongly that the owners 
Dare never smell them uter. 

Colgrave, Engl. Treas., p. 34 

It is also a phrase generally, for any- 
thing nicely laid by for use : 

He takes on against the pope without merey, and has 
a jest still in Utvender for Bellarmine. 

Earle's Micr., Char. 2d. 

Sometimes for laying by, in any way, 
even in prison. 

tBut then for a prince to hare both his legs, and the 
one half of his thighs lopt, snw'd, hnck'd. hew'd, torn, 
and rash'd off, and so the third part of a mans 
length laid up in lavender befote \\e^ VvtA \a!& ^)Sa!«A 
with them, 1 miut nteAi coTv\e«m,\ (V.o xktA. i«rj ^^ 
approYe of it. Tks Pagan P«\)aM«\Sj)^« 





tHitlier all sorts of garments resort in pilgrimage, 
whibt he playing tlie pimp, lodges the tabby petticoat 
and russet breeches together in the same bed of 
lavender. Twelve Ingenious Ckaraetert, 1686. 

tLAVER. Explained in the example. 

Tlie water stone or laver of a kitchin: the place 
where the scullion washeth the dishes. Nomenclator. 

LAVEROCK. The lark. Saxon. Lark 
is contracted from it. The use of 
it is more common in the Scottish 
dialect, than with English writers. 
Iz. Walton spells it leverock: 

Here see a black-bird feed her young ; 
Or the Uverock build her nest. 

Angler's Wuk, Iz. fFalton, p. 200, ed. 1815. 

LAUND, or LAWND, now lawn. A 
smooth open space of grass land. 
Lande^ French. 

Undrr tliis thick grown brake we'll shroud ourselves, 
For through this laund anon the deer will come. 

8^«». F/,iii,l. 
And they that trace the shadv lawfHb. 

Old Play of Orlando Furioso, 15W. 
Some, sliding through the laund their bodies sleek. 
As who should say shnmc less than force we fear. 
Scud to the cops. Fanshaw't Lus., it, 73. 

Dryden has used it. See Todd. 
LAUNDER, *. A washer. Lavandier, 
French. From this our present word, 
laundress, is clearly derived ; unless 
both are from laund. See Landerer. 

Amylum is taken for starch, the use of which is best 
known to launders. Haven of Health, c. iv, p, 28. 

This effeminate love of a woman doth so womanize a 
mnn, that if he yield to it, it will not only make him 
an Amazon, but a launder, a distaff-spinner, &c. 

Pemlr. Jrcad., cited by Todd. 

To LAUNDER. To wash. 

Oft' did she heave her napkin to her eyne, 

Which on it had conceited characters, 
Laundring the silken tigun-s in the brine. 

Skakesp. Lover's Complaint, Suppl., i, 740. 
Sudds launders bands in p — e, and starches them. 

Herrick, p. 109. 

This discipline must have been very 
necessary to beards, when worn long; 
accordingly, we read of their being 

Prun'd, and starch 'd, and lander'd. 

HuJibras, II, i. 171. 

It is used nlso for that mode of 
washing gold, which is now called 
sweating, and is joined with clipping 
or shaving it : 

Aye, and perhaps thy neck 
Within a uou'se, for taundring gold, and barbing it. 

B. Jons. Jlck., i, 1, 

LAVOLTA, or LAVOLT. A kind of 
dance for two persons, consisting a 
good deal in high and active bounds. 
By its name it should be of Italian 
origin ; but Florio, in VoltOy calls it 
a French dance, and so Shakespeare 
seems to make it : 

They bid us to tlie Kuirlish dancing schools, 
And teach latoltus higli, and swift corantos. 

Hen. V, iii, S. 

I cannot sing, 
Nor heel the high lavolt, nor sweeten talk. 
Nor nlav at subtle games ; fair virtues all, 
To wnicli the Grecians are roost prompt and pregrat 

Tro. and Creu^if.i. 

It is thus descriSed by sir John 
Davies, in his poem on dancing: 

Yet there is one the most delightful kind, 

A lofty jumping, or a leaping round, 
Where arm in arm two dancers are entwin*d. 
And wliirl themselves, with strict embnooieBU 

bound ; 
And still their fcet an anapest do sound. 
An anapest is all their music's song, 
Whose first two feet are short, and third is long. 


The following passage represents it 
much in the same manner: 

So may you see by two latnlto danced. 

Who face to face about the house do hop ; 
And when one mounts the other is advanced, 

At once they move, ut once they both do stop. 
Their gestures shew a mutuall coascent. 

An Old Fashioned Love, lo»l, cited by Caprll; 
vol. iii, p. 74. 

Of its origin, Scot speaks conformably 
to the etvmoloffv : 

Item, he saith, that these night-walking or nitlKt 
night-dansina: witches, brought out of Italie i»ta 
Finance that dance whicli is called /« rolta. 

Discovery of Witcherafl, E 5, h. 
tAnd Ij;!'iv, Snap the belly-frieml. whose taste 
In well-feu flesh than fruit finds more repast ; 
Whose blood, like kids upon a motly plain. 
Doth skip and dance letalto's in each vein. 

Taylor's irorkes, KSO. 
tllcnce Brauron's god to Tauriminion, 
And you levaltoring cory bants begon. 

mtts Recreations. ItU. 

LAVOLTETERE, «. A dancer of la- 
voltas. Apparently a word arbitrarily 
coined from the other. 

The second, a lavoltetere, a saltatory, a dancer with s 
kit at his bum ; one that, by teaching great madouui 
to foot it, has miruculmisly purchased a rib.tndeii 
waistcoat, and four clean pair of socks. 

li. ,y Fl. Fair Maid of the Inn, iii, 1. 

LAUREAT, POET. Formerly a regulaj 
degree in our universities, as well as 
those abroad, the* graduate being 
laured donatus. This is fully ex- 
plained by Farmer, in his Essay on 
Shakespeare, p. 49, n. 2d ed. Heuce 
Skelton obtained tlie title of laureat, 
as in the authorities quoted by 

Skelton wore the lawrell wreath. 
And past in schoels, \e knue, 

says Churchyarde, in the poem pre- 
fixed to his works ; and master 
Caxton, in his preface to ihe Bokeof 
Eneydos, 1490, hath a passage, which 
well deserves to be quoted : *' I praye 
master John Skelton, hite created 
poete laureate in the unyversite of 
Oxenforde," &c. I find, from Mr. 
Baker's MSS., that our laureat vfli 




Lted ad eundem at Cambridge: 
D. 1493, et Hen. YII. nono, 
fditur Johanni Skelton, poete 
rtibus transmarinis atque Oxod. 
ea omato, ut apad nos eadem 
•aretur," &c. Dr. Farmer refers 
to Kuight's Colet, p. 122. 
erches sur les Poetes Couronnez, 
lesnel, Mem. de Lit., vol. x. 
Iso the account of the laureate, 
in the ancient and modern signi- 
on, in Warton's Hist, of Poetry, 
ii, pp. 128 — 130; who was 
Rrards himself a laureat, 
VW. To take the law upon a 
•n ; to persecute him with law. 

ipightfal] words they fell to dag^;ert drawing, 
ter each to other threatned lawing. 

naringtoiCt Epigraau, 1633. 
Dta on Sondaies, and wrangles for tythes ; yet 
ome or never goeth to law with his neighboars. 
aces are so good, that no mans cattle can come 
is sToand; and his owne are so ringed and 
and latctU, that they never trespasse on any 
nan. A'cA Cahmet furnished with Varietit of 
BxceUent JMscriptiotu, 1616. 

', «., for a wager. It is now 
ete. Johnson gives only one 
)rity for it, which is from 
ut; it occurs, however, in Sliake- 
e more than once. Mr. Todd 
dded others. 

[ dare von to this match: liere's my ring. 
^ will lia've it uo lay. lack. By the gods it is 

Ctfmb., i, 5. 
tunes to uny lay worth naming, this crack of 
)ve shall grow stronger tlian it was befuro. 

OiM/o, ii, 8. 
Vly soul and body on the action both. 
A dreadful layt address thee instanth. 

2 Uen. VI, v, 2. 

• authors are quoted for it in 
's Johnson. 

Jj., for unlearned. A remnant 
d times, when all persons not 
al were supposed to be un- 
ed; and "legit ut clericus" was 
emption from punishment. 

m all mouths will jud^e, and their ow n way, 
im'd have no more privilege tliaii the lay. 

Ben Jons. Epiyr., 132. 

Used for lea, 

led with Python in the fallow'd lay$. 

Vecie» Jf'orkes, i, 103. 

Y ALONG. To knock down. 

rthrow, lav atony, and destroy, atemo. 

iruhaW Dict'tonarie, ed. 1008, p. 202. 

Y OFF. To wash. 

1 pre'thee if thou wilt, 
\T me till I have in yon fresh fount 
{f the sweat and dust that yesterday 
me with. Jminta, 1628. 

IN ONE^S DISH. To object 
ng to a person, to make it an 

accasation against him. Coles trans« 
lates it, '^aliquid alicui ut crimen 

Last night you Uy it, madam, tM our disk. 
How that a maid of ours (whom we most cheek) 
Had broke your bitches leg. 

Sir John Hitrr. i^igr^ U tT* 

Butler has used it : 

Think'st thou 'twill not be laid i' tk' di*k 
Thouturn'dst thy back? quoth Echo, |)i«A. 

Hudihms, I, iii, ver. Mil 

To LAY IN ONE'S LIGHT was occa- 
sionally used in a similar sense. 

What tho* fearce Pharao wrought myschef in thy 


He was a pagan, lay uot that iw our hyht. 

Ood'$ Promisft, 0. PI., i, 2?. 

To LAY ON LOAD. To strike violently 
with repeated blows. 

The greater strokes, the fiercer was the monster's 

awlesse fight ; 
So that the Greckes and Troyans all misdoubt their 

dreadleksc knieht ; 
Still Hercules did lay oh load. 

iranur*t Alhiona England, i, 4, p. Ii. 

They fell from words to sharpe, and laid on load 

UntiU at length in fight hight Irenglas was slain. 

Mirr.for Mayiatr., C. J. Cmot, p. 134. 

His ready souldiers at a beck obay, 
And on the foes courageous load thry lay. 

Syf». Du Bart., IV, tii, 3. 

LAYES, for Laises, or loose women ; 
from Lais, the Grecian courtesan. 
At least, I can make nothing else 
of it. 

But how may men the sigitt of beautie shun 
In England, at this present dism>ill day? 

All void of veilcs, hke Layes, where Udics run. 
And rome about at every feast and play, 
They wandiing walke in every street and way. 

Mirr. May., p. 217, by UicnnerhMMi. 

LAY-STALL. A dunghill ; according 
to Skinner, from lay and stall, be- 
cause they lay there what they take 
from the stalls or stables. Coles also 
renders it by "sterquilinium.** Also 
any heap of dirt, rubbish, &c. Per- 
haps it is rather a stall, or fixed 
place, on which variotis things are 
laid; q. d. a lay -place ^ a lay 'heap. 

Scarce could he footing find in that fowlo way. 

For many corses, like a great lay-tiall, 
Of murder'd men uhich therein strowed lav. 

Spnu. F. Q., I, V, 63. 
The soil that late the owner did enrich, 

Him, his fair hcrdii, and gooUly flocks to feed. 
Lies now a Uu$tall, ur a comniou ditrh, 
Where in their todder loathly paddocks breed. 

Dray tun* s Moses, p. 1583. 

Insomuch that the very platforme thereof remayned 
for a great part wast, and as it were, but a laystall 
of filth and rubbish. 

Stowe's Survey of London, p. SI. 
fThese are the right patternes of an iudustrioas 
bawd, for shee pickes her liviug out of the laystall or 
dunghill of our rioes. Taylor's fforkss, 16Sf 




f3h LAZE. To loll or lie indolently. 

But Cupid lautk 'niongst the faiery lasses, 
Whose clere complexion he oft sweareth passes 
Uis mother Veuos, whom all heaven doth seeke. 

The Nnce Metamorphosis, 1600, MS. 
Pur on the glasse, and on hearii pillowes laee. 

IFkiting's Albino and Bellama, 1638. 

A LEA. A field. Saxon. Not quite 
obsolete in poetry, having been pre- 
served by Milton, &c. The usage of 
such a poet embalms a word. 

Dry up thy marrows, vines, and plougfli-torn leas. 

Timoti of Athens, iv, 3. 
Thence, rushing to some country farme at hand, 
Breaks o'er the yeoman's mounds, sweeps from his 

His harvest hope of wheat, of rye, and pease, 
And makes that channell wliich whs sheplierd's lease. 

Browne, Brit. Pa:t., I,ii,p. 52. 

The same author, with the careless- 
ness of his time, in page 66 writes it 
LEACH, or LEECH. A physician or 
surgeon ; from /eec, Saxon. This 
word also has been used occasionally 
by very late writers ; particularly in 
the burlesque style, where obsolete 
words are always retained for a time, 
before they finally perish. 

Make war brcetl peace; make peace stint war; make 

Prescribe to other, as each other's leach. 

Timon of Athens, v, 6, 
And streightway sent, with carcfnll dihgence, 
To fetch a leach, the which had great insight 
In that disease of grieved conscience. 
And well could cure the same, his name was Patience. 

Spens. F. q., 1, x, 23. 
t Where is Esculapius? who goes ror him? 
lie hale the leach (rota hell to cure my painc. 

Nero, 1607. 

fLEACH. A sort of jelly. 

To make a leach of almonds. — Take half a pound of 
almonds blanclicu, beat them in a mortar, and add a 
pint of new milk, and strain them ; add mure, two 
spoonfuls of ro9c-water, and a grain of musk, with 
hidf an ounce of the whitest ising-glass, and strain 
them a second lime for your use. 

Closet of Rarities, 1706. 

LEACH-CRAFT, 9. The art of medi- 
cine or surgery. 

We study speech, but others we persuade ; 
We leach-craft learn, but others cure with it. 

Sir J. Duties, Iinmnrt. of Soul, Introd. 

LEACH-MAN. The same; compounded 
of leach and man. 

Oft have I scene an easie soone-curde ill. 

By times processe, surpasse the leachman's skill. 

Remedy of Lore, a Poem, 1602, B 2, apud Capell. 

To LEAD APES, prov. The employ- 
ment jocularly assigned to old maids 
in the next world. The phrase is 
still in use, and is inserted here 
rather to show how old it is, than to 
explain it as obsolete. As ape occa- 
A'JonaDjr meant a fool, it probably 

meant that those coquettes who made 
fools of men, and led them about 
without real intention of marriage, 
would have them still to lead against 
their will hereafter. See Ape. 

Tlierefore I will even take sixpence in earnest of the 
bear-herd, and lead his apes into hell. Muck Ado, u, 1. 

Hayley gives other fanciful conjec- 
tures as to the origin of the proverb; 
but he says that he had not found 
* it in any author before Shirley, from 
whose School of Compliment he brings 
an instance. Essay on Old Maids, 
vol. iii, p. 158. 
fLEADEN-HEELED. Slow ; heavy is 

Tliis may serve to shew the difTerence 'twixt the two ] 
nations, the' leaden-heeld pace of the one, and tiis 
quick-silrer'd motions of the other. 

HoioeU's Familiar Letter*, 1650. 

fLEAF. The fat round the kidneys of 
a pig. 

What say you to the leafe or flccke of a brawne new 
kild, to oe of weight ei<;ht pound, and to be eaten 
liot out of the bores belly raw ? much good doe yon, 
gallants, was it not a glorious dish ? 

Tatflor^s ITorkei, 1630. 

LE AGU ER, 8. The camp of the assaU- 
auts in a siege ; not a camp in 
general : whence a besieged town 
was said to be beleaguered. 

We will bind and hoodwink him, so that he sIuJl 
suppose no other but that he is carried into the 
leaguer of the adversaries, when we bring him to our 
own tents. AWs Well, iii, 6l 

The origin of the word is said to be 
Dutch or Flemish. 
To LEAME, V. To flash, or shine. 

And when she spake her eyes did Uame as fire. 

Mir r. for Mag., p. 84. 

LEAMES, «. Gleams, flashes, flames; 
from the Saxon. It is used bj 

When Herie flakes, and lightnyng Uames, 
Gan Hash from out the skies. 

KeudaWs Poems, 1577, Capell. 

Then looking upward to the heaven's leames. 

Mirr for Mai^., SacWxlWs Ind., p. 36ft. 
And fatall day our leames ot light hath shet^ [shvt] 
And in the tomb our ashes once be set. 

Jasp. Heyw. in Cens. Lit., ix, 3M. 

iWhose skill hath scattered quite 

The cloudes of poets pen, 
And hatli by glisteryng leames of light 

To blinde and eylcsse men. 

Verses pref. to Kendall's Epigrammes, 1B7T. 

A LEASH, *. A string, or thong, by 
which a dog is led along. LessSt 
French. Skinner says that a leaA, 
in the sense of three together, i» 
derived from the same, it being 
unusual to unite more than thite 




;o lead together; and, I pre- 
usual to unite that number. 

the dogs, it was easily trans- 
to the game caught by them, 

ence into«general use. It was 

tlso for tlie string by which a 

iras held. 

What I waa, I am ; 
aining on, for plucking back ; not following 
i uniallingly. fTtnt. TaU, iv, 8. 

i a fawning greyhound in the leash, 
m slip at wiu. Coriol., i, 6. 

Minks and Lun, 
tchei both, the best that ever run) 
one Uask, have leap'd, and strain'd, and 
itrain'd. Syh. Du Bartas, IV, iii, 3. 

iiriousiy illustrates the passage 
given, from the Winter's Tale, 
imes written lease: 

laterials or appendices of liis place [a for- 
, home, U4ue, and bill, lie resiens. 

Clitus's mimgies, p. 47. 
r leashf is a small long thong of leather by 
le faulconer hokleth his hawk fast, folding it 
nes about his finger. 

entUmMiCt ReereaL, 8vo ; Faule. Terms taken 
from Latkain, p. 7. 

i was commonly used for a 

ill see dame Krrour so plaie her parte with a 
Imers, a male and twoo fenudles. &c. 

Bieke his Farewell^ 1B81. 

JH, r. To unite by a leash. 

And at his heels 
in like hounds, should famine, sword, and fire, 
'or employment. Hen. F, Chorus 1st. 

lay observe, that the hounds 
wished in are three in number, 
?, sword, and fire; which illus- 
Skinner's remark above cited, 
s the only instance I had met 
but Mr. Todd adds a very 
cable one, in which Cerberus, 
ireeAietided dog, is said to be 
I to himself: 

Cerberus, from below, 
ask*d to himself, with liim a hunting go. 

Lovelace, Lueasta, p. 33. 

may trust the quarto edition of 
Midas, leashed, or leasht, was 
at least among hunters, for 
with a leash. Subsequent 
IS changed it to lashed; but 
planation afterwards given, by 
me speaker, seems to confirm 


:h thee in the forest, thou shalt be Uasht, 

Act iv, so. 3. 

fierwards says, that *'a boy 
on the single/* meaaa "a boy 

beaten on the taile with a leathern 
thong, ^* Ibid, 

This thong could only be the leash; 
and this also afibrds a convenient 
etymology for the word lash; better, 
indeed, than most that have been 
LEASING. Lying. This Saxon word 
has been preserved in memory, though 
not in use, by its occurring in 
the church version of the Psalms. 
Ps. iv, 2. 

Now Mercury indue thee with leasing, for thou 

sneakest well of fools. Twelfth Night, i, 5. 

Jfor 1 have ever verify'd my friends 

(Of whom he's chief) with all the size that verity 

Could, without lapsing, suffer ; nay sometimes. 

Like to a bowl upon a subtle ground, 

I have tumbled past the throw ; and in his praise 

Ilave almost stamp'd the leasing. Coriol., v, 3 

But that false pilgrim which that leasing told. 

Spens. F. §., I, vi, 48. 

Prior and Gay have used it. See 

It is rather singular that Ascham. 
a man of learning and a grammarian, 
commenting upon this word, in one 
of the places where it occurs in 
Chaucer, wholly mistakes its meaning, 
and speaks of it as if it came from to 
leescy which means to lose. Chaucer s 
lines are these : 

Haaard is veray modor of lesinges. 
And of dcceitei and curbed foraweringes. 

Wiiere its sense is sufficiently fixed 
by its being united with deceit and 
forswearing; but Ascham says, "True, 
it may be called so if a man consider 
how many wayes and how many 
thinges he loseth thereby; for first 
he loseth hia goodes, he loseth his 
time,*' &c. Toxophilus, p. 49, repr. 
Sc^ to Lbese 

LEASOW, *. A pasture. Mr. Todd 
has very properly shown, that this 
word, which is now only known as 
the appellative of Shenstone's Ferme 
Orn^e, was once a general word, 
derived from the Saxon leswe, Shen- 
stone probably found the name esta- 
blished at that place by ancient use. 

LEAST, for they are equivalent. All, 
the whole of any number ; one and 
all, great and small. 

With th' isles thereof, and Geta all lh« eAsX, 
Of Asia all the iilandt, most wdL Uost. 

Mirror /or Ma8.,C«rae«)U^v.Vl^ 




'Mongst them Alecto strowed wutefiill fire, 
loTenoinuig ihe hearts of most and least. 

Pairf. Tasso, riii, 72. 

In the following passage it seems a 
little doubtful whether the same sense 
is intended : 

Can*st thou not lay any thing to that, Diccon, with 
least or most f Gammer Gurton, 0. PI., ii, 73. 

fTo LEAVE. To cease to do a thing ; 
to discontinue. 

Tet le/l he not with lastfoll eyes to gaze 
Upon her beautye adniirablv cleere. 

The Netoe Afetamorphosts, 1600, MS., i, 62. 
Af I am told the pope hath sent divers bulls against 
this sport of bulling, yet it will not be le/tf the nation 
hath taken such an habituall delight in it. 

HomeU's Familiar Letters, 1650. 

LEDDEN, or LEDEN. Language; 
from the Saxon leden, or laden, 
which originally meant Latin, being 
only a corruption of that word. 
Chaucer has used it, and from him 
Spenser, and other writers, probably 
took it. So Dante used latino for 
language in general : 

E cnntine gli aneelli 
Ciascuuo in suo latino. 
Tliereto he was expert in prophesies, 

Catu., ii, I. 
Xpert in prophesies. 
And could the leJden of the gods unfold. 

Spens. F. Q., IV, xi, 19. 
A wondrous bird nmong the rest there flew, 

That ill plain speech sung lovelays loud and shrill ; 
Iler Irden was like human mnguage true. 

Fair/. Tasso, xvi, 13, 
The ledden of the birds most perfectly- she knew. 

Drayt. Pofyolb., xii, p. 905. 

It is observable that all these, except 
Spenser, apply it to the speech of 
birds, of which Chaucer set the 
example : 

Through which she understode well every thing 
That any foule may in his leden faine. 
And cuiithe he answer in his ledcn again. 

Cant. Ta/M, 10749, Tymh. 

LEDGER. See Leiger. 
LEEFEKIES. Apparently some part , 

of female dress, or of the materials 

of it. 

Besides nil this, their shadows, their spots, their lawnes, 
their leefekies, their ruffes, ihei> rinjrs, shew them 
rather cardinais' curtisans than nm lest matrons. 

Euph. to {'hilautus,^\,h. 

IjEER, *. Complexion, colour; con- 
jectured by Mr. Toilet to b^ formed 
from the Saxon hleare, facies. In 
Coles's Dictionary we have ''leer, 
eomplexio.*' Skinner says, from 
l^air du visage, Gl. V. in Lere, 

It pler/ses him to call you so, but he has a llaialind 
of a belter Uere than you. Js you like it, iv, 1. 

Here's a young lad frum'd of another leere (so as not 

to blush), 
Look how the black slave smiles upon his father. 

Titus Andr., iv, 2. 

That In some p]acc9 there is no other thing bred or 

^rowinjf but brown and diukish, insomuch as not 

only the cattell is all of that Uers, but also the en 
upon the ground and other firuits of the earth. 

Holland's Pliny, xxxi. 8, p. 408- 
Once to the teat his lips he would not lay. 
As though offended with their sullied Iseur, 

Drayt. Moses, Yol. if, p. litt> 

Also for the cheek : 

No ladie, quoth the earle, with a loud voyce, and tbe 
teares trilhng down his Uares, say not so. 

ZToKmA^^. cHedbyTodi 

For leer, learning, see Lere. 
LEER, adj., is used in the sense of 
empty, and particularly applied to i 
horse without a rider; in which' sente 
Skinner derives it from gel€er, SazoD, 
&c. Coles has ** a leer horse, vacuus.** 

But at the first encounter downe he lay. 
The horse runs leere away without the man. 

Harringt. Arwst., xunr, 6i 

Hence a leer horse meant a led horse. 
In this sense Jonson has twice ap- 
plied it to a drunkard, as being led 
in the train of another : 

' Instead of a little Davy to take toll of the bawdl, the 
author doth promise a strutting horse-courser, with a 
<^fr drunkard, two or three to attend him, in at good 
equipage as you would wish. 

Barth. Fair, Induction, vol. iii, p. 281 
Laugh on, sir, I'll to bed and 8leq>, 
And dream away the vapour of love, if the house. 
And your leer drunkards, let me. New Inn, It, 4 

Mr. Gifford, on this passage, says, 
"The word is sufficiently common in 
every part of Devonshire, in the 
sense of empty, as a " leer stomach,** 
&c. In the Exmoor Courtship, the 
leer is properly explained as "the 
hollow under the ribs.** What he 
adds of another sense of the word, 
not yet explained, may perhaps be 
answered by some interpretation here 

Leers, and leerings, in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Mons. Thomas, does not 
seem to have any reference to this ; it 
means rather, sly looks, oglings of 
quiet courtship, as the word is still 
used : 

Foutm for lerrs and leerings 1 Oh the noise. 

The nuise we made I Act iv, sc S. 

Leer side seems to be used for left 
side, in the following passages, that 
being the side on which such orna- 
ments were worn : 

Cluy, with his hat turn'd up o' the leer side too. 

B. Jons. Tale of a Tni, i, i 
And his hat turn'd up 
With a silver clasp on his leer side. Ihid., ii, i 

Mr. Giflbrd suggests that it is for 

A suspicious or jealous man is one that watches his- 
self a mischief, and keeps a tear eye still, for fear it 
«Uu\x\d escape liim. Farle, Jficroc, ( % 





in the following passage, seems 
in some coarse ornament that 
be substituted for ouches, or 
ces ; perhaps some coarse kind 
(t or lace : 

o to mortilie mpdtt, that in i tecde of silkei I 
re nckcloth ; for ouches and hracelets, leen, 
Um ; for the lute oie the distaffe. 8cc. 

Bupkues, H 1 b. 

Iso may be found for lair, the 
of a stag, &c. See Laib. 
. To learn. See Leke. 

he shepherds of his calender, 
umed toepberds all, and seen in song 
deepest layes and ditties deep among, 
ty sons did ever make us Uer^ 
a of thine 

Bp. Hall, in Belo4*s Jneed., vol. iv, p. 100. 
Oft was such, so well they Uerg their conth. 

Harr. Jriatt., vii, 27. 

e their couth," there means 

; their lesson. "- 

IE. To lose ; from lesen, Dutch. 


'rs distill'd, though they with winter meet, 
t their show; their substance still lives sweet. 
Shaketp. Sonnet 6. Suppl., i, 585. 
nk not then which side the cause snail Utstt 
' to get the lawyer's fees. 

B. Jons. Forest., No. 3, vol. vi, p. 811. 
ire come not for advice in war, 
now whether we shall win or leese. 

Georgt a Greene, 0. PI., iii, 83. 
the faire Angelica is gone, 
: we leese that earst wc sought so sore. 

Uarringt. Jriost., i, 19. 
ng that a maister of a sliyppe, be he never so 
e, by the uncertainty of tlic wynde leesetk 
jrmes both lyfe and goodes. 

Asckam, Toxoph., p. 218, mod. edit. 

ard occurred also in our autho- 
rersion of the Bible, 1 Kings, 
5, *'that we ieese not all the 
;*' but is one of those readings 
have been tacitly changed in 
)dern editions. 

nrmers by decrc yeercs do leeee, 
yers swearc to take no fees. 

Df r Jeer's ITkore of Babylon, 1607. 
tThen by degrees, 
>s all naturall heat dotn softly leese, 
prowes cold. Virg'tl^by Vicars, 1632. 

. A manor court, or private 
ction for petty offences; also a 
n which siicli court is held, 
the Saxon lethe, which was a 
3f jurisdiction above the wapen- 
r hundred. Coles Law Diet, 
rench " Lit tie justice," though 
lilar, has no connection with 
it means the tribunal of justice, 
ch the king presides in person, 
called lit, the French etymo- 
do not explain ; probably be- 
the royal seat, or throne, was 

coTered with a large cuBhion, like a 

And rail upon the hostess of the house. 
And say you would present her at the Uet, 
Because she bought stone jugs, and no s«al*d auaita. 

TViMiN^ ofSkrtWt Induct 
Who has a breast so pure. 
But some uncleanly apprehensions 
Keep lerts, and law^nys, and in session sit 
With mediUtions lawful ? Othello, iii, 8. 

LEFUL, adj. Permitted or allowed; 
for leave-fnl, which was used by 
Wickliffe: "Therefore it is leveful to 
each man or person of this singular 
religion," &c. See Todd. 

No servant to his lord, nor child to the father or 
mother, nor wife to her husband, nor monke to his 
abbot, ought to obey, except in lefull tilings, and 
lawfull. Wordsw. Bed. Biogr., i, 148. 

Rich men sayen that it is both lefuU and ueed^iU to 
them to gather riches together. Fox, p. 873, 8cc. 

LEG, 8, A bow ; commonly an awk- 
ward clownish bow, made by throw- 
ing out the leg, or at least used as an 
expression of ridicule. 

He that cannot make a leg, put oflfs cap, kiss hii 
hand, and say nothing, has neither leg, hands, lip, 
nor cap. jfVs Well, ii, 9. 

I doubt whether their legs be worth the sums 
That are given for them. Timon o/Jtk., i, S. 

Keeps us fh)m fights, 
Makes us not laugh when we mukc legs to knights. 

Beaumont's Letter to Jonson, B. .}- Fl., %, p. 366. 
Or making low legs to a nobleman, 
Or looking downward with your eve-lids close. 

Edward II, 0. PI., ii, 3*2. 
Their humanity [that of singing-nicn] is a leg to the 
rcsidencer, their learning a chapter, for they Icaru it 
commonly before they read it. 

Earle, Microc., Char. i7. 

See Bliss's edit., p. 317. Also Todd 
on this word. 

tl have been faine of late, thorow his meaues, to sett 
the better legg afore, to handle some of my masters 
somwliHt pluinelie, and rouglilyo tu, for thvic thought 
I would droupe, but I will rntlier be overthrowne by 
her majesties doings then overbordcd by theis churles 
and tinkers. Letter dated 1&S6. 

fLEGACY. An embassy, 

He came, and told his legacy. Ckapm. II., vii, 848. 

fLEGEANCE. For allegiance. 

So also of a man that is abjured the realme ; for not- 
withstanding the abjuration, he oweth the king his 
legeanee, and remaineth witbin the kings protection. 

Dalton's Count rey Justice, 16:20. 

LEGEM PONE. A proverbial term, 
and a very odd one, for ready money, 
illustrated by Mr. Hawkins, in his 
notes on Ignoramus. That personage 
enters, bringing 600 crowns, which 
he was to pay for Rosabella, and 

Hic est legem pone : hie sunt sexcenta: coronn. 

Act li. sc. 7. 
In bestowing of their decrees here they arc very 
liberal, and deny no nmn that is able to nav his fees. 
Legem ponere is with them more jKiwerful tnan IcKcm 
dicerc ifeylin's Voy., p. 293. 

They were all at our Krrvce \m W\<i legem 'pone. 





The original is, "en payant/' 

Use legem pone to pay at thy day. 
But use not Oremui for often delay. 

Ttuser, Husb. Lessons, 29. 
But in this, here is nothing to bee abated, all their 
n)eech is legem pone, or else wiUi their ill custome 
tuey will detaiue tlicc. 

6. 3finskul, Bssayes in Prison, p. 26. 

Most of these illustrations are in Mr. 
Hawkins's note. The origin of the 
phrase is doubtless this : The first 
psalm for the twenty-fifth day of the 
nionth has the title Legem pone, being 
the first words of the Latin version. 
This psalm is the fifth portion of the 
n9th psalm, and, being constantly 
used on the first great pay day of the 
year, March 25, was easily connected 
with the idea of payment, while the 
laudable practice of daily attend- 
ance on the public service was con- 
f LEGER. A cant term for a Londoner 
who formerly bought coals of the 
country colliers at so much a sack, 
and made his chief profit by using 
smaller sacks, making pretence he 
was a country collier. This was 
termed legering. 

The law of ^^mn^^, which is a deceit that colliers 
abuse the commonwelth withall, in haviu^ unlawfull 
sackes. Greenes Discovery of Coosnage, 1&91. 

tLEIF, adj. Dear. I had leifer, I had 

Thus we verily are driven and confined as guiltie and 
condemned persons unto the furthest parts of the 
earth ; and tnose who are most leife ana decre unto 
us shailbee slaves, enthralled agaiiie unto tlie Alemans. 
Holland's Ammianus Marcellinus, 1609. 
1 had leiffer (quoth he) that good men should move 
question, wherefore I have not deserved it. Ibid. 

A resident or ambassador at a foreign 
court, or a person stationed to wait 
on the service of another. It has 
been variously derived; from licgan, 
Saxon, to lie ; from legger, Dutcli ; 
and from legattts, Latin. Judicent 

Lord Angelo, having affairs to heaven. 
Intends you for his swift ambassador. 
Where you shall be an everlastiug leiger. 

Measure for Meas., iii, 1. 
I have given him that. 
Which if he take, shall quite unpeople her 
Of leidgers for her sweet. CymbeLt i, 6. 

In the above quotations I have fol- 
lowed the spelling of the second 

Now, eenUemen, imagine that young Cromwell'i 
In Annrerp, Uwer for the EnzUsh mercluints. 

iMrd Cromwell, SoppL to Sh., ii, 88S. 

Coryat writes it lidger, vol. i, p. 70. 

Betum not thou, but legier stay behind. 
And move the Greekish prince to send us aid. 

Fairf 2V«JO,L70. 
A name which I'd tear out 
From the high German's throat, if it lay leiger tkere 
To dispatch privy slanders against me. 

Roaring Girl, O.YL^ri, ft 

Tou have dealt discreetly, to obtain the pmenoe 

Of all the grave leiger ambassadors, 

To hear Vfttoria's trial, mite Letil, O. Yi^ vi, 2?!. 

Hence a ledger-bait in fishing : 

That I call a ledger-bait, which is fixed or made to 
rest in one certain place when yon shall be absent 
from it. Isaac IFalton. Conivl. Angler, i, 8, p. lO. 

f For humours to lie leidger tiiey are seen 

Oft ill a tavern, and a bowling-^een, 

ITiey do obsenc each place, and company. 

As strictly as a traveller or »\nc. 

RttndoJph's Poems, 164S. 

LEISURE. Vacant time, space allowed 
for any purpose. But Johnson con- 
siders it, in the following passage, as 
signifying "want of leisure;" and 
adds, "not used." It stands, how- 
ever, simply for time or space allowed; 
and the context shows that it means 
there short space, or short leisure. 
Tlte usaee is, indeed, very peculiar. 

More than I have said, loving countrymen. 

The leisure, and enforcemeut of the tlnit*. 

Forbids to dwell upon. Rick. Ill, y^^. 

There is a similar passage earlier in 
the same play : 

Farewell: the leisure and the fearful time 

Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love. t, 8. 

The following expressions are similar, 
and seem to lead to it : 

If your leisure served, I would speak with you. 

Much Ado, iii, 3. 
I'm sorry that your leisure serves you not. 

Merck, of Venice, iv, 1. 
Here to make good the boisterous late appeal 
Which then our leisure would not let us hear. 


In all these passages, the shortness 
of the leisure renders it unfit for the 
purpose required. 
LEMAN, or LEMMAN. A lover or 
mistress; by Skinner derived from 
raimant, more properly Vamant, 
French. Junius supposed it to be 
quasi feve-man, from leof, dear, 
Saxon, and man; which latter deri- 
vation Dr. Johnson, perhaps rightly, 
preferred. It is, however, used either 
for male or female, and more com- 
monly the latter; but it seems that 
man itself was sometimes used with 
the same latitude. 

Let them sav of nie, as jealous as Ford, that tearch'd 
a hollow walUnut for his wife's Irman. 

Merry Wives W., it, S. 
I sent Uiee sixpence for thy Uman; had'st it ? 

Twelfth a; tf, & 

Wli; ii not lonlj Hiriu blillit oT cbecr t 
'What Bill mj kaurait Ui>t iht '(ini In lov'rF 

S»f$t a Oimu. O. FL, iii, 41. 
And ufiT JoTc u liidRnu iMme a( nint 
Did boqr inUi hia Umma'i Into 10 fjilt, 


Duesaa uya also. 

And mf, tliv vnUiT meed, unto Ih v Imu Uka, 

' /w..i..ii,ii. 

L£ME. See Lbahs. 
tLENB. A loan. 

1 bare iR tlic mcadov ■ daintT ihc uk 
Tbil vill mat bcHa the bond lo Ml i 
Foe Ut IflHTsf Uia ui TOn mivlit tite n» the Bill. 
rif Ci^ Jfllbr, an «U l>»iJ. 

fLENEFY. To iootiie; to Rupease. 

n*t HRnre wliiche ilulJ uuile mi \y nuon cf 
T<ni abieaea, 1 will iweLfli ind J<w]fjvilh eoDtfotii- 

' mcU tit Amrlf to MiUUrii Troftme^. IBSl. 

LENOER, for lon«r. 

Dm loMr life, I rate, the imtR >in. 

/liV., SI- «. 

3\> LENGTH, for to lengthen. 

And in joDt life their livee diipoaed u. 
BhiU Uiulk Tonr noUe Ufa in jojftlncMe. 

rtmxi- Potto, 0. PI., i. Ill 
fDrinka vh ordaia'd la Itngtimtnt faiDtinE brealb. 
And rnn tbat liqna, dnmliardi dnv tUeir diiili. 

Ttfim'i WttUi. lOSO. 

[It U common in the earlier wrilerii.] 

tNm bare le noon wberwitli wa may 
LntU4 oat Iif Fro daj to d». 

ftiner XmH. t. 3*. 

IiENTEN, lu^'. Sparing, niggardly, 
inaafficient; like the fare of old 
time* in Lent, 

il yon delight sol ii 
haplajen ihill rci 

To nuntiin fOn vilh biahet. 
Poor lobn. sad balT * lirnr. to rt*d luonl riitne. 
And Umin Itctnm. £■(<'> ItiUrtu, b; Sbirlej. 

Metaphorically, gliort and laconic : 

' A [ood intn tana. Tm^li S.. 1, i. 

It was applied even to apparel, which 
TH probably more homely and morti- 
fied in Lent : 

Ttio an read. 
In thj sals fan. dml rye, and Inteh nit, 
Tha Gbcitr tli; evct-^vmg liuil 

B. t n. H». If. Fori., ir, 1. 

By a scrap of a proverbial rhyme, 
qaoted in Homeo and Juliet, and the 
speech introducing it, we leem to 
learn that a stale bare might be used 
to make a pie in Lent, odled there 
*'« UHten pye." Bom. ^ Jul., ii, 4. 
See Hoax. 

Dryden hai tued lenten. See John- 

[The master, of the revels usually 
cxerciaed ilie power of granting to the 
playen what were called Lenlen dit- 

5 LBP 

pentaliotu, on the payment of a cer- 
tain fee, in order to enable tliem to 
act in Lent on any day of the week 
excepting Tiiesdaya and Fridays, 
wliich were called Sermon days.] 
L'JENVOY, *. An address ; a term bor- 
rowed from the old French poetry, 
and adopted by our writers in the 
same sense. It was the technical 
name for additional lines subjoined to 
a poem, or part of a poem, as from 
the author i conveying the morfl), or 
addressing the piece to some patron. 
From eneoyer, French. It is thua de- 
fined in the Dictionary of the French 
Academy, under envoi: "Couplet 
qui termine uii chant royal, une 
ballade, et qui serttiRdresser I'ouvrage 
it celui pour qui il a ete fait." It is 
now, 1 believe, disused in French, as 
well as in English. Though it haa 
the French article with it, our poeta 
have generally prelixed the English 
also ; fur which reason I have placed 
it here, instead of under Envoy. 
See Todd's Johnson, 4. Euvotf. 

UiTT.for Ms-j.. PiTTTX. Id ed. 

In that edition a Cenroy is subjoined 
to every history, wbicli in the first 
were superscribed. The Autkoure. 
They were merely the transitions from 
one tale to another ; and in the edi- 
tion oT 1610, were entirely omitted. 
Used also for a conclusion, generallv : 

Dolt tliou knoK IbF priaoutr?— Da I hnoa myaElr! 
1 kept that for IUe Toinw Jfui. Balir. Lot., ii. 1. 
WhirlviiHlialiall take lit Ui' lino' QnintbimitHplc. 
And clap it on St. Paiil'a ; and ofm Iheie 
A roan to the clti t<a Vita aim. 

B.fFl. ri( KilAa.f if., ii, 1, 

For the ceremonial conclusion of a 

letter: Now IB the r^nr-y. B.-TliiB«itI 
' Cl<f>»i*''^'«<. />'(">», ii'.Anc. Dr., iii, U«. 

LEPROSY. Occasionally used m an 
eipression for the lue* venerea. 

Yon ribald na, of Egjpl, 

Wbom iTfrtH) o-(itake, 

IliHiti aail. iiiul iir». All. oui Clnyp., ill, S. 

helinca, altboTorbiaaWKtvilbuiiche IK bna^lit to 





LERE, or LEAR, «., for lore. Learning, 
knowledge, or lesson learnt. 

He was iuvuliierable made by magic hare. 

Svens. F. Q., VI. iv. 4. 
Tho he that liad well ycon^d his Uar, 

Speiu. Skcp. XaJ., Jfay, 283. 
This Uare I learned of a bel-dame trot, 

^lien I was yong; and wylde as now thon art. 
But her ^wid counsel! I regarded not, 
I niarkt it witli my cares, not with my hart. 

Bamf^dd't Affectionate Shrpheard, IBM. 
In many secret skds she had been conn'd her lere. 

Urayt. Polvolb., xii, p. 906. 
With Ive, a godly priest, suppos'd to have his lere 
Of Cuthbert. Ibid., xxiv, p. 1139. 

FuJl well she was ycon'd the leir 

Of niickle courtesy. Ibid., Eel., 4, p. 1401. 

But hee leam'd his leere of my sonne, his young roas- 
ter, whom 1 have brought up at Oxford. 

Mother Bombie, D 4. 

fLESE. To lose. See Leese. 

A bag for my bread. 

And another for my cheese, 
A little dog to follow nie. 

To gather what I lese. 

Newest Acad, of Compl. 

LESINGE, 8, Losing, or loss. This 
must be distinguished from leasing, 
lying. Ascham comments on this 
verse of Chaucer, 

Ilasardry is verye mother of lesinges, 

by showing how many things are lost 
thereby. Toxoph., p. 49. He is 
mistnken as to the passage, but right 
as to the word fesin^e, that it some- 
times meant loss. See Leasing. 
To LKIS^OW, r. To feed or pasture; 
from leasowey a pasture. See Leasow. 

Gciitl\ his fair flocks Ussow^d he alon^, 
Ttmuuh the frini p:isturcs, freely nt his leisure. 

Drayton's Moses, p. 1576. 

To LET. To hinder. Lettan, Saxon. 

What lets, but one nmv enter at her « indow. 

Ttco Gmt. of v., iii, 1. 
Unhniid me, gentlemen — 
By heaven, I'll make a ghost of him that lets me. 

Uaml., i, 4. 
What lets us then the great Jerusalem 
With vuliuut squadrons round about to hem. 

Fairfax, Tasso, i, 27. 
Why la you, who lets you now ? 
You may write quietly. 

A Mad World, 0. PI., v, 394. 

LET, s, A hinderance or impediment ; 
from the verb. 

And my speech intreats 
That I niny know the let, why gentle peace 
Should not expel these iuconVenienccs. 

Henry F, v, 2. 
Scorning the Ut of so unequal foe. 

Spetts. F. Q., I, viii, 13. 
He was detain'd with an nnlmtkt for Ut. 

Harrington's Arioslo, I. 14. 
All lets arc now rcraov'd; hell's malice f.ills 
Beneath tiur conquests. Microcosmus, O. 1*1., ix, 164. 

Dr. Johnson has very fully exemplified 
these two words. 
LETHAL. Deadly ; from lethalis, Latin. 

Armed with no lethall swoorde or de^dlvc launce. 

Falace of Pleasure', vol. ii, A a 7. 
For vengeance' wines brinjc on thy lethal day. 

Cupid's Whirligigs, cited bj Mr. Steeveni. 

LETHE is once nsed by Shakespeare 
for death, though he generally takes 
it in the proper signification of ob- 
livion. In this false usage, however, 
he is countenanced by contemporarj 
writers. It seems to have been 
spoken as one syllable, whereas in 
the other sense it is of two. 

Here did'st thon fall ; and here thy hMiters stand, 
Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd 10 iky letkt. 

Julius Csts , iii, 1. 
The proudest nation that great Asia nurs'd. 
Is now extinct in letht. Heywood's Irwt Age, Put & 

In this sense it must be formed from 
lethum, death ; not lethi, 
LETHE'D. Shakespeare has coined a 
kind of participle from lethe, by which 
he would convey the sense of abaorhed 
in oblivion. 

Sharpen with cloyless sauce his appetite. 

That sleep and feeding may prorc^e his honour 

£v'n 'till a lethe'd dulness. Ant. and Cleop., ii, 1. 

fTo LETIFICATE. To exhilarate. 

Wine fiom sad hearts expelleth grief; and mine 
Letificates, dilating when supine. Owen's Epig., 1077. 

LEl^ERS OF MART. A mistaken 
form, instead of letters of marque and 
reprisals, which are still granted to 
privateers in time of war. The phrase 
originated from the word marek^ 
marcha, or marca, signifying a border 
(in which sense the lords marchers 
were lords of the borders, sec 
Marches), privilege being granted by 
one sovereign to his subjects, to make 
reprisals upon those of a neighbouriDg 
prince, by whom they had been 
injured. ** Because," says Minshew, 
"the griefs whereupon these letters 
are sought and granted, are commonly 
given about the bounds and limits of 
every countrey." Du Cange says, 
**Facultas a principe subdito data, 
qui injuria affectum se vel spoliatum 
ab alterius principis subdito quehtur, 
de qua jus vt*l rectum ei denegatur, 
in ejusdem principis marchas sea 
vulgo droit de marque et de repre- 
sallies^ Jus marchium.** Again: 
*^ Marcha vel reprcesalia in charts 
Jacobi Regis Aragon. An. 1326." 
In Voce Marcha, No. 4. See also 
Blount's Glossogrnphia in Marque^ 
and Law of Marque, The erroneoai 
form was very common. 





I read liu tetters 9* mart, fttm thii state cnnted 
Tor the recov^ ci such loftea as 
He had itceired in Spain. 

B.^Fl. Beggar's Bush i , 2 
A nonatrons fish, with a sword bjr's side, a long sword ; 
▲ frike in's neck, and a gnn in his nose, a linge gun ; 
And letters of mart in's mouth, from tlie duke of 

Florence. B. and Fl. Wife for a Month, u, 1. 
With letters then of credence for himself, and wtart 

for them, 
He pats to sea for EngLind. 

Anions BHgL/u,ti,^.9n. 

Harrington has writ of mart in the 
same sense : 

Toa'l spoil the Spaniards, by ;rour writ of marly 
And I the Romans rob, by wit and art. 

EfufrwmSt ii, SO. 

LETTICE-CAPS. Tliese are somehow 
Gonnected with old medical practice, 
for they are twice mentioned in con- 
nection with physicians. 

Ir/ Th/s. Bring in the tettiee-cap. Yon mast be 

shaved, sir. 
And then how suddenly we'll make yoa sleep. 

B. and Fl. Mons. Thorn., iii. 1. 

Armies of those we call physicians, some with glisters. 

Some with lettiee-eaps, some posset-drinks, some pills. 

B. jf- A Thierry /• Theod.. act v, p. 197. 

A Uitiee cap it weares and bearde not short. 

Shippe ofSafrgarde, 1569. 

We find, from Minshew's Spanish 
Dictionary, that a lettice-cap was 
originally a lattice-cap, that is, a net 
cap, which resembles lattice work ; 
often spelt lettice. See him in ^* Let Use 
bonnet or cap for gentlewomen,'* and 
the Spanish Albanega, there referred 
to. In the ancient account of the 
coronation of Anne Boleyn, it is 

After her followed ladies, being lordes wives, which 
had circotes of scarlet, with narrow sleeves, the breast 
all lettice, with barres of pouders, nccording to their 
degrees. NiehoVs Progr., vol. i, p. 13. 

" All of lettice" I interpret " all of 
fLKVAlN. Apparently only another 
form of leaven, though in the second 
especially the meanins is obscure. 

Sometimes,'bv his etemall self he swears, 
That my son Isaac's number-pissing heirs 
Shall fiil the land, and that his fruitfimrucc 
Shall be the blessed letain of his grace. Du Bnrtas. 
Ix)ve is a leten, and a loving kiss 
The Uren of a loving sweet-heart is. 

Wilts Recreations, IWO. 

f LEVANT, cloth of. A cosmetic used by 
ladies in the 16th century. 

To make a kind of cloth, called cloth of Levant, wher- 
with women do use to colour their face. 

Secretes of Alexis. 

LEVEL-COIL. A game, of which we 
seem to know no more than that the 
loser in it was to give up his place, 
to be occupied by another. Miiishew 
gives it thus : " To play at lerell coil, 

G. jouer k cul leve ; t. e,, to play and 
lift up your taile when you have lost 
the game, and let another sit down in 
your place." Coles, in his English 
Dictionary, seems to derive it from 
the Italian, leva il culo, and calls it 
also hitch-buttock. In his Latin 
Dictionary he has, ** Level»coil, alter- 
natim, cessim ;'* and, "to play at 
level-coil, vices ludendi prsebere.** 
Skinner is a little more particular, 
and says, '* Vox tesseris globulosis 
ludentium propria;'* an expression 
belonging to a game played with little 
round tesserse. He also derives it 
from French and Italian. It is men- 
tioned by Jonson : 

Youn^ justice Bramble has kept level coyl 
Here in our quarters, stole away our daughter. 

Tale of a Tub, iii, 9. 

Mr. Gifford says that, in our old 
dramatists, it implies riot and dis- 
turbance; but I have seen it in no 
other passage. [But see below.] Coil, 
indeed, alone signifies riot or disturb- 
ance ; but level-coil is not referred by 
any to the English words, but to French 
or Italian. 

The same sport is mentioned by 
Sylvester under the name of level' 
sice : 

By tragick death's device 
Ambitious iiearts do play at level-aiee. 

Du Bartas, IV, iv, 2. 

In the margin we have this explana- 
tion : 

A kinde of Christmas play ; wherein each hunteth the 
other from his seat. The nanm seems derived from 
the French levrz shs, in English, arise up. Ibid. 

iYes, ves, saye« she ; and tuld him than 
What levell-coyU had l)in. 

Armings Ilalian Taylor and his Boy, 1609. 
fBugdns is drunke all nij^lit ; all day he sleepes ; 
That is the levdl-coyle that Bnegins keeps. Ilerrick. 

+He carcleslv consumes his gciluen pelfe', 
In getting wliich his father daiiin'd liimselfe : 
Wliose soule (perhaps) in quenchlessc fire doth broiIe» 
Whilst on the earth his sonue keepes letdl coile. 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

LEVER, for liefer. Rather; from Lief, 
q. v. 

For lever had I die then see his deadly face. 

Sprns. F. q., I, ix. 32. 
Me lever were with point of foe-man's spcnre be dead. 

Ibid., UI, ii, 6. 
For I had lever be without ye. 
Than have such bcsynesse about ye. 

Fovr Ts, 0. PI., i, 94. 

LEVEST, for liefest. Dearest. 

For ye have left mc the youngest, and the fairest, and 
she IS most levcst to luu. 

Hist, qf X.. ArlhuT»'JA\%x\»^\^ 




LBVET. "A blast on the trumpet; 
probably thai by which soldiers are 
called in the morning.** Johnson. 
Also used for any strong sound of 
the same instrument; from lever, 

Come, 6ir, a quaint Utet, 
To iraken oar brave eeneral 1 tlicu to our labour. 

B. and Fl. Double Marriage, ii, 1. 

The stage direction adds, ''Trumpets 
sound a levet^ 

First he that led tlie cnralcate 
Wore a sow-gelder's flagellate, 
On which he blew as strons; a level. 
As welUfced lawyer ou his brev'ate. 

Hudibr., II. ii. V. 609. 

LEVIN. Lightning; from hlifian, to 
shine, Saxon. 

As when the flashing levin Laps to light 

Upon two stubboru oaks. Speiu. F. Q., V, vi, 40. 

Levin-brond means thunderbolt: 

And eft his burning Icvin-brond in h:nid he tooke. 

Ibid.. VII, vi, 80. 

Though these words are used by 
Spenser, they do not belong to his 
time, but to that of Chaucer. 
fLEUSE. To loose, or untie. 

Abstringo, to laui that whiche was bnuuden. 

Sliote's DitUioMarie, 1559. 
And the barbarians ajraine, fully bent to spend their 
lives for to gaine victorie, assiiyed to leuse o\xr battaile 
so jointly knit togetlier. 

Holland's Ammianus Marcel., 1609. 

LEWDSTER. A lewd person ; a word 
perhaps peculiar to Shakespeare. 

Against such levdstert and their lechery. 
Those that betray them do no treachery. 

Merry IF. W., v, S. 

tLIARS*-BENCH. A place in St. Pnurs 
Cathedral in the sixteenth century, so 
called because it was stated that the 
disaffected made appointments there. 

fLIATICA. A sort of wine. 

With malmesie, muskadell, and corcica. 
With white, red, claret, and liatica. 

Tutflor't Worker, 1630. 

To LIB, V, The same in the old northern 
dialect, as to glib in some others; 
namely, to castrate. See Ray*s North 
Country Words. In Massinger*s 
Renegado, the eunuch Carazie says. 

Say but you doubt me. 
And, to secure you, I'll cut out my tongue ; 
I'm libde in tlie breech already. Act ii, sc. 1. 

I would turn cindtrs, or the next sow-gelder, 
O* my Ufe, tliould lib me, rather than embrace thee. 

Matting. City Madam, ii, S, p. 306. 
That DOW, who pares his nails, or libi his swine. 
But he must first take counsel of the sigiie. 

HaWs Satires, ii, 7, p. 34. 
He can sing a charm, he says, shall make you feel do 
pain in your libbiug, nor after it. 

Bronu's Court Beggar, act iv. 

^ Shakespeare has used to Glib, q. v. 

LIBBARD. A leopard. Liebard, Ge^ 

And make the libbard sterne 
Leave roaring, when in rage he for revenjce did eme. 

Spe»s. F. q., I, ri, 21. 
She can bring only 
Some libbards' hocds, or strange beasts. 

City Match, O. PI., ix, 355. 

Milton has used the word. 
BANE. A general name for all the 
aconites, which were also called wolfs- 

All these leopardes or wolfs-bane are hot and dry in 
the fourth dei^ree, and of a venomous qualitie. 

* Lyte^s Dodoens, p. 496. 

I ha' been plucking, plants among, 
Hemlock, henbane, adder's-tongue, 
^'ightshade, moon wort, libbards-bane. 

B. Jons. Matqtu of Queens. 

tLIBBET. A staff, or club ; a billet. 

A bcesome of byrche, for babes verve fit, 
A louge lastiuge lybbet for loubbers'as meete. 

Harman's Caveat for Commeu Cursitors, 16<{7. 
A litUe staffe or libbei, bacillus. 

frUhaW Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 317. 

LIBERAL, adj., sometimes had the 
meaning which we express by libertine, 
or licentious, as being too free or 
liberal ; frank beyond lionesty or 
decency, as Johnson explains it. 

Who hath indeed, most like a liberal villain, 

Confe^s'd the vile encounters they have had 

A thousand times in secret. Much Ado, ir, 1. 

How say you, Cassio, is he not a most profane and 

liberal counsellor ? Othello, ii, 1. 

My lord, it lies not in Lorenzo's pow er 

To stop the vulgar, liberal of then* tongues. 

Spanish Tr., (). PI., iii. 209. 
But Vallinger, most like a liberal villain, 
Did give Iter scand;ilous ignoble terms 

Fair Maid of Bristaw, 1605, cit St. 
And give allowance to your liberal lests 
Upon his person. B. and Fl. Captain. 

LIBERALLY, adv. Licentiously ; in a 
similar mode of usage. 

Had mine own brother spoke thus librrnlly, 
My fury should have tJiu};ht liim better manners. 

Greene's Tu Qh., O. PL, vii. 21. 
1 have spoke too liberallv. 

B. and Fl. Little Fr. Lawyer, ii, 2, p. 21L 

LIBERTIES. The liberties allowed to 
lovers, and even to intimate acquain- 
tances, ia the times of Elizabeth and 
James, were very extraordinary and 
indecorous. In Jonson's play of the 
Devil is an Ass, a great part of scene 
6, act ii, consists of Wittipol courting 
Mrs. Fitz-dotterel at a window con- 
tiguous to her own house ; and 
the stage direction orders him ex- 
pressly to take the liberties allowed 
only to familiar acquaintances, in the 
foUoining rule of politeness ! 

It is not becoming a person of quality, when in eom- 

Cany with ladies, to handle them roughly, to pot hit 
and into their necks or their bosoms, to kisa UiSM 




M, Ice. ; yon mutt be rerv familiar to use 
that rate, aud, unlets you hi so, nothing can 
ndecent, or render you more odious. 

BuUs of Civility, 1678, p. 44. 

: be allowed, however, that the 
*e of the female person was at 
ne sQch as almost to invite 
.tempts. See Cynthia's Revels, 
and O. PL, ix, 237. Also 
)nt and Fletcher's Love's 
iv, 2. 

INE. A freeman of an incor- 
town or city. 

me like a fugitive, an Innate in a town, 
} city libertine, nor capable of their gown. 

Ckapm. Jl., xvi. 

). Pleasing; agreeable. 

t Mrt mine pleasure, by dame Venus brent ; 
bon art, and therewith so lyeand. 

CartwrigkCs Ordinary, 1651. 

)'. Like. An obsolete Chau- 

r joy'd to be than seemen sicb. 

to be and seeme to bini was laljor Uch. 

Spens. F, q.. 111. ?ii, 29. 

l^L. A death-owl, i. <?., the 
•owl ; so called from the sup- 
ominousness of its cry and 
mce. From the Saxon /t>, or 
;arcass. From the same origin 
liche-wake, used by Chaucer 
Tales. 2960) for the vigils or 
s held over deceased persons ; 
ed in England into lake-wake, 
-wake, and in Scotland into 
ke. See Brand's Pop. Antiq., 
Hence also Lich-fieldy and 
compounds. See Johnson in 

king Utck-ovcl, thai doth nerer cry 
ig death, ami ouirk herself inters 
me graves, and hollow sepulchres. 

Drayton's Otcl, p. 1297. 

:ymology of Lichfield is thus 
to by the same poet : 

id other saints, whom Amphibal had tanght, 
e pagan foe, their lives that strictly sought, 
in where lAtchfield is, whose name doth 
ly sound, 

those Christians slain, dead field, or burying 
id. Folyolb., xxiv, p. 1118. 

IISH. Dainty; nice. 

wajes, you are Uekerish. Allez, vous estes 
•..lardon. French Sehoolernaster, 1636. 

Something of a London 
, attached to a cap ; but what, 
been ascertained. 

I cannot endure it ; I must be a lady. Do 
your qnoiflT, with a London lickrt ; your 
itticoAt, with two guards ; the buftin gown, 
luftafflty cap, and the velvet lace I I must 
and I will be a lady. 

Eastward Hoe, 0. PL, iv, 209. 

It is plain that the speaker despises 
all the things first mentioned, as 
vulgar ; and is determined to rise 
above them, and be a lady. I have a 
notion of having seen a London licket 
somewhere else, but cannot recall the 
tLICTIER. A litter, or portable bed. 

Qui aide k porter la licticre. A servant that helped 
to carry his maisters lirtier, or that was one of the 
six that carried him in his cliaire. Nomenclaior. 

f LID. A name formerly given to the 
cover of a book. 

Inrolncnim, operculum libri. sittybus, Ciccr. mem- 
brana aut involucrum, quo libri uo injuria temporis 
et pulverum integri cunservautur. Euveioppoir, 
converture. The cover or lid of a booke. 


fLIE. "Who tells a ly to save his 
credit, wipes his nose on his sleeve to 
save his napkin.*' Howell, 1659. 

bial phrase, meaning a great lie. It 
occurs in the translation of Rabelais : 

If you hearken to those who will tell you the contrary, 

?'Ou'll tind yourselves damnably mistaken, for that's a 
ie with a latchet ; though 'twas /Eliifn, that lonic-bow 
man, that told you so, never believe him, for he ties a%. 
fast as a dog can trut. B. v, ch. SO. 

There is nothing like it in the French. 
Ray gives the proverb thus: 

That's a lie with a Intchet, 

All the dogs in the town cannot match it. 

Proverbial Fhrases, p. 200, 

fTo LIE. To be in pawn. 

Sir, answered the besjcr, I have a good suite of 
apparell in the next village whicii Helh not for above 
eiglitpence, if you will helpe me to that first I shall 
tliinke myselfe beholding unto you. 

Man in the Moone, 1609. 

\To LIE DOWN. To be brought to 
bed in childbirth. 

I have brousht into the world two children : of the 
first 1 was delivered before my friends thought me 
conceived ; of the second, I went a whole yeere big, 
and vet when every one thought me ready to lie down, 
I did then quicken. Lylie's kuokues and his England, 
I promis'd her fair, that I would take care 
Of her and her infant, and all things prepare 
At Hartlepool town, where she should lie down ; 
Poor soul she believ'd me, as always she'd dune. 

The Hartlepool Tragedy. 1720. 

LIEF, or LIEVE. Dear; from leo/, 

And with your best endeavours have stirr'd up 
My liefest liege to he mine enemy. 3 Hen. VI, Hi, 1. 
Till her that squyre bespake : Madam, my lie/e. 
For God's deare love be not so willful! bent. 

Spens. F. Q., II, i, 16. 

Also as a substantive, for love, or 
lover : 

For only worthy you, thro* prowes priefe, 
(If living man mote worthy be) to be her lie/e. 

Ibid., I, ix, 17. 
Who was it, Here son? speak ich pray thee, and 
quickly tell me that. Qaimner Onrton, 0. PI., ii, 87 
Next to kiug Edward art thuu leefe to mc. 

Georgs a Greene, 0. PI., iii, 48 . 




To have niT Mpulture 
Neere uuto liim, ukich wus to me most UeU. 

Mirrcrfor Mag., p. 886. 

2. As an adverb, in the sense of 
willingly : 

I hope not: I had ai liefhtht so mtxcli lead. 

Merry W. W., iv, 2.-66. b. 
I had ai ZiVhave heard the night-raven, come what 
plague cotxidhave come after it Much Ado, ii, 8. 
So, I had as ^>/bs an an gel I could swear as well as 
that gentleman. B. Jont. Every Man in his H., iii, 1. 

As lieve^ or leave, is still popularly 
said, in the same sense. 
LIEGE, adj. Bound, or held in feudal 
connection ; from ligius, low Latin, 
which is originally from ligo, to bind. 
This word, as well as the Latin and 
French (lige) corresponding, is joined 
indifferently to lord or subject ; liege- 
lord and liege-man. 

We enjoin thee, 
k» thou art liege-man to us. Wint. Tale, ii, 3. 

It is applied both ways in the statutes, 
^ee Minshew. See also Du Cange in 
LIEGE, s. Usually a sovereign. 

Most mighty liege, and my companion peers. 

Rich. IT, i, 3. 

It is Still in current use, particularly 
in the tragic drama, in this sense ; 
but liege was used also for a subject. 
In one case it was an abbreviated 
term for liege lord, in the other for 
liegeman, according to the double 
use of the adjective. 

Such miracles can princes bring to pass 
Aniung their lir;/es, whom they mind to heave 
Tu honours false, who all their guests deceive. 

Mirror for ^faff., p. 400, by Baldwine. 
But what avail'd the terror mid the feare 
Wherewith he kept his lieges under awe. 

Ibid., p. 410, by Sackville. 

LIEGEMAN, «. A subject, or person 
bound to feudal service under the 

Friends to this ground, and liege-men to the Dane. 

UamL, i, 1. 
Tliis liege-man gan to wax more bold. 

Spens. F. Q., cited by Todd. 

LIEGER. See Leiger. 

general of an army was formerly so 
called, he being considered the re- 
presentative of his sovereign in the 
absence of the latter. 

f LIFE. / hold my life, I am assured. 

Now sayes hee, whether should I obey my parents, or 
John Taylor? Surely thy father, monnsieur, for he 
hutli much need of a sonnc that will father tliec. 
>'uy. such a father that gave him a hundred pound 
al parting, ^/ hold my life he meant with a i)urse lor 
a parting blow.) Taylor's Worket, 1C30. 

To put no life in, to act negligently. 

B«m neglieenter agit He goes care&ly abovi tkt 
matter. He puts no life inio the matter. ' He doCh it 
as tliotigh he cared not whether he did it or no. 

Terence in Bnglisk, 16Ii, 

LIFTER. A thief. Shop-lifter is atill 
used for one who steals out of shops. 
It is said that hliftus, in the Ootluc, 
has the same meaning. Sappl. to 
Sh., i, 238. 

Is he so yonng a man and so old a Ufter. 

Tro. and Cr*i$.,\,%, 
Broker, or pandar, cheater, or lifter. 

Holland's Leagner, cited by Todd. 

To LIG. To lie. A word still used in the 
Scottish dialect ; from liggan, Sazoo. 

Vowing that never he in bed againe 

His limbes would rest, ne lig in ease emboat. 

Speiu. F.q.,,40. 

Also Shep. Kal., May, 125. 
fLIGBY. A bedfellow; a familiar term 
for a concubine. 

Con. He is wed already, sir. Another wife woill 
gar him be put down at' gallows ; and I would not Im 
she for all tlie worldly gw)d that cVe I taw with botk 
mine even. And o' my conscience I'll be none of Ui 
ligby, for twise so mickle. Brome*s Northern L$n. 

fLIGHT. In the sense of unchaste. 

Though she were in the darke, she would appears a 
liaht woman. Man in tht Moomt, 10M. 

Glycerium, meretrix, a Ugkl house-wife. 

Terence in English, 1814 

fLIGHT-SKIRTS. A strumpet. 

Hath not Shor's wife, although a light-skirts she. 
Given him a chaat long lasting memory. 

Taylot^s irorta,ie30. 
F. The purse serves for an art ; but if I abooU 
briefly tell thee, what punkish art derived from her 
pro^ienitors this light-skirts used towards me, thoa 
M oultlest laugh. Fasseuger of Benpenulo, IGIS. 

LIGHT O' LOVE. An old tune of a 
dance, the name of which made it a 
proverbial expression of levity, espe- 
cially in love matters. Sir J. Haw- 
kins recovered the original tune from 
an old MS., and it is inserted in the 
notes to Much Ado about Nothing, 
act iv, sc. 3. 

Jul. Best sing it to the tune of light o* lore, 
Luc. It is too heavy for so light a tune. 

Tiro Gmt. of Ver., i, 2. 
Clap us mio light o" lore ; tlmt goes without a bur* 
den ; do you sing it, and 1*11 dance it. Beat. Ym, 
itqht o' love, wilh your he<;ls. Much Ado, iv, S. 

llc'U dnnce the morris twenty mile an hoar — 
And gaHups tu the tune uf litjht o* love. 

fl. Ttco NobU Kinsmen, v. 2. 

It is used occasionally as a phrase to 
denote a light woman : 

Sure he has encountered 
Some light o* love or other, and there meani 
To play at in and in for this nieht. 

B.^ Fl.Chanets,\,i. 

So also : 

Long. You light o' love, a word or two. 
Maria. Your will, sir. B. /• Fl. Noble Genilem., iv, 1. 
Next them {^ruw the dissembling dnisie, to warn siKh 
light o' love wenches, not to trust every faire promiie 
that such amorous bachelors make them. 

Greene's Quip for an Upstart Courtisr, B 8, k. 




. adv. In the eense of com- 

len Ugktlji hare a forward spring. 

JWf*. ///, iii. 1. 
bievea of a state are Ughlljf the officers of 
; they hang the less still, play the pikes 
, eat whom ttiey list. 

B. JoHS. Discoveries, vol. vii, p. 113. 

I find verses made all of monotillables, and 
1, bnt lightly they be jambickes, bycnuse 
s part the accent falles sharpe upon every 

(. Jrt ofBngl. Poetie. B. ii, ch. IS. p. 102. 
oaes lightly t though they be in the fields, 
read their upper garments on the earth, 
beir devotions. Sandy's Travels, L. i, p. 55. 
-kes do not lightly nde so fast as to put 
tither. Ihii., p. 64. 

thorized translation of Mark, 
is used for Ta\v, t. «., readily, 

II hwiiaerm Ta\v KaKoXoyfjaai 

at can lightly speak evil of 


d phrase, partly deduced 

?rvation of some extraordinary 

nature, often made in sick 

ust before death ; and partly 

superstitious notion of an 

and preternatural mirth, 

to come on at that period, 

my ostensible reason. 

len men are at the point of death^ 
een merry? which their keepers call 
before death, 0, how may 1 
\gktninp? Rom. and Jul., v, 8. 

was, since after this he had not long to 

<tgflev he/ore his death, which Pallas was 
Chapman^s Hom^li, xv, p. 213. 

here, as might be supposed, 
.rranted by the original. On 
nan's appearing very unac- 
{ merry, it is said, 

cr so before. If it be a lightning be/ore 
lit is I am his heir. 

Jovial Creuf, 0. PL, X, 428. 
'. lightning or fell thundir fcarc, 
It lightning before death appeor. 

Gayton, Fest. Notes, iii, 8, p. 125. 

iced by liav, who inserts it 
erb : 

a lightening be/ore death. 

ks upon it, 

erally obsen'ed of sick persons, that a 
they'die their pains leave them, and their 
)g and memury return to them; as a 
>cfore it goes out p\ es a great blaze. 

Hay's Proverbs, p. 59. 

as made it the subject of a 
e : 

* sicke, preserving nature strives 
<rr<iption and the loathsome grave; 
f death's cold liHiids. she hacke reprives 
t confounded spirits .iIk' f-nneu-onldsave; 
leercs up, illiiilitfiis, aiid rcMves, 
int sickuesse words of health to have, 
of life, as if the worst were past, 
comes dissolution, and his last. 

So fares it with this late revived oneene i 
Whose victories, thus fortunately wonne, 

Have but as onely hahtning motions beene 
Before the rume that ensued thereon. 

Civil Wan^ vii, 9S. 

To LIKE. To please. 

If I were a woman, I would kiss as many as had 
beards that pleas'd me, complexions that UVi me, 
and breaths that 1 defy'd not. 

As vou lite it. Epilogue.— 250, b. 
And with her to dowry 
Some petty and unprofitable dukedoms ; 
The offer Ukes not. Henry F, Chonis S. 

Or that our hands the earth can comprehend, 
Or that we proudly do what like us best. 

Cornelia, O. PI., ii, 24SL 
I know men most, according to their spheare. 
According to their proper motions, move ; 
And that coiu'se lUces them best which they are on. 

Daniel's Musophilus, p. 98. 

The old court phrase of '*and like your 
majesty," is well enough known to 
have meant, ''an it like your majesty;" 
t. ff., if it please your majesty. It 
occurs in the following passage: 

I am content, and like your majesty. 
And will leave good casUes in security. 

Gtorgs a Orsens, 0. PI., iii, 67. 


obsolete proverb, translated from the 
Latin, similes hahent lahra lactucas, 
which is noticed and explained by 
Erasmus, Adag., p. 644. It means 
that bad things suit each other ; 
coarse meat suits coarse mouths, as 
an ass eats the thistles for his salad. 
It is inserted by Ray, and explained, 
p. 130. 

Even so I thought, 
I wist that it was some such thine of nought. 
Like letluse like lippes ; a scab'd horse for a scald 
squire. New Custome, 0. Pi., i, 267. 

fLIKELY. Probable. 

Fable. A tale not true but Ukelie: a fable: afeined 
devise. Nomenelator. 

Good looking. 

Before a month be ended she shall be married to a 
young king, being of a fair and comly personage, as 
likely to be seen. History of Fortunatus,!^^, 

fLIKRESSE. For lickerous. Dainty. 

Now, for such censure, this Iiis chiefe defence is. 
Their sugrcd tast best likes his likresse senses. 

JJaringlon's Epigrams, 1633. 

7}) LILL, V, To loll out, as a dog does 
his tonsue. 

Curled with thousand adders venomous, 
And UUed forth his bloody flaming tong. 

Spens. F. Q., I, v, 84. 

Skinner says, **A Belg. lellen sugere, 
hoc a lelle papilla ;" but these are 
doubtful etymologies. 
LIMB-MEAL. From limb, and the 
Saxon mesl, a portion ; t. e,, limb by 
limb ; as piece-meal, which is still in 
use. See Drop-meal. 

that I had her here to tear her Umb-meaL 




LIMBECK. An alembic; a corrupt 
form of the word. It means a still, 
and is hardly disused in poetry. It 
is abundantly exemplified by Johnson. 
Mr. Todd has found it used as a verb 
by sir E. Sandys. It is found also 
in Milton and Dryden. 

The wardfr of the brain 
Shall be a fume, nnd the receipt of reason 
A limbeck only. Mach., i, 7. 

His head is n receptacle of catarrhs, his eyes Umbeeh 
of fluxes and influmniations. Clilus's JTkimtict, p. 60. 

LIMBO. Tlie borders of hell, some- 
times used for hell itself; corruptly 
formed from Hmbus, the hem or 
border of a garment. The old school- 
men supposed there to be, besides 
hell (infernus damnatorum), I. A 
limbus puerorinii, where the souls of 
infants unbaptized remained ; 2. A 
limbus pafrvm, where the fathers of 
the church, saints, and martyrs, 
awaited the general resurrection ; and, 
3. Purgatory. To which, in popular 
opinion, was added, 4, A limbus 
faiuoruniy or fool's paradise, the re- 
ceptacle of all vanity and nonsense. 
Shakespeare uses it generally for 

As far from help ns limbo is from bliss. 

Tit. AuJr., iii. 1. 
For indeed he was mad for her, uud tiiik'd of Satan, 
and of limbo, and of furies, and I know nut what. 

^//•* Well, V, 8. 

Limbus pat mm is jocularly put in the 
following passage for a prison : 

I have some of them in Umbo patnfm, and there they 
are like to dance these three days; besides the 
ruiiuiiiK bnnquet of two beadles, that is to come. 

hen. nil, r, 8. 

It is here used for hell by Spenser : 

What voice of damned ghost from Umbo lake ? 

P. q., I. ii, 33. 
And elsewhere in his works. 
Here it has its proper sense : 

I^cpions of sprites from limbo's prison pot, 
The empty air, the hills and vullcvs fill'd. 

tairfax, Tasso, ix, 53. 

Milton has indulged himself in rather 
a jocular description of what he 

A limbo large and broad, since cnU'd 
Tlie paradise of fools. Far. Lost, iii, 495. 

Which he stores with 

Both all things vain, and all who in rain things 

Built tlieir fund hopes of glory or lasting fame, 

Or happiness, in tins or tn' other life : 

All who have their reward on earth, the fruits 

Of painful superstition, and bhnd teal, — 

All th' unacconiplish'd vtorks of nature's hand, 

Abortive, monstrous, and uukindly mix'd, 

Dissoh'd on earth. Ver. 448, 8cc. 

The idea is undoubtedly borrowed, m 
part, from Ariosto's repository of lost 
things in the moon ; to which, indeed, 
he directly refers : 

Not in the neighb'ring moon, as some bare dreunU 


We find, in the following passage, a 
kind of origin for Milton's bridge 
from hell to the earth: 

And up from darksome lymbo's dismall sta^ 
One Sljfoian bridge, from Plutoe's enipene 

Came NiEUt's black brood,- Disorder. Ruine, Kft(«, 
Rape, Discord. Dread, Despaire, Impietiey 
Horror, swift Vengeance, Murder, Qneltie. 

NicchoVs England's £lUa, An. 1588 ; Mirr. Mmf.,BU. 

The company that passes over it 
exactly of the same kind. 
Limbo is also used for a prison, or 
any place of restraint. 
LIME, as put into liquor, for adultera- 
tion, complained of by Falstaff and 

You rogue, here's lime in this sack too: thmft 
nothing but roguery to be found in villainoai mil; 
yet a coward is worse than a cup of sack with Kwu il 

It. iir«i. /r.ii,4. 

Sir Richard Hawkins is quoted at 
saying that lime was mixed with the 
wine in making " for conservation." 
Vot/.y p. 379. But that cannot be 
what the tavern-keeper is accused of 
doing. It was probably used for 
fining. It is said, however, in a 
pamphlet by R. Greene, to be mixed 
with ale, " to make it mightie.** How 
it could have that effect, it is not easy 
to say. See notes on the passage 
above cited. 
LIME, s.y for bird-lime. This was often 
separately used, which now it is not. 
It frequently thus occurs in Shake- 

You must lay lime to tangle her desires. 

Two Geni, r0r^m,9L 

See Todd. 
LIME, r. To besmear with bird-lime^ 
or to catch with it. 

York and impious Beaufort, that false priest, 
Have all limd bushes to betray thy wings. 
And fly thou how thou cau'st they'll tangle tliee. 

LIME-HOUND. A sporting dog,' led 
by a kind of thong called a lyam^ or 
lyme, Limier, French. 

We let slip a grev>honnd, and cast off a hound. The 
string wherewith we lead a greyhound is called a 
lease ; and for a hound a ly/me. 

Gentl. Recreat., 8vo ed., p. 15, 
No, an I had, all the lime-hunnds o' the city suoald 
have drawu after yuu by the scent rather. 

B. Jons. Barth, FM€,\,t 




that could like a lime-kound winde her, 
in secrete iriselj could bewray. 

Spent. F.q.,y,ii,U. 
AYe seen him smell out 
like a limt-houttd, and know it 
: rest of her train. 

Mamngtr^ Bathf. Laur^ i, 1. 

;are seemit to use lym for 

nd : 

, greyhound, mungril nim, 

, or spaniel, brach, or lym. LcMTt iii, 6. 

OD, in his Ariosto, mentions 
f from which the hound was 
linated : 

id a Ivvu-kouMd az^ent bright* 
id on his back, he couching down. 

Book xli, St. 80. 

athor I find line-hound, pro- 
»m an idea that such was the 

oiracles with his Utu-kound, who by his 
ion has more sophistry than his master. 
CUturs Wkimti4S, p. 4S. 

and limer, mean the same as 

[GS. Twigs covered with 
? to catch the birds. Mr. 
has erroneously explained 
ranch of the lime ;" that is, 
Lime-tree; and quotes this 

To birds the Ume-twigt m 
ian an ererbstinK foe. 

FamUw's Fa»t. Fido, i, 4. 

as thus used it : 

He throws, 
r lime-twigs, wheresoe'er he goes, 

d's Johnson, for many more 

Sometimes used for limb, the 
ing the extremities or limits 

Lastly hurried 
I place, i' the open air, before 
itrength of limtt. fTtnter's 7.. iii, S. 

very strange that nature should endow so 
rith so hara a heart, such comely limUs 
lerrerse coDditions. 
h Theseus, bl. lett.. cited by Mr. Steerens. 

r. To beg. From the begging 
led iimiters, 

n were, and are, but ydlers and lortering 
, good for nothing, but even as flies flie 
)D all menues meate, to fill themselves of 
. travels, even so doe they ; for they go 
mitmg abrode, living upon the sweat of 

Northbrooke against Dicing, /■«., 1577. 

or LIMITOUR, *. A friar 
to beg within a certain 
A word more common in 
of Chaucer. 

an^ habit, after uncouth wize, 
Iffnm or a Ivmiter, See. 


What I am young, a goodly batcheler. 
And must live like the lusiie limmiter. 

Drayton's Eclogues, edit. 1593, 6 4^ b. 

This author afterwards considerably 
modernised his poems, by removing 
many of the obsolete words. In the 
latest edition, instead of the above 
lines, we read : 

Tush, 1 am young, nor sadly can 1 sit, 
But must do all that vouth and love befit. P. 1420. 
For suivl>e suche fables are not onelv doulcet to 
passe the tyme withall. but gaiufull also to theyr 
practisers, such as pardoners and limitt&urs be. 

CkaloHcr's Morim Encom., H S. 

tLlMLISTER. Perhaps a misprint. 
Florio, under Cefalu, has ** a scorne- 
fuli nickname, as we say a iimli/ter" 

A. Cefalus, that is a IpmUster, rench me a nutmt^, 
that is red, waightie, rail, and without holes. 

Fassenger o/Benpcnuto, 1612. 

fLIMMER, A wretch ; a base fellow. 

To satisfie in parte the wrong which had bene offired 
him by those lymmers and robbers. Holituked. 

The foule ill take me, mistresse, quoth Meg, if I 
miareckon the linuner lowne one penny. 

Life of Long Meg of Westminster, 1635. 

fLIMPIN. A limpet. 

Tellina, mytulus. reXtW, ^vrAot. Athensro. A limpin, 


To LIN. To stop, cease, or intermit. 
Saxon. Blin is the same in Scotch. 
Both from one common origin. 

I, but set a beggar on horseback, he'll never tin 'till 
he be a-gallop. 

B.Jons. Staple of News, ^ihlnttimeuL 
And Sisyphus an huge round stone aid reele 
Against an hill, ne might from labour Un. 

Spens. F. q., I, v, 35 
What, miUer, are you up agin ? 
Nay then my flail shall never Un, 
Until &c Grim, O. PL, xi, 241 

Before which time the wars could never lin. 

Mirror for Magistr., p. 77 
So they shall never lin. 
But where one ends another still begin. 

Browne, Brit. Fast., ii, 1, p. 8. 

Swift, in one of his playful effusions, 
in the correspondence with Stella, 
writes thus : 

Would you answer MI^s letter, 
On new-year's-day you will do it better. 
For ^hen the year with MD 'gins 
It never without MD lins. 

Which he explaius by adding. 

These proverbs have always old words in them ; Uns 
is leaves off. Journal, Lett, xii 

iFacit sedulo. He doth the best he can: he never 
linns. ' he gives it not over : he is alwaies doine. 

Tirmue in English, 1614 
tFond world that nere thinkes on that aged man. 
That Ariostoes old swift naced man. 
Whose name ia Tyme, who never lins to run. 

Betumefrom Femassus, 1606: 

LIN. A pool, or watery mooi^ ; in Welch 

The near'st to her of kin 
Is Ttwthy, mshing down from Verwin*8 rushy Jta. 

Drayton, Fotyolb., v, p. 76 
And therefore to recount her rivers from their Ims, 
f^tmA enn tr all delsTs. Mervinia thus begins. 

^^ Ibid., 8. ix, p. 826 





The marginal note on which says, 
<< Meres, or pools, from whence rivers 
spring," In Scotland it means a 
cataract; thus the falls of the river 
Clyde in that country, are called on 
the spot lins. But it also means a 
pool under a fall. See Jamieson. 
tLINATIVE. A lenitive. 

Thy titutivt appli*de, did eaie my ptine. 
For ihoogb t)iou did forbid, twas no restnune. 

Maris MagiaJUna LamuutaticnSt 1601. 

LINCOLN GREEN. Lincoln was 
formerly celebrated for the manufac- 
ture of green cloth and stuffs, or 
rather for the green dye employed 
upon them. The marginal note on 
the passage from Drayton's Polyol- 
bion, song 25, says, "Lincoln anciently 
dyed the best green of England." 
Coventry blue was equally famous, 
and Kendall green. See those 

All in a woodman's packet he was clad 

Of lineolne grecnf, belayed with silver lace. 

Spau. F. Q,., VI, ii, 6. 
Whose swains in shepherd's gray, and giru in JAnaAn 
green. Drayt. Folyolh^ xzr, p. 1163. 

She's in a frock of lineoln green^ 
Which colour likes her sight. 

Drayt. Bdogue, ix, p. 1432. 

Robin Hood's men were clad in 
Lincoln green : 

An hundred valiant men had this brave Robin Hood, 
Still ready at his call, that bow-men were right good. 
All clad in lAucol* green, with caps of red uod blue. 

Drayt. PofyoU., zxri, p. 1174 

And himself also in general : 

Robin Hood took his mantle from his bade. 

It was of lAncoin areen. 
And sent it by this lovely page 

For a present unto the queen. 

But when he went to court he made 
a distinction : 

He cloathed his men in Lincoln green. 
And himself in scarlet red. 
Pop. BaU^ called Bohin Hood^t Garland, p. 43. 

LINDABRIDES. A celebrated heroine 
in the romance called the Mirror of 
Knighthood, which is mentioned by 
Cervantes among the books found in 
the library of Don Quixote. B. i, ch. 
6. From the great celebrity of this 
lady, occasioned by the popularity of 
^ the romance, her name was commonly 
used fur a mistress. Jonson, having 
so introduced it, gives a sketch of her 
history : 

J. lAndabrides! Aso. Ay, sir, the emperor Alican- 
droe's daughter, and the prince Meridian's sister, in 
the kni>rht of the sun ; [Donzel del Phebo] she should 
hn\c been married to him, but that the princess 
Claridiaaa, Iec Cyntkia^a Rtv^ iii, 2. 

Thus she is mentioned also by I 
in the Match at Midnight: 

lAndabrides her name; that ancient mati 
reverend mnnum. Tim. Niggers; I ha\ 
her in the Mirror of KnightUood. 

Act ii, 0. PI., 

This Spanish romance was tra 
into English by one Margaret 
and published, in nine sue 
parts, between 1598 and 1602. 
it was so well known at that 
The author of the novel of Ken 
has taken advantage of this c 
stance, to make his dialogue < 
teristic, when M. Lambourn< 
'* I will visit his Lindabrides, 
George, be he willing or no.*' 
ii. Of the word Dabrides, 
occurs in one old play, I cai 
nothing, unless it be a corrupt 
abbreviation of Lin-dabrides. 
gense suits exactly : 

On my life, he has some swindng stufi' fur 
Dahrides, who have invested tiieiuselves 
Platonic order. Lady Alimony, \ 

tAnd she had but one eye neither, with as 
As e'er knight-errant did his fair Lindabrid 
Or Claridiana. Albertus Wallens 

tLINE. At line length. 

Expulsum Indere, to strike a ball at line le. 
keepe up the ball from the ground. 

Nomenclator, 15 

LINE OF LIFE. One of the ! 
the hand, so termed in the 

Gk> to. here's a simple line of life .' here's a : 
of wives I Alas ! fifteen wives is nothin 
widows and nine maids, is a simple coming 
man. Mfrch. /'• 

You live chaste and single, and have boricd 
And mean not to marry, hv the line of your 
B. Jons, i/etam. Gipsies, vol 

fLINEN-BALL. Some instrun 
torture mentioned in Pathoi 
1630, p. 29. 

LINENER. A linen-draper. 

Precede all the dames at court by a fortn 
council with taylurs, liiteners, lace-woi 
broiderers. B. Jons. Epu 

If she love good clothes and dressing, 1 
learned council about you every muming, yc 
taylor, barber, lintner] 8cc. J 

A LINGEL. A sort of thong i 
shoemakers and cobblers ; frc 

Where sitting, I espy'd a lovely dame, 
Whose niH»ler wrought with ling fit and wit 
And under ground he vamped manv a boot. 
B. ,r- Fl. Knight of the B. Pestle, act 
His awl and linael in a tnong, 
His tar-box on his broad belt hung. 

Drnyt. Eel. r 
If thou dost this, there shall be no more sho< 
£very man shall have a special care of his o 
And in his pocket carry his two confessors, 
Hit lingei and his nawl. Ibid., Women Pla 




here a correction of the 
itors for yugal, in the old 
hich 18 certainly nonsense, 
tion seems indubitable, 
teems odd enough that so 
inefficient, and dirty a 
restoring the blackness to 
t, as that of smoking it by 
nld ever have grown into a 
iractice ; but so it appears 
owing passages : 

at, sir, was not fully made, 

pump* were all nnpiiik'd i' the heel ; 

fink to colour Peter's hat. 

Taming of Shr., iv. 1. 
'. it vied likewise in selline old hats 
unghills, instead of newe, tlaekt over 
ceofan old link, 
ikit Mumekance, cited by Mr. Steerens. 

INGUISHERS. Large ex- 
3 attached to the railings 

formerly used by the link- 
extinguishing their links, 
lese were still (1849) to be 
ondon, particularly in the 
Qood of the old squares, 
ax. Chapman uses it in his 

of the epithet XtvoQtapfil. 

and ever wore a breastplate made of 

//., ii, iSQ. 

k, with a cock at one end, 
unner*s match, and a sharp 
le other, to stick it upright 
und." Kersey 9 Diet, A 
andle to hold the lint. The 
If was called lintel, or lint» 

*^ Lintel, funis igniarius, 
endas machiiias bellicas." 
91, Latin. 

ind the nimble gunner 

nov the devilish cannon touches, 

s rill before him. Henry f. Chorus 3. 

M ilrr. spy'd what Unatoi-k ypwe fire, to 

tii^ poor captain uf the trHlUi'oyst. 

Roaring Girl. O. Fl., vi,102. 
hear a cnlvrrin dijtchar^'d 
ears the Umtork kindled thus. 

Jev of Malta, 0. PL, viii, 390. 

son produces an instance 

)TSWOLD. A sheep. See 

i. e., Cotswold. 

ppears to have been formerly 


rin drink nothing but Lipary wine. 

Key to the Rehearsal, 17(H, p. 32. 
1 make oar Angers so tine ? 
ink, wine, lAppari-wim^. 

TjU MfA/rJ JfaiJ, p. 83. j 

fLIP-CLIP, or LIP-CLAP. Kissing. 

Some maids will get Up^Up, bat let them beware ot a 
Itp-eltM ; for fear of maids they become mothers, and 
sing the dolefU lolUby. Poor BMn. 1707. 

Now the spring oomiog on, young wenches will grow 
wanton, and rather t&n live under a mothers nose. 

and a granams tongae, will ventare a Up-cUp and a 
lap-elaa to get them a husband, when a little 
after the cuekow sings at thenr door. 

them a husband, when a little while 



In briefe, my firuitlease and worthy fi^4a6cwr, mixt 
with a deale of ayrie and non-substantial I matter, I 

Sive his lordship, and the like requitall I bestowed on 
e right worshiptoll Mr. Thomas Sqaibb. maior of 
Saram. Taglo/s Worket, 1630. 

LIPPIT. To turn lippit ; a phrase which 
I have seen only in the following ex- 
ample. It seems to imply being 
wanton : 

Well, to be brief, the nun will soon at nizht torn 
Uppit ; if I can but devise to quit her cleanly of the 
nunnery, she is my own. Merrji Devil, 0. P)., v, 38S. 

It was suggested by a friend, that 
the Supplement to Lacombe's Diet, 
du Yieox Langage, gives lippu, as 
meaning "gourmand, friand;" but 
so obsolete a French word is not 
likely to have been commonly known 
in England. [See Tippet, where 
this article is corrected by Nares 
LIPSBURY PINFOLD, that is, Lips- 
bury pound. The sentence in which 
it occurs has the form of a proverbial 
saying; but no trace of its origin or 
direct signification has yet been dis- 
covered. Mr. Capell was very confi- 
dent that he knew the meaning of it : 
" It is not come to knowledge where 
that Lipsbury is, which we see in 
page 38 ; but this we may know, and 
that with certainty, that it was some 
village or other fam*d for boxing, that 
the boxers fought in a ring, or enclo-^'d 
circle, and that this ring was called — 
Lipsbury pinfold: this may satisfy 
as to the sense ; and inquiry may 
help to further particulars, those that 
wish for them.*' Notes on Lear^ 
p. 1.55. This would be well guessed, 
if any such place as Lipsbury had 
ever existed. The passage that occa- 
sioned these conjectures is the follow- 
ing, in the altercation of Kent with 
Gloster's steward : 

If I had thee in Lipsbury pinfold I would make thee 
care for me. Lear, li, 2. 

Lipsbury pinfold ina^-, ^^tV\^^^, V\Va 
Lob's pound, be a cova^^ tkwxi^\\i>a^. 




with what allusion, does not appear. 
It is JQst possible that it might mean 
the teeth, as being the pinfold within 
the lips. The phrase would then 
mean, " If I had you in my teeth." 
But it remains for some more fortu- 
nate inquirer to discover what is 
really meant. No various reading of 
the passage comes to the aid of the 
critic in this place. 
LIQUOR, l^e grand liquor is used by 
Shakespeare for the great elixir, or 
aurum potabile, of the alchy mists. 

Where should thev 
Find this grand Ufuor that hath gilded Uiem P 

Temput^ T, 1. 

There certainly is no reason to change 
liquor into ^lixirt as Warburton pro- 
posed, an elixir being a liquor. See 
tLIRICUMPHANCY. The old popular 
name of some plant. 

The tufted daisy, violet, 
Hearts-case, for lovers hard to get; 
The honev-suckle, rosemary, 
Liricumpkancy, rose-paraley, 
Prickmadam, rocket, galant pink, 
And thousands more than I can think ; 
Which do this month adorn each field. 
And sweet delight and pleasure yield. 

Foar Bobin, 1746. 

LI RIPOOP, or LIRIPIPPE, s. Part of 
the old clerical dress ; in early times, 
apparently a tippet ; latterly, a scarf. 
See Gent. Mag., 1818, vol. ii, p. 217, 
where is a very elaborate article on 
the subject. It was supposed by 
Skinner to be corrupted from clero- 
peplus. Kersey explains it, "a livery 
hood." Coles has ** a liripoop, epomis, 
cleropeplus." In Du Cange*s Glos- 
sary, Liripipium is thus illustrated : 
"Epomis, unde Belgis lUre-piipe, sen 
potius longa fascia, vel cauda caputii. 
HenricuB de Knyghton de Event, 
AngL, 1. iv. Dominarum cohors 
affuit, quasi comes interludii, in di- 
verso et mirabili apparatu virili — ^in 
tunicis partitis — cum capuciis brevi- 
bu8, et liripipiis [mal^ liripOs edit.] 
ad modum cordarum circa caput ad- 
volutis." It was Somner who cor- 
rected that passage. 

With their Aristotle's breech on their heads, and hia 
liripipium about their necks. 

Beekiv€, 1 7. cited by CapelL 
That they do not passe for all their miters, staves, 
hats, erMma, eowlei, copes, and Uriipipp€$. Hid. 

In the mock library of Rabelais we 
have " Lgrippii [for liripippiil Sor- 
bonicae Moralizationes, per M. Lupol- 
dum." Vol. ii, p. 74. OzelL 
It seems that this ornament was not 
confined always to the clergy, for 
Peck, speaking of the extravagance 
of dress used by the commons in the 
time of Edward III, says, "Their 
lerripippes reach to their heels, all 

Liripoop and leripoop are sometimes 
used without any definite meaning, 
chiefly, I presume, from their droll 
and burlesque sound ; as where a 
girl is called " a young lirn^-poape/' 
B. and Fl. Pilgrim, act ii, sc. 1. 
Lyly twice used it to express a degree 
of knowledge or acuteness : 

Theres a girl that knows her lerripoop. 

Mother BombU, i, S. 
Thou maist be skilled in thy losnc bat not in tky 
l^rypoope. Sapko /- Pkmo., 1^3. 

In this mode, however, it was very 
current. Cotgrave translates "Qui 
S9ait bien son roulet," by "one that 
knows his liripoope." Probably it 
meant at first, having that knowledge 
which entitled the person to wear a 
liripoop, or scarf, as a doctor. Thus 
the treatise of Magister Lupoid ex- 
plained all the learning connected 
with the doctorial hood, or scarf, of 
the Sorbonne. Menage says it is 
made from the Flemish liere-pHpe. 
LIST, 8,y in the sense of boundary, which 
is now disused, appears to have been 
deduced from the lists which kept off 
the spectators at tournaments. It 
occurs in this sense several times in 
Shakespeare's plays. 

I am bound to your niece, sir. I mean, ihe is the 

Ust of my voyajte. Tmemh iV., iii, 1. 

The very lut, the very utmott bonno. 

Of all our fortunes. 1 Hm. IV, ir, L 

The ocean, oTcrpeering of his lut. EamL, iv, &. 

Which passage puts the sense of the 
following out of all doubt : 

Confine yourself but in a patient list. OlMlo, it, 1. 

Which Dr. Johnson erroneously ex- 
plained listening. 

2. List, for desire or inclination; 
from to list, or listen to, in the sense 
of to choose, or be disposed to do any- 
thing ; or perhaps rather for lust. 

1 find it still when I have list to aleep. 




Dr. Johnson cites another instance 
from the Eikon Basilike, or some 
other work under the name of 
Charles I. 
LISTEN, V, To attend to, as an active 
▼erb. This usage is common in the 
writings of Shakespeare, but is by no 
means peculiar to him. It was the 
language of the time, and not quite 
disused when Milton wrote, as Dr. 
Johnson shows. 

He that no more most say is listened more 
Than they whom yoathand ease have tan^ht to glose. 

Rtck. II, ii, 1. 
As thigr had seen me with these hangmnn's hands 
Lutemsia their fear. Macbeth, ii, 3. 

Whieh she lon^ littmng, sofUy askt againe 
What mifter wight it was that so did plaine. 

Spens. F. Q., IV. ni, 10. 
Lisi4m the ]damti of thy poor votaries. 

BowUif** World Tos^d, /-<;., dt. St. 

It occurs in Milton's Comus. 
LITCH-OWL. See Lich-owl. 
LITE, for little. 

From this exploit he sav*d not ereat nor lite. 
The aged men, and boys of tender age. 

Fai^. Tasso, xi, 26. 

Sylvester has used by litte and little, 
for by little and little : 

For as two bellows, blowing torn by turn. 
By UlU tmd little make cold coals to bum. 

DuBartoi, 1, i, 2. 

Lite, for little, is quoted also from 
Chaucer. See Todd. 
fLITERATE. The converse of illite- 

J. As leaned, yon follow the literate, who while they 
sobttUy argue, teadi others how to operate. 

Passenger ofBenvenuto, 1613. 

fLITHE. Cheerful; glad. 

Hee hadmystaken his markes, in prophesying of suchc 
notable temT>e8t, oonsideryng it proved so lytke a day 
without appearance of any tempest to ensue. 

Holituhed, 1577. 

Supple; soft. 

The Ullea of birds we see fall oft, 
Wldlea they hee yong are lith and soft. 

Witkalir I)ieti<marie, ed. 1608, p. 438. 

LITHER,- adf. Soft, pliable, yielding ; 
the comparative of lithe. From lithe, 

Two TsIbotiL winged through the Uther sky, 
In thy dsspne ahall scape mortality. 

1 Hen. n, iv, 7. 
Ill biiBf hit fitfsr legs in better frame. 

Look ahout you, 1600, cit. St. 
Well, and ye shift no better, ye losel Ijftker and lasye. 

Qammtr Ourton, 0. Pi., ii, 72. 
Or at left byre wmie younge Phaon for mede to 
dooe the thynge, stUl oanbe theyr litker cheekes 
with peintynge. 

dalomer's Moria JBneom., sign. F 3. 

Also idle : 

1^ Charles the French king in his feats not Uther, 
When we had rendred Rayner, Maanta, and Maine, 
Found mesne to win all Normandic againe. 

Mirr./or Mag., p. 344. 

LITHERNESS. Softness, weakness, or, 
perhaps, idleness. See the second 
sense of Uther, in Todd. 

For as they that angle for the tortoys, having once 
caught him, are driven into such a lythemesse, that 
they loose all their spirites. 

Euphues and his Engl., p. 24. 

Here it is clearly weakness : 

Have my weak thoughts made brawn-fallen my strong 
arms ? or is it the nature of love, — ^to breed numbness 
or lythemets, or 1 know not wlut languishing in my 
joints and sinews P Xyfy, Endymion, iv, S. 

fLITHIE. Pliable; soft. 

Their Uthie bodies bound with limits of a shell. 

A Herrings Tayle, 1596. 

LITTLE-EASE. A familiar term for a 
pillory, or stocks ; or an engine unit- 
ing both purposes, the bilboes. 

Nervus— a kmd of stockes for the necke and tiie 
feete: the pillorie, or /i/^^-^ofe. 

Abr. FUming^s Nomencl., 196, b. 
Was not this a seditious fellow ? was not this fellow's 
preaching a cause of al the trouble in Israel ? was 
he not worthy to be cast in bocardo, or little'^asf. 

Latimer, Serm., fol. 105, b. 

[According to a work published in 
1738, called, "The Curiosity, or the 
General Library,'* p. 60, it was 
'' a place of punishment in Guildhall, 
London, for. unruly 'prentices."] 
LITTLEST. The regular superlative of 
little, though supplanted by least. 
Shakespeare has put it into the 
mouth of the player-king : 

Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear. 

Haml., iii, S. 

LIVE, for lief. Willingly. 

I had as lite as any thing I could see his farewell. 

Easltc. Hoe, 0. PI., iv, i9S. 

It was probably pronounced as leave. 
LIVELIHOOD. Used for liveliness, 
active vigour, or lively appearance. 

The remembrance of her father never approaches her, 
but the tvranny of her sorrow takes all livelihood from 
her cheeks. AlTs Well, i, 1. 

With this, she seizeth on his sweating palm 
The precedent of pith and livelihood. 

Shakesp. Venus and Adon., Suppl., i, 406. 

Spenser writes it livelihead, wbicli is 
equivalent. See Todd. 
LIVELODE, for livelihood. Mainte- 
nance ; from life and lode. 

Ne by the law of nature 
But that she gave like blessing to each creature, 
As well of worldly livelode as of life. 

Spens. Moth. Huhh. Tale, ▼. 14S. 

fLIVERINGS. A sort of pork sausages. 

TOmaculum, Juvenal. FHrciminis genus h porcina. 
Saucisse, saucisson. L kinde of puddings mnde of 
hogges flesh, which some call livenngs. Nomendator 

LIVERY, 8, Delivery, or grant of pos- 
session ; a law term. 
1 . Hence livery of seisin is a law term, 
implying the delivery of land, &c., 
into possession. Livery and seisin it 




also used; livery being in each in- 
stance equivalent to delivery : 

She gladlv did of tluit tame babe accept, 
Ai being her owne by litay and seitiH. 

Spms. F. Q., VI, iv, 87. 
He sent a herauld before to Bonie to demand livery 

of the man that had offended liim. 

North's Plut.»^.lW. 

2. To sue one's lively was a phrase 
relative to the feudal tenures, accord- 
ing to which the court of wards seized 
the lands of any tenant of the crown 
upon his decease, 'till the heir wed 
out his livery, and by that process 
came into possession. The phrase 
occurs three times in Shakespeare^s 
York says to Richard II, 

If you do wrongrally aeiic Hereford's right, 
Call in hia letters-patents that lie hath 
Bj his attornies-gi-neral, tu sue 
Hts litery, and deny his offer'd homage. 
Ton pluck a thousand dangers on your head. 

Rick. II, ii, 1. 

Bolingbroke afterwards says, 

I am denied to sue my livery here, 

And yet my letters-patents give me leave. 


It should be made letters-patent in 
both places. 

Of the same Bolingbroke it is after- 
wards said. 

He came but to be duke of Lnncaster, 
To sue his livery, and beg his peace. 

1 Hen. IV, iv, S. 

And this was not done till a minor 
came of age, it was occasionally used 
as an expression to denote maturity : 

If Cupid 
Shoot arrows of that weight, I'll swear devoutly, 
F'as sued his Uvery, and 's no more a boy. 

B. and Fl. Tamer Tamed, ii, 1. 
tTbere was an ancient use in Babylon, 
When as a womaos stocke was spent and gone. 
Her living it was lawfull then to get. 
Her carkasse out to Uterie to let. 
And Venus did allow the Cyprian dames 
To get their livings by their oodies shames. 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

tlilVES-MAN. A living man. 

stilt. O give the duke some of the medicine. 

Fer. What medieine talk'st thou of? what ayles my 


Jer. lord, father, and yee meane to be a Utes-man 

take some of this. Tragedy of Hoffman, 1631 . 

LIZARD. It was a current opinion in 
the time of Shakespeare, and is not 
yet quite eradicated, that lizards, the 
most harmless of reptiles, were venom- 
ous. The English lizard, or eft, and 
the water-lizard, or newt, in many 
places lie under the same slander, 
and particularly the latter. An ab- 
horrence of their singular form pro- 
bably gave rise to this notion, as 

happened also in the case of tL< 

Their sweetest prospects murdering basilisks. 
Their softest touch, as smart as lizards' stinn. 

2 Hen. VI, 

Mark'd by the destinies to be avoided 


As venom'd toad, or Utstrdi dreadful stings. 

3 Hen. F7, ii, 8. 

Hence the lizard^ s leg was thought a 
fit ingredient in the witches' cauldron 
in Macbeth. 

The Utard shots up his shazp-sig^ted eves 
Among these serpents, and there sadly lies. 

Drayton, NoaVs Flood, p. 1S88. 

LOACH. A small fish; called also a 
groundling. Cohitis barbatula. Linn, 
One of the Carriers in 1 Henry IV 
says, " Your chamber-lie breeds fleas 
like a loach,** ii, I. This has puzzled 
the commentators; but it seems as 
reasonable to suppose the loach in- 
fested with fleas as the tench, which 
may be meant in a preceding speech. 
Both sayings were, probably, founded 
upon such fanciful notions as make 
up a great part of natural history 
among the common people; but 
Holland's Pliny warrants the notion 
that some fishes breed fleas and lice, 
ch. xlvii. Had the Carrier meant to 
say **a8 big as- a loach,** he would 
have said, "breeds fleas like loaches,** 
Warburton and Capell are far from 
the mark. Mr. Malone's suggestion, 
that it may mean " breeds fleas as 
fast as a loach breeds," that is, 
breeds loaches, is not improbable, as 
it was reckoned a peculiarly prolific 

In the Trip to the Jubilee, sir H. 
Wildair speaks of loaches being swal* 
lowed whole; *'to swallow Cupids 
like loaches** This is curiously 
illustrated by Mr. Pennant, who says 
that this fish is frequent in a stream 
near Amesbury, "where the sports- 
men, through frolic, swallow it down 
alive in a glass of wine." See 
Donovan's Fishes, PI. xxii. [Nares 
is mistaken in this explanation. A 
loche was a solid form of medicine to 
be swallowed by sucking.] 

Browne mentions the fish thus : 

The miller's thombe. the hiding loach, 
The perch, the ever>nil»ltiig roach. 

//m.P«/., B. i,S. l,p.2ft 




fLOACH. A simpleton. 

And George redaened bit cloake, rode merrily to 
Oxfoid. beTing ooiae in his pocket, where this loaek 
spares not for ear expenee, for the good fartone he 
bad in the happy finding of his rapier. 

Jftls ofQeorg* PttU, n. d. 


Lode-star, and Lodesman. 

Laietoe crespne, Unifed or headed Uttiee. 

NomeneUtor, 1686. 

fTo LOAT. The i»ame as to Lout. 

And incredible it it, what obsequious Umting and 
ooorting there it at Rome sundry waies to such 
persons as are wiiliout children. 

HoilmuPs jimmittWMi MareeUima, 1609. 

LOATHFUL. Either hating or hateful; 
abhorred. Manj compounds of loath 
were formerly current, which since 
have been disused. It is common to 
write the adjective loath without the 
a; bat there iM no reason to dis- 
tinguish it, in this respect, from the 
verb to loathe, both being from the 
Saxon lath. See Johnson on these 

1 . Hating, abhorring : 

That the eomplsints thereof could not be told } 
WUeh when lie did with loathful eyes behold. 
He wtmld no more endure, but came hit way. 

Spots. Moth. HuH. TaU, y. 131S. 

2. Hatefiil, offensive. 

He would attain the one without poutinfc dumpish- 
Bene, and exercise the other without Umthfrnll bght- 
BCiae. Boliu4k. Hist. oflrtL, H 4, col. 2. 

LOATHLY, adj. Hateful, detestable. 

V But barren bate, 
8oar-cy*d disdain, and discord, shall bestrew 
The union of your bed with weeds so loatkty, 
TlMt yo« shall hate it both. TVatp., ir, 1. 

But if she lost it. 
Or made a gift of it, my father's eye 
Sbonld hold her loatkly. OthMo. iii, 4 

An huge great dni)con, horrible in tight. 
Bred in the lotttkl^ lakes of Tartary. 

r. F. Q., I. rii. 44. 
, adv. Un. 


Senag how lotUy opposite I stood 

To his unnaturaTpuipose. Limr^ ii, 1. 

There is some licence in the use of 
the word in the above passage; it 
means, *'With what unwillingness 
to enter into his views." It seems 
rather, by its position, to intimate 
that he opposed unwillingly. 

This shews tnat you from nature lomy stray. 
That suffer not an artificial day. 

Donne to the Conntus of Bedford. 

lingness. This word is little used, if 
at all ; though there seems to be no 
reason why it should not. 

And the fnir soiil herself 
Weifrh*d, between lotkneas und obedience, at 
W^h end the beam should bow. Temp., ii, 1. 

Pray you, look not sad. 
Nor make replies of lotkuess. Ant. /- Cteop., iii, 9l 

Johnson gives an example from Bacon 
LOAVE-EARS, for lave-ears. A corrupt 
form of the word. See Laye-ear'd. 

But take especial care 
You button on your night cap. 

M. After th' new fashion. 
With bis Umt« can without it. 

Lady Alimony t act ii, sign. IT. 

See in Lugged. 
LOB. A lubber, or clown. Skinner 
derives it from lapp, German ; Miii- 
shew and others from XcJ/3i|. Both 
etymologies are unsatisfactory Dr. 
Johnson says, in his note on the 
passage cited below, lob, lubber, 
looby, lobcock, all denote both in- 
activity of body and dulness of mind. 

Farewel, thou lob of spirits, 1*11 he gone. 

Mids. S. Dreamt ii, 1. 
Hold thy hands, lob. Promo$ jr Cau.^ Part li, iii, 2. 
It was such a foolish lob as thou. 

Preston** Cambytet, cited by Steerens. 
Should find Esau such a luut ur a lob. 

Jacob and Esan, ditto. 
Mad Goridon do buz on clownish otes. 
As balde a verse as any lt>b can mnke. 

An Ould Faeioned Love, by J. T., 159 (. 

2b LOB, V. a. To hang down in a 
sluggish and stupid manner. Made 
from the substantive. 

And their poor jades 

de I 


fLOB-COAT. A clown. 

Cares not a groate 
I'or such a lob^coate. 

The Wit of a Woman, 1604. 

fLOBCOCK. Anything clumsy; a 
lubber or clown. 

Much better were the lobcock lost then wonne, 
Unlesse he knew how to behave himseire. 

The MoHS-Trap, 1606. 
I am none of those heavy lobcock* tliat are good for 
nothing but to hang at the tail of a coach. 

Caryll, Sir S*Uow¥>n, 1671. 
This hot weather shall make some so faint, that their 
Iabbery>legs shall scarcely carry their lobcock body. 
Sweet speaking doth oft make a currish heart rolent, 
and the b^t way is bv humbleness to creep, where bv 
pride we cannot marcn. Poor Robin, Vlli. 

LOBS-POUND. Phrase, To be laid in 
Lob* 9 pound, to be ** laid by the heels, 
or clap*d up in jail." Old Canting 
Dictionary. Also any close or con- 
fined place, as, in the following lines, 
it meaus ** behind the arras :" 

Who foreed the genUeman, to save her credit, 

To marry her, and say he was the party 

Found in Lob** pound. Ma**. D. of3£ilam, iii, 8. 

Who Lob was, is as little known as 
the site of Ltpsbury pinfold. In 
Hudibras this term is eii\\Ao^^d ^s^ ^ 

s^,.-.. ...wo |.VW. .....^^ 

Lob down their heads, dropping the nide and hips. 

^ iv, 2. 




iinme for the stockB, into which the 
knight put Crowdero : 

Crowdero whom, in irons bound, 

Tliou basely threw st into Loh'a pound. I, ill, 909. 

Dr. Grey, in the notes, tells a ludi- 
crous application of it, in the case of 
one Lobb, a dissenting minister. 

f But in what a fine piclde shou'd I be, if Mr. constable 
and his watch shou'd pick m' up and in wi' me to 
Lobs-foundf Out o' which damn'd kitchin, to mar- 
row must I be dish'd up for the whipping i)Ost ; and 
not ha' the benefit o' the layety to plead i' m' own 
defence. Plautus, made EnfflUk, 1694. 

To LOBSTARIZE, v. To go backward. 
A word most strangely coined by 
Sylvester, and applying rather to the 
motion of a crab than a lobster. 

Thou nmkest rivers the most deafly deep 
To lobstarize (back to their source to creep). 

Du Bart., IV, iii, 2. 

The author did well to explain it 
liimself in a parenthesis ; but he 
would have done better had he left 
it out. 
J l.OCK, or LOVE-LOCK. A pendent 
lock of hair, often plaited and tied 
with riband, and hanging at the ear, 
which was a very prevalent fashion 
in the age of Shakespeare and after- 
wards. Charles the First, and many 
of his courtiers, wore them ; nor did 
lie cut off his till the year 1646. See 
Grainger, vol. ii, p. 411. This lock 
was worn on the left side, and hung 
down by the shoulder, considerably 
longer than the rest of the hair, 
sometimes even to the girdle; as 
some of the following passages will 
show. Against this fashion, William 
Prynue wrote a treatise called The 
Unlovelyness of Love-locks, in which 
he considered them as very ungodly. 

And one deformed is one of them : I know him, he 
wean a lock. Much Ado about Nothing, iii, 8. 

Which report Dogberry further blun- 
ders into a lock and key: 

And also the watch heard them talk of one deformed: 
thev say he wears a key in hu ear, and a lock hangiiw 
by it. Ibid., y, I. 

By the key we may suppose him to 
mean an earring, if anything. 
Warburton saw a great deal of refined 
satire on the fashion, in these pas- 
sages; but it is difficult, in many 
cases, to see as much as he fancied 
he discovered. 

Cen. He has an exceeding good eye, madam. 

3/ttv. And a v«-y good lock. B. Jons. EfUtmu, It, 6. 

And who knows but he 
May lose his riiii)Hiid by it. in his lock 
Dear as his snitit. It. .>- Fl. Coronation, aet i, p.M 
His fasliion too too fond, Hiid loosly light, 
A long love-lock on his left shoulder pfi^rht, 
Like to a woman's hair, well shewd, a woman's vgtJAt. 
Description of Atelget, in Fleteh. Purple Is., ra, ti. 

From their supposed effect in causing 
violent love, they seem to have been 
sometimes called heart-breaken, 
Butler therefore speaks of Samson's 
famous locks under that name : 

Like Samson's heart-breakers it grew 

In time to make a nation rue. Hud,, 1, i, JKS. 

Prynne speaks of them with' detesta- 
tion : 

And more especially in long, unshome, womanish, 
frizled, love-provukinK haire, and lovelockes, grownt 
now too much in fashion with comly pages, youthes, 
and lewd, effeminate, ruffianly persons. 

Histriomastix, p. 201. 

Wigs were made to imitate this : 

He Ihv it) gloves all night, and this momini^ I 
Brought him a new periwig, with a lock at it. 

it. ^ Fl. Cupid's Revenge, act ii, p. 451. 

Farewel, signior. 
Your amorous lock has a hair out of order. 
Mor. Uni I what an oversight was this of my barberl 
I must return now and have it corrected, dear signior. 

Bird in a Cage, O. PL, viii, 20S. 

It was originally a French custom : 

Will you be Frenchified, with a love-lock down to your 

8houlders,wliereiii you may hang your mistres* favour? 

Greene's Quip for aw Upstart CourtiertD 3,b. 

We have here an account of a very 
long one : 

Why should thy sweet love-locke hang dangling downe. 
Kissing thy girdle-steed with falling pride ? 

Bamefield's Affectionate Shepherd, Poems printed 
iu 1694, cit. Capell. 

This seems to mean a padlock formed 
of rings marked with letters, which, 
when placed to form a certain word, 
will open, but not otherwise. This, 
therefore, is an older invention than 
might be supposed. 

A cap-case for your linnen and your plate. 
With a strange lock, that ovens with Amen. 

B. J- Fl. Noble Gentl, act t. 

Noticed also iu some verses by Carew, 
addressed to May, on his comedy of 
the Heir: 

As doth a lock that ^oes 
With letters, for till every one be known. 
The lock's as fast as if you had found none. 

t^ LOCK OF HAY. A bundle of hay. 

For never would he touch a locke of hay. 
Or smelt unto a heape of provender 
Untill he heard a noyse of trumpets sound, 
Wliereby he knew our meate was sen-ed in. 

Taylor's Workes, IBSO. 
So good cloaths ne'r lay in stable 
Upon a lock of hay. Afusarum Delides, 1666. 

fLOCK. To be at his old lock, to 
follow his old practices. 

Trum. s. Why look you, colonel, he's at old lock, he's 
at's May-bees again. 




tLOCK-SPITTlNG. The term is still 
applied in Norfolk to a small cut 
with a spade to show the direction in 
which a piece of land is to be divided 
by a new fence. 

Sets out the circuit vith a ploogh, which we call 
lock-tpilting. Ogilby't Virgil, 1668, p. 313. 

LOCKRAM. A sort of linen of a cheap 
kind, but made of various degrees of 
fineness ; used for caps, shirts, shifts, 
and handkerchiefs, by the lower 
orders.. Phillips says expressly that 
it was linen, which refutes Johnson's 

The kitchen malkin pins 
Her richest lockram 'bout her reechy neck, 
Clamberini^ the walls to eye him. Coriol.t ii« 1. 

To poor maidens' marriages — 
— I give per annum two hundred ells of loeiram, 
That there be no strait dealings in their linnens, 
But the sails cut according to their burthens. 

B. ^ Fl. Spanish Curate, vr, 5. 
Tlum thou^ht'st, because 1 did wear loekram shirts, 
I had no wit 

GUptkonu'i Wit in a Constahle, 1689, cit St. 
Let all the good yon intended me, be a loekram coif, 
a blue gown, and a clean whip. 

Brome't Northern Lass, ditto. 

That is, give me the dress and dis- 
cipline of a woman in Bridewell. 

I can wet one of my new loekeram napkins with 
weeping. Oreette's Never too late^ ditto. 

Also, in his Vision. 

His ruffe wns of fine loekeram^ stitchMl very &ir with 
Coventry blue. 

LODAM. An old game on the cards ; 
mentioned with primero and others. 
Sir John Harrington speaks of it as 
succeeding to maw in court fashion. 

Then foUow'd lodaM, hand to hand or quarter [qu. 

barter f] 
At whieh some maids so ill did keep the quarter. 
That imezpect«d. in a short abode. 
They eould not eleanly beare away their load. 

Epigr., IV, 12. 
She and I will take you at lodam. 

WowuH k. with Kindn., 0. FL, vii, 296. 

In a note upon the latter passage, 
Mr. Reed says that "it is not yet 
quite disused." It is not described, 
boweyer, nor mentioned in the Com- 
plete Ghimester. The same passage 
seems to imply that it was played by 
three persons : " She and I will take 

tFlayers turn puppets now at your desire, 

In their month's nonsense, in their tail's a wire, 

TbCT fly through douds of clouts, and show'rs of fire. 

A kmd of losing loadum in their gnme. 

Where the worst writer has the greatest fame. 

Rochester's Poems, ed. 1710, p. 56. 

tNow some at cards and dice do play 

Their money and their time away ; 

At loadttm, cribbedge, and all-fours. 

They squander out their precious hours. 

Poor -BoAw. 1786. 1 

LODESTAR. The pole-star, or cyno- 
sure ; the leading star, by which 
mariners are guided ; from Icedtnt^ 
Saxon, to lead. Thus the magnet in 
loadstone; that is, leading or guiding 

happy fair I 
Your eyes are lode-stars, and your tongue's sweet air 
More tuneable than lark to sheplierd's ear. 

Mids. N. Dream, i, L 
Whereat a waxen torch forthwith he lighteth. 
Which must be lode-star to his lustful eye. 

Shakesp. Venus and Jdonis, Suppl., i, 484. 
But, stay, what star shines yonder in t^e east? 
The loadstar of my life, if Aoigail. 

Jew tf Malta, O. PL, Tiii, 8S8. 
To that clear migesty which, in the north, 

Duth, like another sun, in glory rise. 
Which standeth fix'd, yet spreads her heav'nly worth ; 
Loadstone to hearts, and loadstar to idl eyes. 

Sir J. Davies's Dedie, to Q. EUz. 

LODE SM AN. a. A guide; a word 
formed by the same analogy, and 
used by Hall, in his Chronicle, where 
Henry V promises his friends to be 

Guide, lodesman, and conductor. 

It is also used in that sense by 
T. Churchyard : 


My loadsmen lack tlie skill 
To passe the strayghtes, and safisly bring 
My barke to quiet port. 

Deser. ofWarres cjfTlanders, in Censwru 
lAt., IX, p. 247. 

A ridiculous blunder occurs in the 
reprinted edition of sir John Davies*s 
Poem on Dancing, published in 1 773, 
where, instead of 

Reason the cynosure, and bright load-star 

In this world's sea, t' avoid the rock of chance ; 

Stan. 94. 

itisgiven "Reason the co«noiMeMr,"&c. 
The word is found in Chaucer, as a 
pilot, and in others. See Todd. 
LOEGRIA. An old name for England, 
according to the fabulous division of 
it given by Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
as portioned out to the three sons of 
Brutus, Locrinus, Camber, and Alba- 
nact ; from whom Loegria, Cambria, 
and Albania, respectively took their 

Our historians make the oldest division of Britain to 
have been that which distinguishes it into Loigris, 
Ounbria, and Albania, or to expess myself more 
dearly, England, Wales, and Scotland. 

OoHgh's Camden, p. cxxviiL 
His three sons, Locrine, Albanact, and Camber, divide 
the land by consent; Locrine had the middle part, 
Loggria; Camber possessed Cambria, or WalM} 
Albanact, Albania, now Scotland. 

Milton's Htst. of Enql., Booki 
I am that Pinnar who. when Brutus' olooa 

Extincted was in bloody Forrex raigne. 
Among the princes in contention stocM, 

Who in the British throne by right should raigne > 




'Mongst whom by micht a purl I did obtaine, 
That Dart of Albion calrd Loarim bic bt 
I did long time asup againn all rijcnt. 

Mirr.for Mag^ p. 81. 

The Terse shows that Logria is a 
misprint for Lodgria. 
LOFT, adj. Used, in the following 
passage, for lofty. 

In ndtber fortune loft, nor yet re prett, 
To swell in wealth or yield unto miichance. 

B. of Surrey's Powu, 1SS7, £ 1. 

LOFT, «. Seems to be used for the 
flooring of a room, by Spenser. 

All to dainty the bed where the should lie, 

By a false trap was let adowne to fall 
Into a lower roome, and by and by 
The Iqft was raysM againe that no man could it spie. 

F. q., V. vi. 27. 

It was commonly used for a floor, in 
the sense of story , or division of a 
house ; as, '* the third loft** Jets, 
XX 9. 
LOGO AT, or L066ET, s, A small log, 
or piece of wood ; a diminutive from 

How are they tossing of his legs and arms, 
Like loggets at a pear-tree. 

B. Jon$. Tale of a Tub, iv, 6. 

Hence loggats, as the name of an old 
game among the common people, and 
one of those forbidden by a statute 
of the 33d of Hen. VIII. It is thus 
described by Mr. Steevens: "This 
is a game played in several parts of 
England even at this time. A stake 
is fixed into the ground ; those who 
play throw loggats at it, and he that 
is nearest the stake wins :*' ''I have 
seen it played," he adds, "in dif- 
ferent counties, at their sheep-shear- 
ing feasts, where the winner was 
entitled to a black fleece, which he 
afterwards presented to the farmer's 
maid to spin, for the purpose of 
making a petticoat, and on condition 
that she knelt down on the fleece 
to be kissed by all the rustics pre- 
sent.*' Sir Thomas Hanmer, and 
Capell after him, and Dr. Johnson 
himself, make it the same as nine- 
pins, or skettles, which the former 
calls kittle-pins. They were pro- 
bably mistaken, as the two games 
are distinguished in the same pas- 

Dill these lioncs cost no more the breeding, bat to 
pluY at loggats witli thrm ? llamUt, r, 1. 

To play at loqgats, nine holes, or ten pinnes. 

An Old Collect, of Epigram, ^c^ cit St. 

LOITER.SACK, *. A loiterer, i 

If the loitersmeke be gone sprinnnr into a 
I'll fetch him leeliDg out 

Lglg's Mother Bom 

This may serve to illustrate Ha 
SACK, being a similar comp 
The adjunct sack, seems to deD< 
inert or lumpish person. 
fLOKE. A lock, in the sense of a 
of wool. 

This shepheard ware a sbeepenay doke, 
Whidi was of the finest hie 
That ooold be cut with eheera. 

Drmgtou's 8km, Oat 

fib LOLL. To preach ? 

A smooth-toncn'd preacher, that did much af 
To be reputed of the purer sect. 

Unto these times grjcat praises did afford. 
That brought, he said, the lun-shine of the IK 
Hie lun-ahine of the Word, this he extoU'd ; 

The sun-shine of the Word, still this he lold. 
Colgrape'e Mtts Interpreter, IS71 

tLOLPOOPING. Idling. A lax 
low is still called a loll-poop i 
dialect of East Anglia. 

And now to view tlie lofrzerhend, 
Cudgell'd and lolpoupittg in bed. 

Homer's Ilias Burlesqu' 

LOMBARD, «. A banker. It is 
known that the Italian banker 
settled in the city of London, 
rise to the name of Lombard st 
but it is not so generally unders 
that the merchants held their 
ings there, till the Exchange 
built ; or that those Lombard ba 
were, in general, Jews ; though, 
the almost exclusive activity ot 
people in traflic in early tinv 
might easily be conjectured that 
were. Stowe gives us the f< 
intimation : 

Thrn liHve ye Lombard street, so called of the 
bard* uiid other merchants, strangers of 
nations, Hssemltling there twise every day 
manner continued untill the S2 of Decembe 
year lo68, on u hieli day the said merchantes 1 
their meeting in Cornehill at the Burse, sinc< 
migestie named the Boyall Exchauge. 

Survey of London 

The latter may be confirmed 
this passage : 

So an usurer. 
Or Lombard Jew, might, with some bags of tn 
Buy half the weatero world. 

B. ^ Ft. Laws of Cant 

LOMEWHYLE. A mere press en 
the quarto edition of the Faery Q 
1590, which would not be ' 
notice, had not Capell very inno( 
entered it as an old word ir 
School of Shakespeare, p. 




^h^ and other editors, silently 
d it to somewkyle, which is 
itly right. 

Abore all the rest, . 
with the nsinee of darkenet fell tomewhyle, 
leaTeu't biui» and everlasting rest. 


G, V. To belong, of wliich it 
enerally been thought an abbre- 
n. Mr. Todd, however, shows 
it was used from the earliest 
without such mark. 

That by gift of hear'n, 
of nature^ and of nations, la»g 
, and to bis heiis. Hen. V, ii, 4. 

4hien aU, not able to maintain 
tny to thaa Umging, have put off 
OMteri, lEe. Hm. 7UI, i. 2. 

me first throogh pride and puissance strong 
I, not knowing what to arms doth long. 

SpsHs. F. ^., VI, ii, 8. 

B. Ill, C. iii, St. 58. 

isent heate doth strait dispatch the thing 
U those solemn rites that *long thereto. 

DohUI, Civil Wan, Tii, 108. 

ng seems to be put, in the fol- 
g passage, for longed for, or 
rhich is the subject of longing : 

take a note of what I stand in need of, 
furnish me upon my 2M^«jMoumev. 

Two Gtnt. ofVtr.t ii, 7. 

may mean the journey which 
gs to me, " my own journey.'* 

tQood he, maystresse, 
No harme doutelesse ; 

It longetk for our order. 
To hart no man. Ice. Sir T. More, 1557- 

long of, on account of.] 

she, I may not stav till night, 

ire my summer hall undight, 

all /or long o/thee. Dtvgton^s Sh«p. titer., 1693. 

BOX. Wandering booksellers 
d about their popular books for 
1 a long box. The door of the 
•e appears to have been a favorite 
n for them. 

I shall live to see thee 

n a play-house doore with thv long box, 

If-erown library, and cry small books. 

tod godly sermon, gentlemen — 

nent shewn upon a knot of drunkards — 

puree out popery — the life 

ath of Katherin Stubs — 

Cartwrigkfs Ordinary, 1651. 

f. A clowu. 

uidthrift, and the plodding looby, 
r€ sir Covtir, and the booby. 

Hudihras Uedmvus, VKfl. 

F. To bring a vessel close to 
ind. Now pronounced by sea- 
luff. Falconer's Marine Die- 
7 gives luff only, in this sense ; 
>o/i^ said to occur in Hackluyt. 

She once being looft, 
ble ruin of her magic, Antuny, 
in his aea-wiug. Jnt, §r Cleop., ili, 8. 

[Phaer uses it adverbially.] 

tAxainst Italia and Tyber's mouth lay looftX seas 
aright. Virg. JSn., i, 16. 

that is, to looker babies there. To 
look closely and amorously into the 
eyes, so as to see the figures reflected 
in them. See Babies. This seems 
to have been a common sport of 
lovers, since it is abundantly alluded 
to by various writers. 

Can ye look babiet, sister. 
In the young gallants' eyes, and twirl their band- 
strings r B. 4' ^1- Loyal Subject, iii, 2. 

riol. Will he play with me too? 
AUn. Look bakies in your eyes, my pretty sweet one ; 
lliere's a fine sport I ^ Ibid,, iii, 6. 

See also the Woman Hater, iii, 1 . 

When a young Indy wrings you by the hand, — thus; 
Or wiUi an amorous touch presses vour foot; 
Look* babies in your eyes, plays with your locks. Sec. 

Massinger^i Renegado, ii, 5. 

In Poole's English Parnassus, among 
the phrases expressing the ways of 
lovers, is set down, ** Looking of babies 
in each other's eyes, ' * p . 4 20. Dray ton 
makes it lookins for Cupids : 

While in their ehryntSeyes he doth /or Cupids look. 

Polyolbion, Song zL 

To LOOM. To appear large, as objects 
at sea, refracted through a dense 
medium, and therefore seeming larger 
than they really are. 

They stand far off in time ; through perspective 
Of dear wits, yet they ^M'boih great and near. 

Fanskaw's Lusiad, viii, 2. 

'* She looms a great sail, magna videtur 
navis." E. Coles' Did. 

tTo behold one of the -^ ff^illant spectacles in the 
world, a ship under sayle, loming (as tliey tearme it) 
indeede like a lyon pawing witli his forfeet, heanng 
and setting, like a Musco beare bnyted with excellent 
English dogs. Sir T. Simlh's Voiage in Russia, 1603. 

LOON, or LOWN, *. A term of re- 
proach ; as a stupid rascal, or the 
like ; from the Dutch loen. Loon is yet 
common in Scotland, and seems only 
the northern pronunciation of hum. 
Neither word can strictly be called 
obsolete, though they are not much 
used, at least in the south of England. 

Tlie devil damn thee black, thou cream-fac'd loon I 
Where got'st thou that goose look ? Macb., v, 8. 

King Stephen was a wonhy peer. 

His breeches cost him but a crown. 
He held them sixpence all too dear. 

With that he call'd the taylor lown. Othello, ii, 8. 
You that are prinoely bom should shake him off. 
For shame, subscribe I and let the loon depart. 

The sturdy beegar, and the lazy lown. 
Gets here nar a hands, or lac'd correction. 

Honest Wh., P. 2, 0. PL, iii, 466. 

LOOS. Praise; from laus^ Latin. A 
Chaucerian ^ord. 




Besides the losse of so much loos and fame. 
As tlirough the world therby slioold glorifie his name. 

Spent. r. Q.,Yl,xiuU. 

See Church's Spenser. Several edi- 
tions reKd praise instead. 
Lo€ is the same, in old French, and 
is probably the immediate origin of 
the English word : 

A ta sainte divinitA 

Soit lot, honeor, et potest^. 

Mjfttere, Voy. Boqwfort. 

To LOOSE, V. n. To discharge an 
arrow. Ascham spells it louse, or 
lowse : 

f.otcsing miut be much like. So quicke and harde 
I liat it be without all girdea, so soft and gentle, that 
T he shaft fly not as it were sent out of a bowecase. 

Toxopk., p. 203. 

See him also passim, 

2. To weigh anchor, or slip the 

cables : 

And when the touth wind blew softly, supposing that 
1 hey had obtained their purpose, loosing thence, they 
Sidled dose by Crete. Acts, xxvii, IS. 

Also ver. 21. 
LOOSE, s. (from the preceding verb). 
The act of discharging an arrow from 
the string ; a technical term in 
archery. Thus Drayton, speaking of 
archers : 

Their arrows finely pair'd. for timber and for feather. 
With birch and brazil piec'd, to fly in any weather ; 
And, shot they with the round, the square, or forked 

The loose gaye such a twang, as might be heard a 

mile. Drayt. Polyolb., xxvi, p. 1175. 

A surely lerell'd shaft if Sent-clear had not seen, 
And, in the Tery loose, not thrust himself between 
His sovereign and the shaft, he our reven{ee had t^d : 
Thus, to preserve the king, the noble subject dy'd. 

Ibid., ix, p. 884. 

The quotation from lord Bacon, given 
by Johnson, alludes also to archery, 
for the string is mentioned. 
It is not true, therefore, that it 
means generally "dismission from 
any restraining force." In the fol- 
lowing speech it is used metaphori- 
cally : 

Her brain's a renr quiver of jests 1 and she doth dart 
them abroad witn that sweete loose, and judiciidl 
aime, that yon would-— here she comes, sir. 

B. Jons. Every Man out of his H., iii, 9. 

So it is pointed in the folio, but Mr. 
Whalley, not understanding the term, 
converted loose into an adjective, by 
pointing it, in his edition, '* that 
sweet, loose, and judiciall ainie ;" as 
if a loose aim could be a commenda- 
tion. Mr. Gifford has inadvertently 
followed him. 
Here we find it in the plural : 

From every wing they heare their looses Jarre 

Heytcood, Brit. Troy 

a very customary dress of aban( 
women, was sometimes used 
phrase for such ladies : 

Yet if 1 go among the citizens' wives, they jee 

if I go among the loose-bodied govms, theV cr; 

civilly attired ; and i 
trade was a good trade, 'till such as I am too! 

on me, because I go civilly attired ; and swt 

of their hands. Hon. IfTi., Part 2. O. PL. 

What wench is't ? tush, loose-bodied Margery 

More Fools yet, cited I 

tLOP. A flea ; probably from its 

Episcopacy minc't, reforming: T\i'ecd 
Hath sent' us runts, even of her churches bre 
Lay-interlining clergy, a de\ice 
That's nick-name to the stuff call'd l<ms and '. 

Cleaveland's Foea 

LOPE, V. To leap. Provincial, 
as the preterite of leap. 

With spotted wings like peacock's train 
And laughing lope to a tree. 

Spens. Shep. KaL, Mt 

tLOPE, s, A leap. 

He makes no more to run on a rope. 
Than a Puritan does of a bishop or pope. 
And comes down with a ven^reance at one sin 
Cotgra^s Wits Interpreter, 1671 

LOPE-MAN, «., if from the verb 
must mean a leaping man. It a 
in the following passage, to b 
for skipper, as applied to a 1 
sailor; though skipper pre 
means ship'tnan. 

God what a stvle is this I 
Methinks it goes like a Ducny lop^-man, 
A ladder of a hundred rounds will fail 
To reach the top on't. B. /■ Fl. Nob. Gen 

The shrouds of the ship see 
suggest the idea of a ladder. 
LOPE-STAFF. A leaping pole. 

Such as in fens and marsh-lands us'd to tradi 

The doubtful fords and passages to try. 
With stilts and lope^taves that do aptliett wi 

Drayt. Barons Wm 

This strengthens the interpretati 


fLOQUENCE. Talking; chatter 

Thy tongue is loose, thy body close ; both ill : 
With silcuce this, with loquence that doth kil 

Owen's Epigran 

LORD, phr. O Lord, sir, was a f< 
and affected phrase, used on all 
sions, properly and improperly 
on that account abundantly ridj 
by Shakespeare in All's Well 
Ends Well, act ii, sc. 2. The 
describes it as an answer that v 
all questions. He says, ** It is 
barber's chair, that fits all butt 
the brawn-buttock, or any buttt 
the pin-buttock, the quatch-bu 




but being hard run by the countess 
in her questions upon it, he says, 
** I ne'er had worse luck in my life 
with my O Lord, sir : I see things 
may serve long, but not serve for 
ever, u, 2. 

Cleveland, in one of his songs, makes 
his gentleman 

Answer, O Lord, sir I and talk play-book oaths. 

Cited by SteeTens. 

O God, sir, was equivalent ; and Ben 
Junson describes his character Orange, 
in Every Man out of his Humour, as 
going little further in his conversa- 
tion : 

Tis as dry an Orange as c?er grew ; nothing but 
salutation i and Ood, sir; and, it pleases ^oa to 
say so, sir, Sur. Aet iii, sc. 1. 

Accordingly, throughout the ensuing 
scenes, we find him perpetually 
answering, O Lord, sir; and, OGod, 

Onion also has the latter, in Ben 
Jonson's The Case is Alter*d, act iii, 
vol. vii, p. 346, Whalley. 
This was the inscription formerly 
placed upon the doors of houses that 
were infected with the plague, as a 
u aming not to approach them. 

Write. Lord kavs nurejf on us on tiiose three ; 

They are infected, in tbeir hearts it lies; 

They hare the plague, and caught it of your eyes. 

Love's Labour L., v, 2. 

It seems they were sometimes printed : 

It is as daneerous to read his name on a play door, 
as a printed bill on a flagus door. 

Histriomaslix, cit. St. 
It [a prison] is an infected pest-house all the yeere 
long : the plague sores of the law are the diseases 
here hotly reigning. The surgeons are attumies and 
pettifoggers, who kill more than they cure. Lord 
lutt€ merejf upon us may well stand orer these doores, 
for dcl>t is a most dangerous and catching city pesti- 
lence. Overburjf*s Characters, r 2, b. 
The titles of their satyrs fright some, more 
Than Lord June merey writ upon a door. 

West*s Verses prefixed to Randolphs Poems. 

LORDING, *. A lord. Originally 
rather a diminutive of endearment, 
than of ridicule, being the common 
address of minstrels to request atten- 
tion. Thus : 

Listen, lirely lordings alL 

Ptfrcy'flZtf;., i, p. 288. 

This mode of address Spenser has 
imitated : 

Then listen, lordinas / if ye list to weet 
The cause why satyrane and Paridell 
Mote not be cntcrUyn'd. F. Q., m, ix, 8. 

H«Te, too, it is a diminutive of endear- 
ment : 

I'll question you 
Of my lord's tricks and yours, when you were boyst 
You were pretty lordings then 1 Wint. Tale, i, 2. 

We find it also in serious and heroic 
language : 

He [Godfrey] call'd the worthies then, and spake 

them so : 
Lordings J you know, 1 yielded to your will. 

Faitf. Tasso, v, 3. 
Let lordings beware how aloft they do nse, 
By princes and commons their climbing is watcht. 

Mirror for Magistr., p. 85. 
As he at oounsell sat upon a day. 
With other lordings, in the fatall tower. Ibid., n. 756. 

In later times we find it used in 
LORE, s. Learning, knowledge, dis- 
cipline. Saxon. Still current in 
poetic language. 

The lors of Christ both he and all his train 
Of people black have kept and loiu; imbrac'd. 

Fairf. Tasso, xii, 21. 

Put for manner, or order : 

About the which two serpents weren wound, 
Entrayled mutually in lovely lore. 


LORE, part. Left ; from the same 
Saxon origin as Lokn, infra. It is 
used in the following passage as the 
preterite of a verb : 

Neither of them she found where she them lore. 

Spens. F. Q., UI, xii, 44. 

Here it is a participle [lost! : 

But lo she hath in vayne her time and labour lore. 

Bometts jr Jul., Suppl. to Shakesp., i, 319. 

LOREL, s. a good-for-nothing fellow, an 
abandoned profligate. Lorean, Saxon. 

Siker thou speakest like a lewd lorel 

Of beav'n to demen so. Spens. Sh. Kal., July. 98. 

Nor could affect such vain scurrility. 

To please lewd lorrels in their foolery. 

Drayt. Skep. Garl, Eel., 3, ed. 1593w 

In the later editions of Drayton, the 
language is modernised, and lorrel 
has disappeared. 

That cruel Clifford lord, nav lorel, wilde. 


Jonson has given the name of Lorelt 
to a clownish character in the Sad 
Shepherd. He is described in the 
dram. pers. as '^Lorefl the rude, a 
swinard, the witch's son.** Lorel, 
and losel, though so similar, are surely 
distinct words, not one corrupted 
from the other. See Todd. 

tSome ranne one way, some another, divers though te 
to have bin housed, and so to lurke in lorelUs dennc 

Holinshed, 1677. 


The tortoise useth ori^num agaiust the vioers poisoti. 
The foxes with the teares of loriee due ncale their 
wounds. And so almost every creature 1 beleeve 
hath a particular remedie. 

Passenger of Benvenuto, 1612. 

LORING. Instruction ; from lore, 




Hat aD they u a coddeMC her adonne, 
Her wisdom did acuiiire, aiid listen to tier lartHg. 

Spetu. F. Q., V, ni, 42. 

LORN. Left, forsaken, lost; from 
lorean, Saxon. 

Who after that he had faire Una lome. 
Thro' light miideeminK of her loialtie. Ihid., I, iT, 2. 
For she doth love clswhere, and then thy time is lorne. 
Rometu and Jul, Suppl. to Sh., i, 282. 
And thoa, caitiffe, tliat like a monster swarved 
From kind and kindnea, hast thy master lome. 

Mirror for Mag'ut., p. 461. 

Lorn was also used as an adjunct to 
other words : thus, lass-lome meant 
forsaken by his lass ; also love-lorn, 
forsaken by his love. Milton in 

Whose shadow the dismissed bachelor loves, 
Being lass-lorn. Tempest, i, 4. 

LOSANGER. A flatterer, properly, 
from los, old French, and losange, of 
similar meaning ; but used by Holiu- 
shed as if synonymous to losel. See 
Roquefort. It is found in Chaucer. 

Even to a faire paire of gallowes, there to end their 
lives with shame, as a number of such other losengera 
had done before them. 

HoUnshed, History of Scotland, D 8, col. 1. 

LOSEL, s. A worthless fellow, one 
lost to all goodness ; from the Saxon 
losian, to perish or be lost. 

Now, ware thy throte, losel, thouse pay for all. 

Gammer Gurton, 0. PI., ii, 45. 
Peace, prating losell. George a Greene, O. Pi., iii, 36. 
The whiles ti losell, wandring by the wav, 
Cue that to bonntic never cast his mynd. 

Spens. F. Q., II, iii, 4. 

Provided common beggars, nor disordered lossels, who 

Men know provided lor, or can, but labour none will 

do. Alb. England, chap, xxxix, p. 1^. 

Written also lozel : 

And, lotel, thou art worthy to be hanic'd. 

That wilt not stay her tongue. ffint. Tale, ii, 3. 

See other instances in the note on the 
fLGSING. A lozenge. 

For to make losings to comfort the stomack. 

Pathvay to Health, bl. 1. 

LOST AND WON, phr. This com- 
bination of words was commonly 
used, where we should employ but 
one of them, and formed a verv cus- 
tomary phrase. There are other in- 
stances of such Pleonastic expres- 
sions ; as, Bought anu sold. 

When the hurlv-burly's done, 

When the banfe's lost and tcun, Macbeth, i, 1. 

Thus in an ancient rhyme preserved 
iiy Holinshed : 

At the creeke of Ba^ganbume 
Ireland was lost and tcunne. 

heacr. vf Ireland, A 2, col. 2. 

LOTIUJURY. This street was anciently 
nihabited by turners of brazen can- 

dleaticks, and such noisy trades u 
produced great annoyance to the 
neighbours and passengers, whereby 
it became almost proverbial. 

From the candlesticks in Lothburg, 
And the loud pure wives of Banbonr, flee. 

Bless the BOT*reien and bis hearing. 
B.Jonson, Masque of Witches Metam., roL ri, p. US. 

Stowe's account of Lothbury (bmu 
the completest comment on the above 
passage : 

This strecte is possessed for the most part by foundent 
that cust candiestickes, chafingdiskes, spice mortally 
and such like copper cr latou workes, and do afte^ 
wards tume them with the foot ana not with the 
wheele, to make them smooth and bright with tnnu^ 
and Berating (as some do t«armeit),fliAHn^«i9fibp«« 
nogce to the by passers, that have not bc«ne xatti ts 
tjie like, and therefore by them disdainfoUj called 
lo^Aberie. Survey ofLomd,, p. 290. 

As if you were to lodge in Lotkburg, 
Where they turn brazen candlesticks. 

Nev Trick to Cheat the Devil, 1686, dt. St 
Few or none compassionate his [the alchemist's] in- 
felicitie, save only the metall-men of Lothkmrie, 

expected for their grosser metalls ready rent bv 
meanes of his philosophy. CUtus*s Whimzies, p. Vf. 

Shakespeare has alluded to the noise 
of this place, without mentioning the 
name : 

I had rather hear a brazen candlestick tnm*d. 

1 Hen. IF, iii, 1. 

Lothbury seems to be put occasion- 
ally in a proverbial sense to express 
unwillingness, being loth : 

Though such for woe, by Lothbury go. 

For being spide about Cheapsidc. Tusser, p. 14S. 

fLOTS. A game formerly playeil with 
roundels on which short verses were 
written. They were dealt out like 
cards, the writing below, and great 
diversion was excited by the satirical 
distiches supposed to be descriptive 
of the characters of the persons who 
obtained them. 

fLOVE. This word enters into many 
popular phrases. 

Sha. No more of that, good Andrew, as you lote me, 
Ket-p in your wit. CartwriqkVs Ordinary, 1661. 

Kisv. For lores sake, doe not nress me tordate 
So Ions a story now, wlieu I uuve left 
So short a time to live. Phillis of Sevres, 1655. 

When )>nssions are let loose witliuut a oridJe, 
Then precious time is turnd to U/te and idle ; 
\nd limt's the chiefest reason 1 can show. 
Why fruit so often doth on Tybume grow. 

Tatilor's Workes, 16Sa 

LOVES, phr. Of all loves, or for all 
lores. This was frequently used as a 
kind and tender adjuration, instead 
of the commoner form, by all meang. 
Coles has it in his Latin Dictionary, 
and renders it by amabo. It means, 
for the sake of all love. 




Silt Mn. Face wovld desire yon to tend her your 
iiitie pege» tfaUlm€$; her husband has a iiiarvenouB 
intectiOD to the Utile puge. Merry W IT., ii, 2. 

Alack, where are you r apeak, an if you hear ; 
Speak, qfmtt Iomm; I awoou alnintt with fear. 

For mil tk« Ictet on eartkj Hodge, let me see it. 

Ommmer QnrtoH, O. PI., ii, 76. 
Coojorisf hit wife, ^ M Umes, to prepare cheer 
fitting for rach bononnble trenchermen. 

Honat Wk., 0. PL, ill, 307. 
OfalltMt Umet betvixt thee and me, tell me what 
thou thiakeat of this. 

A r<WM» HOtd wiik Kind$uss, O. PL. vii, SIO. 
Vedo, fo^ runne quickly to my father; desire him, 
of ail ume, to oome OTer quickly to my house. 

Menecktmu, 6 pL, i, 141. 
Mrs. Arden desired him, of all looet, to come back 
apuae. Holiiuk., p. 1064. 

tliOVE, FAMILY OF. See Family. 
This sect had a ^retit reputation 
daring the earlier half of the seven- 
teenth century, at the time when the 
puritans were in the ascendancy, and 
the opponents of the latter had it 
continoally in their mouths as a 
;:eneral reproach on all who pretended 
to dissent from the church on account 
of religious scruples. The name, and 
tiie pretended tenets, of the sect, 
^ave rise to scandalous stories which 
are a frequent subject of allusion in 
the popular writers of the day. 

Page. 13iis; he« thinkeswith the atheist there's no 
God but his mistxene, with the iufidell no heaven but 
her smiles, with the papist uo purgatoir but her 
rrDwnes, and with the famiUe of love, holu it lawfull 
to lie with her, though she be another mans wife. 

Day's Il€ of GulU,\SSIi. 

tLOVE-BAG. A charm to procure love. 

.Another ask't me, who was somewhat bolder. 
Whether I wore a Umt-ia^ffe on my shoulder ? 

Husarum DeUdm, 1656. 

tLOVE-BRAT. A bastard. 

Now by this four we plainly see, 
Four ioss hraU will be laid to tliee : 
And she that draws the same shall wed 
Two rich husbands, and both well bred. 

Old Chap-book. 

LOVfi-DAY, s, A day of amity or re- 
conciliation. Mr. Todd has suffi- 
ciently shown that this was an expres- 
sion current in earlier times, which 
satisfactorily explains these lines : 

Toa are m? guest, Laviiiia, aud your friends. 
This day shul be a love-day, Tamora. 

Titus Ahdr., i, 2. 

See Todd*s Illustrations of Chaucer ; 
LOVE-LOCK. A lock of hair, curled 
and ornamented in a particular man- 
ner, so as to be pendent by the ear. 

Your lavt-lockes wreathed with a silken twisty or 
shajr^ to fall on your shoulders Lyly^s My das, iii, 2. 

See Lock. 
LOVELESS. Void of love. A word 

formed by a very fair and common 
analogy, yet never much in use. 

A monument that whosoerer readea 

May justly praise, and blame my UneUue faire. 

DattUl, Sotuut 3, to Delia. 

Shenstone has used it. See Johnson. 

LOVE-SOME, a. Lovely. Of this 
word the same may be said as of the 

To love that hvesome I will not let. 
My harte is holly on her set. 

Skelton's Magnificence, cit. by CapelL 

Dry den also used it. See Johnson's 
Diet. It is found in Chaucer's 

tLOVE-TOOTH. A love^tooth in the 
head, an inclination to love. 

Beleeve me, Philautus, I am now old, yet have I in my 
head a love tooth, and in my minde there is noihing 
that more pearceth the heart of a beautifull lady, then 
whuiijr, where thou maiest so set downe thy pas- 
sions, and her perfection, as she shall have cause to 
thinke well of thee, and better of her selfe. 

Lylie, Euphues and hu Saglaad, 


Lord, if thy peevish infant fig:hts and flies, 

With unpar'd weHpons, at his mother's eyes. 

Her frowns (half mix*d with smiles) may diance to 

An angry love-trick on his arm, or so. 

Quarles's BmbUwu. 

LOVEL, was a name commonly given 
to dogs. 

Then come on at onee. take my quiver and bowe, 
Fette Lovell my hound, and my home to blowe. 

Historic of Jacob and Esau, 1568, cit. St. 

One CoUingboume, in the time of 
Richard the Third, was executed for 
making this foolish rhyme, which 
became very popular: 

A cat, a rat, and Lovel our dog. 
Rule all England under a hog. 

By which symbols he meant to point 
out Catesby, Ratcliffe, lord Lovel, 
and Richard himself. In the Mirror 
for Magistrates he is introduced com- 
plaining of his fate, which surely was 
a hard one, and thus explains his 
reason for calling lord Lovel a dog : 

To LovePs name I added more, our dog. 
Because most dogs have borne that name of yore. 

Mirr.for Mn./., p. 463. 

LOVER, s. Though we say a coii-pIe of 
lovers, we do not now often apply the 
name of lover to a female. This, 
however, was formerly not uncom- 

Fewness and truth 'tis thus : 
Your brother and his lover have embrac'd. 

Measure for Meas., i, 6. 
How doth she tear her heare ! her weede how doth 

she rent ! 
How fares the lover, hearing of her lover^s ba)ii>h- 
meut r Homcus jf- JulUt, Suppl. to Sbak., i, liijii. 





opening in a building, to let in light 
and air, or to let out smoke. L^ouvert, 
French. [From lucanarJ] 

Ne lighted was with window, nor with Uner, 
But with coutinuall candlelight. 

Spnu. P. Q., VI, X, 42. 
For all the issue, both of Tent and light. 
Came from a hover at the tower's toppe. 

Death cfR. E. of Hunt., sign. L 8. 

Exemplified also by Todd, froQi Fuller 
and Carew. 

Used likewise for the apertures in a 
dove-cote» at which the bird enters : 

Like to a cast of fatilcons that pursue 
A flight of pidgeous through the welkin blew. 
Stooping at this and that, that to their louvir. 
To save their Uves, they hardlv can recover 

Sylv. Du Bart., I, iii, 2. 

Todd*8 example from Fuller is exactly 
in this sense. 

tA lotr where the smoke passeth out, fumarium. 

mthaW IHetionarU, ed. 1608, p. 183. 
flhat lie should decline the huge multitude ot those 
that fled, no lesse than the fall of some ill framed and 
diqoyuted looetrr of an hieh building. 

JloUatuPs Immianut Marcelliutu, 1609. 
-KThe hnt^e frame of the araphi-theatre strong! v raised 
«p and wrought with Tiburtiue stone, closely Jayed 
and couched together; up to the top and looter 
whereof hardly can a man see. Hid. 

fThcre is a steepe decUvy way lookes downe, 
^"ihioh to th' iniemall kinedome Orpheus guides. 
Whose looter vapors breatnes. 

Heywood's Troia Britaniea, 1609. 
i\f your ladyship be talking in the same room with 
any gentleman, 1 can read on a book, sing love songs, 
iooic up at the loover-lightf hear and be deaf. 

/WW* Jimendifor Ladiet, 1618. 
\Ala. And, dost hear ? bid him 
Provide new locks and leys, and bars and bolts. 
And cap the chimney, lest my lady fly 
Out at the lover-hole : so commend us to 
The precious owl, your master. 

Shirley's Uonoria and Mammon, 1659. 

LOVERY, 8. Perhaps the same as 
LouvEE, or something like it. The 
sense is obscure in both the following 
examples: [Warton (iii, 433), who 
quotes both these examples, explains 
it as '' a turret usually placed between 
the chancel and the body of the 

Would it not vex thee, where thy sires did keep, 
Tu see the dunged folds of dag-tail'd sheep ? 
And ruiu'd house where holy things were said. 
Whose free-stone walls the thatched roofe upbraid. 
Whose shrill saint's-bell bangs on his Ictery, 
While the rest are damned to the plumbery f 

Hall, StUiret, v, 1, p. 87. 
Tuaeos is trade-falne ; yet great hope he'le rise. 
For now he makes no coimt of penuries. 
Hath drawn false lights from pitch-black loveries, 
Glased his braided ware, cogs, swearea, and hes. 
* rvvT/^ TV ^^'^<»h Scourge of nil., u, 6, p. 196. 

IA)U6H, «. A lake ; pronoanced lock, 
or rather with the northern guttural 
l/h, which we cannot exactly imitate, 
ii is an Irish and Erse word^ still 
▼ery current in Scotland. 

The river 
the west. 

Whom Ireland sent from hmght, and farettMHMu 
Divided far by sea from Europe's shore. 

Fair/ax, Tu$0, i, 4i 
Tu Cheshire highly bound for that his watry store. 
Ajb to the grosser toughs on the Lancastrian shore. 

Drayton, Polyoli., Song zi, p. SQ 
f For passing over Haerlam Mere, a hofEe In an 
lough, in company of his father, who had bin is 
Amsterdam. HoKeWs Familiar Letter*, 1^56. 

LOVING-LAND. A part of Suffolk, 
almost insulated between the river 
Yar and the sea, at the north-east' ro 
extremity of the county ; now called 
by a very opposite name, Lothing- 
land, from the lake Lothing, or 
Luthing, which bounds it on the 
south, near Lowestoffe. 
Waveny bounds it on 
Camden thus describes it : 

Jail) Wavenius, mare propius accedens, dnm dnj^iccM 
in ocennum viam aibi trustra molitur, peniaaiiiaB 
efticit uon exiguam, ouam LovingUutd dicaBt. 


When Waveny to the north 

In >ieptunc'B name commands, that hare their fMCi 

should stav, 
For that herself and Yar, in honour of the deepf 
Weru purposed a feast in Loving -latui to keep. 

Dragt. Fohfdb.^ xiz, mb &L 
For he that doth of sea the powerful trident wield, 
Ilis tritons made proclaim a nymphall to be hetd 
In honour of himself, in Loving-umd, where he 
The most selected nymphs appointed had to be. 

Ibid., B. xz, 1. S. 

In Gough's edition of Camden it if 
called Luthinff'land, and the lake 
LURDEIN. A heavy, lumpish, lazy 
fellow ; from lourd, heavy, and laur- 
din, a heavy clown, French. Some 
of our old authors derive it from lord 
Dane, and suppose it to have been 
formed in hatred and derision of the 
Danes ; and this notion, though per- 
fectly erroneous, was formerly very 
much received. Lambarde, among 
others, has it in his perambulation of 

The Danes were once againe (and for ever) repulsed 
this couiitrie, in so much that soone after the name 
{lord Dane), being before tyme a woord of great awe 
and honour, grcwe to a terme and bywoord of foak 
despight and reproach, being toumed (as it yet eon* 
tinuetu) into lourdaine. Page IIL 

The false derivation is here versified : 

III every house lord Dane did then rule all, 
Wlicnec laysie lozels lurdanes now we calL 

Mirror for Magitfr., p. 686. 

And here also : 

Each house maintained such a Dane, that so they 

might prevent 
Conspiracies, if any were, and grope how minda wan 

Lord Dane the same was called then, to them a pleaiiBg 

Now odiously lur-dane say we, when idle mates we 

blame. Warner's Albion's Engl, iT, 81, p. lOi 




• has loord : 

7rd, for nothifisr good to donne. 
bed forth in ydlenets always. 

2? e,in.vii,i2. 

er, thous but a lasj loord, 

1 rekes much of tliy swink. 

Ibid., Sheph. Kal, July, v. 33. 
greater store of lewu lourdaines then of 
learned lords, or of noble princes and 

tUenham, Art of Engl. Poesie, lib. i, ch. 13. 
iweet strains of tunefull pastoral, 
;th as the lourdayns clownish laves. 
ay/<m'# Skepkerd't Garland, K 2, edit. 1693. 

ly great, lumpish body, as in 
)wing passage a heavy lighter 
lied : 

^reas'd wherry now liad Rot between, 
ler farewel S4mgh unto the lurden. 

B. Jons. Efigr., 134, vol. vi, p. 287. 

has used it: 

|uoth tlie philosopher, thy folly is as zrcat 
1. On Rtformation, B. ii, p. i?f6, foL cd. 
:iat the poet ntHrmes in an epigram upon a 
lurdniu. Optick Glass* f Uumors, 1639. 
lea the time, when honcsc farmers ply 
at and barley, whi'e the weather's dry; 
y lurdens under hedges sleep, 
ward, a hungry Christmas keep. 

Foor Robin, 1780. 

the jocular expression of 

chapiter doth shew of an evyll fevei the 

h comber yonge persons, named iht fever 

kmong all tne fevers I had almost forgotten 

lurJrn, with the which many yonge men, 

nen, maydens and other voii'^e persons ^» 

ed now u dayes. ' 

of this infirmitie.— This lever doeth come 

or else by evill and slouthlull l)iynging up. 

onie by niitnre. then this fever is uncurable, 

never out of the flesh that is bred in the 

rome by slouthfuU brynginjj up, it may be 


,_Xliere is nothing so good for the /<'P<rr 
IS uiigueniuiu baculinum, that is to saye. 
rke or wan of a yeard of length and more, 
be as great as a mans fynger, &c. 

Andr. Borde, ed. 1675. 

', r. n. To bow, to pay 
ce to. Htuiatfy to bend, 

m touting lowly did begin 

of wrongs which had committed bin. 

Spens. F. ^..11, iii, 13. 
• sand-bag he was seen, 
»w like a for'stcr green. B. Jonson. 

, or LOWT, V. a. Apparently, 
? a tout or a fool of; which is 
i interpretation. 

wncd Talbot doth expect my aid, 
[ am loveted by u traitor villsiin, 
inionot hcip the noble cJ";v "'imf 

1 Um. VI, iv, 3. 

»aker alludes to the duke of 
et, who had disappointed him 
Dply of horse which he was to 
ohnson says to overpower ; but 
)wing passage, which Mr.Todd 
bleed, seems to agree with that 

from Shakespeare, as meaning "fooled, 

For few there were that were so much redoubted. 
Whom double fortune lifted up and touted. 

Mirr.for Mag., p. SOS. 

t^b LOUTER. To loiter. 

Vagabond, in its proper sense, is one that wandreth 
about : and a rogue and a vagabond seeme to be all one, 
for the Latine words, vugus and vagabundus. signitie 
the one and the other. So as whosoever wandreth 
about idely and Umteringlg, is a rogue or vagabond, 
although he beggeth not. 

Dalton't Countreg Justice, 1630. 

LOW-BELL, 8. A hand bell, used in 
fowling, to make the birds lie close, 
till, by a more violent noise, and a 
light, they are alarmed, and fly into 
the net. 

The day being shut in, the air mild, without moon- 
shine, take a low-bell, which must have a deep and 
hollow sound, for if it be shrill it is stark naught. 

Gentleman's Recreation, Fowling, p. 89, Svo. 
Here note, that the sound of the low-bell makes the 
birds lie close, so that they dare not stir whilst you 
are pitching the net, for the sound thereof is dreadful 
to them ; but the sight of the fire much more terrible, 
which makes them instantly to fly up, and they 
become entangled in the net. Ibia. 

Other directions are added. To this 
it is that allusion is made in Grubb's 
well-known ballad of St. George. 

As timorous larks amazed are 
With light and with a low-bell. 

Percy's Rel., iii, 321. 
The fowler's lowbeU robs the lark of sleep. 

King's Art of Love, 1. 47. 

It is not clear whether this kind of 
low-bell, or any other, is meant, where 
Petruchio says to Maria, 

Peace, gentle low-bell. B. and Fl. Worn. Prize, i, 3. 

Attempts have been made to derive it 
from Dutch, &c., but it was probably 
named from its low, or deep sound. 
LOW-MEN. False dice, so constructed 
as always to turn up low numbers. 
See High-men. 

Ascham indignantly enumerates va- 
rious sorts of false dice : 

What false dyse use they! As dyse stopped with 
quicksilver and lieares, dyse of VHiintajee, flattes, 
gourdes to chop and change when they liste, to let 
the true dyse fall under the tulile, and so take up the 
fdlse. Toroph., p. 50, repr. 

Both high and low were fullams, being 
filled accordingly, so to come high or 
h)w numbers. See Fullam. 

T»'"s ""cheating] they do by false dice, as high-fuUams, 
^ 5 6 . low-fiillams, 1, 2, 3. Coittpl. Gamester, p. 9. 

Bnstledice are there also fully ex- 
plaineo, which should have been given 
A^ider that article : 

Bristle-dice are fitted for their purpose, by sticking a 
hog's-bristle so in the corners, or otherwise in the 
dice, tliHt they sha'l run high or low as thoy please; 
this bristle must be strong and short, by which 
means. lAe bristle bending, it will not lie onthat«vdft> 
but will b* tiipt otVT. "ttxA. 




LOWER, s. A lowering look, a frown. 

]Io\r blisse or bale lyet in their iHugli or /orrc, 
Whilst they injoy their happ^ bluoniing flowre. 

Jjamely Compl. ofRosAnumd. 
Pliiloclea was jealous for Zelmane, not irilhout so 

mighty a lower as that face could yield. 

Sidney, cited by Todd. 

LOWIN, JOHN. An early actor in the 
playg of Shakespeare, particularly 
famous for personating Falstaif. He 
has heen supposed to be the original ; 
but if the date of his birth, 1576, 
which appears on a picture of him in 
the Ashmolean Museum, be accurate, 
he must have been too young for that 
part, when the First Part of Henry 
IV appeared. He figures in the 
induction to Marston's Malcontent, 
with other players. See 0. PI., iv, 
p. 1 1, &c. His name occurs in many 
plays of James the First's time. It 
appears that he played also Morose, 
in the Silent Woman ; Volpoue, in 
the Fox ; Mammon, in tlie Alchemist ; 
Melantius, in the Maid's Tragedy ; 
Aubrey, in the Bloody Brother ; and 
many other parts. See the edition 
of Shakespeare of 1813, vol. iii, p. 
354; also p. .533. He and Taylor 
were managers after Heminge and 
Condell. Lowin and Taylor published 
the Wild-goose Chase of Beaumont 
and Fletcher, when it was recovered 
in 1652; prefixiui^ a dedication *' to 
the Honoured Few, Lovers of Dram- 
matic Poesie." It was printed in 
folio, to add to the edition of 1647, 
not having been to be found wiieu 
that was published, which contains 
thirty-three plays, besides masques. 

fLOWMOST. For lowest. 

It skyllctli not wliitlior that {?ood nuns soulcs have 

tone, ueyUicr lulu what place their karkases have 
fne thrbwin ; aui p'U shall fyiide them out, and 
frvtluT tlnni tojrcthiT from the lower quarters of the 
world, and a'^mne from the liyuhest pole of henven, 
to the loiTinosle. raraphrase un Erasmus, lS4b. 


Bay of Cadir, where the earl of Kssex, in the Swift- 
sure, a p«>«>d sailt-r, jr-ive a lozf from the fleet, and 
c<tmc into the hay a mile before them. 

Lflter dated 1625. 

LOZELL. See Losel. 
fLUBBERD. A lubber. 

p. Thou slovenly /wWrrJ, and toyish fellow, what idle 
toyes gocsi thou fanta»ticaiin);. 

The Vastrmjrr of Benrntvlo, 1612. 
Thus, whininp. pray'd this itn at old luhhrrd. 
The chinkes in's cheeks with tears all blubhcrd. 

Homer a la Mode^ 1665. 

LUBBERLAND. There was an 
proverbial saying about ** Lubbsti 
where the pigs run about r 
roasted, and cry, Come eat me." 
tiiis Ben Jonsou alludes in the 
lowing passage : 

Good mother, how shall we find a pi$ if we 
look aliout for it P will it run off o' the spit ii 
mouths, think y<iu, as in Lubherland. and err. t 

liartk. hi, 

This was something like the pm 
Cocaine, or our land of Cock 
and, in fact, Florio renders Coo 
in his Dictionary, bv Lnbban 
It was properly called Lubber, 
because lubbers onlv would belie 
its wonders. 

tThis month the weather being too hot for the 
work, it will be good for them to ^o into Lubb 
where the rocks are *)11 of sugarcaiidy, and the 
ebb and flow with pure canary ; the timber t: 
houses is veuison-))u8ty crust, the morter. <> 
custard, paragelled with sack posset ; niinr 
grow upon trees, and capons ready masted fl; 
the country. Their fajf^ots are made of Wei 
hams of baron, and nistead of witlis, is b<mii« 
with sausages, i'iiere is also an high mount:. :i 
of Parmezan grated cheese, whereon dwell a 
who do nothing else but make mackeroons. 
them with capon-broth, and is continually 1 
them about to whosoever can catch thcui. 

Poor Bobi* 

tLUBECK. The beer of Lubeck 
celebrated, and appears to have 
very strong. 

1 think you're dnink 
With Lubeck beer orBrunswick mum. 

Atbetttu WiilUrtsteit 

LUBRICAN, it seems, was a spirit : 
of his properties we are not 
informed. More of him may 
ha))s be found in the old Den 
logies. His gronns are spoken • 
deadly, or at least ominous. 

\\\ the niandiake's dreadful groans. 
By the Litbrtcon's sad moans. 
By the no se of dead men's bones 
In charnel-houses ratthng. 

Dra'jton, AymphiJia, 

He is more particularly menti 
here, and is called Irish, m 
because it is an Irishman wl 
alluded to : 

As for your Irish Luhrican, that spirit. 
Whom by prepostrons rhainis thy lust hath n 
On a wrong cirele, him Til damn more blai k 
Than any ivram's soul. 

* Decker, lion. Ilk., P. 2, O. i'l.. in. 

LUBRICK, aflj. Incontinent ; 
lubrictts, Latin. 

I'll be no pander to him ; and if I And 
Any loose Ivbnck 'sciipea in Inm. I'll watch hi 
And, at my return, protest I'll shew you all. 





Lias been quoted as referring to 
'can, but erroneously. Lubnck 
emplified in this sense from 
?n, and in cognate senses, from 
aw and others. See Todd. 
An old name for a pike or 
from iueiuSy Latin, or lus, 
h. Dr. Johnson says, a fuli- 
1 pike; but the distinction, if 

be any, is between jack and 
these names, not between pike 
tee. Jack is a young fish, pike 
ee the same fish full grown. 

Walton, who, in such matters, 
nt authority, says, 

(hty luee or pike is taken to be the tyrant, as 
nun it the kin^ of the fresh waters. 

Part I, chap, viii, d. 155. 
V is the fresh fish ; the Kilt fish is an ola coat. 

Merry JF. W., i, 1. 

neaning of the latter passage 
»een much disputed ; perhaps 
; Shallow was intended to say 
he iolt luce, or sea-pike, is an 
bearing thai; the iuce, simply 
led, which is the fresh pike. It 
een generally thought, that in 
it sportive dialogue about luces 
kes, as the arms of justice 
)w, Shakespeare meant to allude 
se of his Warwickshire neigh- 
sir Thomas Lucy ; and to con- 
little good humoured satire in 
iring him to this foolish justice. 
►1 under or equivoque between 
id louse, which sir llugli Evans 
, occurs also in a lampoon on 
lomas Lucy, which Oldys pro- 
as Shakespeare's, on the autho- 
* a Mr. Jones : 

tie is Lucy, as some folks miscall it, 
Lncjf is lovsie whtiterer befall it. 

ile satire is said to have occa- 
the removal of the great bard 
Warwickshire to London, to 
we owe his infinitely superior 
5s. See Drake's Shakespeare 
is Times, vol. i, p. 409, &c. 
luces haurianr, argent, in a field 
led with crosslets, were certainly 
ms of the Lucys of Charlecot, 
y be seen in Dngdale's War- 
lire. But Shakespeare has 
S^hallow a dozen of these fishes. 
''ishmoDgera* Company is de- 

scribed by Stowe as having horses 
painted like sea-luces, in a procession 
in 1298: 

Then four salmons of silver on foure horses, and after 
them sixe and fortie armed knijclites riding on horses 
made Uke luces of (he sea. Surrey of jS>nJ., p. 71. 

The sea-pike, or luce, was the cod. 
See Cotgrave, in Brocket de mer, and 
Pike, in the English Dictionary sub- 
joined. Merlus, one of the French 
names for cod, is las de mer, or lus 
mar in. 

Puttenham gives us some rhyming 
Latin verses, in which pope Lucius 
is satirised, by comparing him to the 
fish lucius : 

Lucius est piscis rex et tyrannus aquarum, 
A quo discordat Lucius isle panini. 

Art Of Pvesie, B. i, ch. 7, p. 9. 

False quantities were not much re- 
garded by the poet or the critic, 
otherwise they might have put very 

Rex atquc tyrannus, 

without destroying the other beauties 
of the line. There is, however, 
another such error in six lines only 
that are cited. 
LUCERN, s. A sort of hunting dog; 
perhaps as coming from the canton 
of Lucerne, in Switzerland. 

Let me have 
My Lucerns too, or dogs inur'd to hunt 
Beasts of most ni])ine. 
Ckapiiutn's Bussy D'Atnbois, net iii, Anc. Dr., iii, 280. 

Also an animal whose fur was much 
valued : 

The polecat, masterne, and the rich skind Lucerne 
I know to chase. Ji. Jr Ft. Beygar's liiuh, iii, 3. 

h\ the life of sir Thomas Pope is 
mentioned a ** black sattin gown, 
faced with Luserne spots." On 
which Warton says, in a note, "The 
spotted fur of a Russian animal called 
a Lucern, anciently much in use and 
esteem ;" p. 7, where he quotes other 
authorities. Minshew tlms describes 

Lucerns, wliich is the skin of a benst so called, being 
iiejire the bijjucsse of a wolfc. of a colour betvreenc 
red and browno, S!>uictliiii^ iniivled like a cat, and 
mingled with blncke spots, bred iii Muscovic and 
Kussia, and is a very rich furre. Li the word Furre. 

[Chapman uses the word in II., xi, 
417, where the original is Owes, 
wolves, or perhaps jackalls.J 

f A.S wlicnu den of bloody lucerns cling 
About a g'iodly piihned hurt. . . . But mastered 

of his wound. 
Embossed within a aUad>| VuVV \)ci« («eerM ^\Ax%<&\fix&, 


LUC 5: 

tLUCULENT., or fair. Lat. 

t^1niJc.lll■(^■tD1IrT^uU■IJIcllUll[lionof the vuJr), 
■lid tlie imcaiilni^blc jMlnm hidi Gmrgc umti^ 
ttidMfiPEHbri^bl Abilfm/atf AgoJdeHCpfaccoiil- 
iiiK M liu niKUJIie requirtd) denundeiL enUrtubp- 
aoi^ vlurrby Iw niglil be Rriealiid after liii 

LUCY, ST. The dny of this saint wm 
the i3lh of December, nnd is still 
marked iii our kaleiidftrs. See Brady's 
ClavLS Cftlend., ij, 32-2. Donne con- 
siders it Rs ihe shortest day, which 
it wonlJ be befure tlie style was 
changed, which put the Boli'tice eleven 
days later. By the year 1(189, the 
shorteiit day was become the 1 1th of 
December. See the almanacks uf 
that year. This snint was of Syra- 
cuse, and an early martyr to the 
proTession of Chrislinnity. 
St. Lucie is thus celebrated by Vers- 
tegan, in his Triuiuphe of Fcminyne 
Saintes : 

Nd, do, qimii iIkc ; (be myiid beiikiF pun 

lUc Wy it umlirnd, 
TIkii wilh tilt tireati >Ure uBTlnil itm, 

AiidiiloriewtlinniiiHl. fonrt.lSDl, p. CG. 

Til tJiv jvu't mjdtii^lil, aml'lt it the ilay'i, 
Ltafi. vbo Muce •»«! houn herHJf uiiniul:!, 
Dmia'i Kotinr—l ufaa St. Lutii't Dq), hinf fi< 
Sttrlril tin, nl. il, p. 43, Fil. of 177*. 
Tliink that tlicy but; ibu, and Ibink Ihat lit* 
Lajt iliti to ilccp but n SI. Lueir'i ni(]it. 

ftiV, Prcgra, cfll.c S«/, Tol. iii, 70, 

LUCY, BLACK. A lady of a very 
different cliaracter, spoken of by Ben 




(ad, Uk 

tbou an In Uie ulact. 

IHmnri<s. vol. ii. f. sot. cd. GitF. 

It is not much to be regretted, that 
we have no further account of this 
disreputable lady. 
A LUGGR. >., for a slug, or sluggard. 
Anything heavy or lumpish. K. As- 
cham ajjplies it to a bow, which was 
of a BluEuisb nature: 

1 he inujF rriioii I flnd line ill Kro bowel (hat I bare, 
• hrri-ul ilie one ii «f rh>1e. kt.— Ihl otiier ii 

TiiMpk., p. S, rrpr. 

Of these bows he lells u^ the first 
was spoiled by being left bent, but 

A. for my (.ojt. il ...i not one ubii tbe wortt. but 
•ImtU b; anil b]r at ■ cll ami at Tatn » eier il diit. 

2. A perch or rood to measure 
conlaiuiug 16 feet and a half: 

For tudante leapt vJiicli Urbon did rampd 
CooliD to mabr.bemE Eigbl /i^j of EToqpd. 


3. An ear, or rather the pendent 
of the ear. Coles renders i 
Latin, "Auris lobas, auricula infi 
In this sense it is hardly ob« 
but unpolished. It occara ir 
whimsical drama of Midas : 

Sole him, aeiif htm by the lug 
plirases used in Lincolnshire, wi 
mastiff is set upon a hog. 
LUGGED, part. adj. Fulled or s 
by the ears ; Ironi lug. 

■$bliwd. I mil i> milanchoW u a cib cul . or a 
bear. 1 Uni. J 

Tbou^b l«ggfit iudcfd, and * ouniied tcet ilL 

So in a poem by captain John Si 

' '"^ Gifl.Fai.K 
Heail-liiggfd. Lear, iv, 2, is a diff' 
thing. It means only pulled b; 


higl I -seasoned meat pye, of vei 
lamb, for which receipts are givi 
Salmon's FnmilvD)ctionary,Knd i 
books of the kind. A small I: 
called The Youn^ Cook's Mot 
primed in 1500, terms it a Lom 
pje, which is probably right ; i. 
iialian pye. It was made of mi 
meat and beef suet, with forced 
and other seasonings, aud direct 
he rolled up in the cauls of ve 
the form of sausages, and put ii 
pye- _ 

cuatmJ, and CDUIinn 

■<naa 111 Ihii Klih ■ ani 
Inieri.tlKii UVt flte ttX, 
rum. hur r^ uf cni 




■ingle all these toother, except tlie marroir, tlien 
make it up in long ^es, altout the bigness of an ejfg, 
and in everr bole put a {mod piece of marrow, put 
these into the pie; tlien put a quarter of a pound of 
butter, and half a sliced lemon, then make a caudle 
of white wine, sngar and verjuice, nut it in wlien you 
take yoar pie out of the oven, you may use a grain 
of musk and ambergriece. 

True Qentleiooman*s Delight, 1676. 

tLUMPE. To look sullen. 

It did so gaule her at the harte, that now she beganne 
to froune, Immpt, and lowre at Iter liousebande. 

Ricke his Farevell,\h%\. 

fLUMP-LOVE. Interested love. 

Now he ate, and he drank, and he kiss'd, and he 




the delights of lump-love he enjov'd; 
His meat, and his mistress, and eke too his liq 
Were all tit to please a fat rector or f icar. 

Deny down, down, &c. 

Old Song. 

LUNES, plur. a. Lunacy, frenzy. 
French. Thought to be peculiar to 
Shakespeare. He has used it, ac- 
cording to the modern editors, in the 
Merry Wives of Windsor : 

Why, woman, your hnsband is in his old lunes azain. 

IV, 2. 

But here the quarto, 1630, and the 
folios, 1623 and 1632, read lines; the 
older quartos, vaine. 
In the Winter's Tale : 

These dangerous unsafe limes o' the king! hcshrcw 

them — 
He roust be told on't and he shall. ii, 3. 

There it is authorised by the old edi- 
In Troilus and Cressida we have, 

Yea, watch 
Tlia pettish lunes, his ebbs, his flows, ns if 
The passage and whole carriage of this action 
Bode on his tide. ii, 3. 

In this place again it is Hanmer's 
emendation from lines; but certainly 
Tery probable. 
Lastly it is in Hamlet : 

The terms of our estate may not endure, 

HaZ'trd so neiir us, as doth liourly gron- 

Out of his lunes. iii, 3. 

This is also an emendation of a modern 
editor, namely, Theobald. The old 
quartos read brows, the folio lunacies; 
80 that, in fact, out of four passages, 
only one presents us with this word 
on the authority of the old editions ; 
and yet, in all the places, the reading 
is certainly probable, and better than 
those for which it is substituted. 
Could we find any other authority for 
the wtird, it would greatly increase 
the probability. 
A LUNGIS, s. A long, awkward fel- 
low. LongiSy French. It is thus 
curiously defined by Minshew : '* A 

slim me, slow-back, a dreaming gan- 
grill, a tall and dull slangara, that 
hath no making to his height, nor 
wit to his making." As to his gan- 
gril and slangum, I believe they are 
mere slang. Almost the same words 
are in Cotgrave. Coles has it, "A 
lungis, procerus, bardus." 

Knaves, varlet! what, lungis! give mc a dozen of 
stools there. 

heeker^s Satiromastix, Grig, of Drama, iii, 119. 
How dost thou. Ralph ? Art thou not slire^ dly hurt ? 
the foul great lungies laid uruuercifuliv uu thee. 

B. > Fl. Knight of Burit. Pfstle, act ii. 
If he were too lon^ for the bed, they cut o(T his legs 
for catcliing cold, it was no place for a lungis. 

Euph. and hisEiigl., P 1. 

LUNGS, s. A fire-blower to a chemist. 

That is his fire-drake, 
Ills htiigx, his rephyrus, he that puffs his coals. 

B. Jons. Alch., ii, 1. 

In scene the second he several times 
addresses Face by the name of Lunys. 

The art of kindling the true coal, by Lungs; 
With Nicholas Pasquill's. meddle with your match. 
B. Jons. Ezecr. on Vulean, vol. vi, 4'/7. 

Among the members of his philoso- 
phic college, Cowley mentions ** two 
lujigSf or chemical servants.'* 
fTo LURCH. To absorb. 

Which lurcheth all provisious and makcth everything 
dear. Bacon, Essay xlv, 

Kirh w orde fme tlionpht) did wound nie so, 
Kadi iookc did lurche my harte. 

TurhrrrilWs Tragicall Tales, 1687. 

LURCH-LINE. The line of a fowling- 
net, by which it was pulled over, to 
enclose the birds. 

But when he hennl with wliom I had to deale. 

Well done (quoth he) let him go beute the bush, 
I and my men to the lurch-line will steale. 

And pluck the net even at thepresent nush. 

Mirr.for Mag., p, '2 W. 

LURDAIN. See Lourden. 

LUSH, aflj. Of uncertain derivation, 

but evidently meaning rich, luxuriant, 

succulent, as applied to vegetation. 

Hanmer had explained it otherwise, 

and Johnson followed him. 

llow /n.tA and lusty the grass looks 1 how green ! 

Te,Hpest, ii, 1. 

It has been attempted to introduce 
the word also into Mids. N. Dr. in- 
stead of luscious, but without suffi- 
cient reason. 

It is not in the old Dictionaries, but 
has been found in some other authors; 

Then greenc and void of strength, and lush and foggy 

is the blade, 
And cheers the husbandman with hope. 

Golding's Ovidt xv. 


Shrubs lush and a\mo%l VW.^ %. ^rr|«^<&« 




from this, there being no more certnra 
origin for it. 

J LUSK, s, A lazy, lubberly fellow ; 
derived, with some probability, from 
iaehe, French, or from vin louache, 
the dregs of wine. Cotgrave renders 
faloiirdin, "A luske, lowt, hirden, a 
lubberly sloven, heavie sot, lumpish 

So, ho, so, ho, Appetitus 1 faith now 1 think Morpheus 
himself hath been here; up, with a p<»x to vou; un, 
you lusk ! Lhtffva^ (). PL, v, 241. 

The luske in health is worser far 

Than he that keeps his bed. 

KendaFs Poems, 1877, 1 7, cit. Cap. 
tWhat thou great Imke, said I, art thou so farre spent, 
that tliou hast no hope to recover? wliat hast thou 
lost thy wittc together w ith thy wealth ? 

TereHce in English, U\^' 

To LUSK, r., from tlie former. To loll 
about idly, to be lazy, and indulge 
laziness ; to lie or bask at ease. 

Not that I meanc to fain an idle god, 

Tliat lusks in lica\'n and never looks abroad. 

That crowns noi virtue, and corrects not vice. 

Svh. Dm Bart., I, vii. 
He is my foe. friend thou nut him, nor forge him 

amies, bnt let 
lliiu iKske at home unhonourcd, no good by him we 
get. Wanier, Alb. Engl, vi, 30, p. 147. 

Leaving the sensunll 
Bast- hangers on, tusking at home in slime. 

Marston, Sc. of Vill, iii, 8. 
-^Nny. now you puff, lusk, and draw up your chin, 
T« ii'ie tlie poor chain you run a feasting in. 

Cotgrave' s Wits Interpreter, 1671, p. 311. 

LUSKISH, adj. Lazy; from Lusk. 

Rouse thee, thou sluegish bird, this mirthful May, 
Fur shame, come forth, and leave thy luskish nest. 

Drayton's Owl, vol. iv, p. 1292. 

In the edition of 1619 it is iuskie. 

Than any swine-heard's brat, that lowsic came 
To luskish Athens. 3/arston, Se. of Jill., i, 3, p. 184. 
Eyther for a diligent labourer to be planted in a bar- 
ray uc or stony soyle, or for a luskisAe loytercr to be 
setlrd in a fertill ground. 
HoUiished's History of Ireland, C 2, col. 1, cit. Cap. 

LUSKISHNESS, «. Laziness. 

But when he saw his foe before in vew 

He shook off luskishnesse. Spens. F. Q., VI, i, 35. 

fLUSTER. A den of a wild beast. 
From Lat. lustrum. 

But turning to his luster, calves and dam 

He shews abhorred death. Chapm. Odyss., xvii. 

LUSTICK, adj. Lusty, healthy, cheer- 
ful. The Dutch word lust is the same 
ns tlie English, and lustick is only the 
English pronunciation of the adjective 
liistiffh, which is derived from it, and 
answers to our lusty. The folio edi- 
tion of Shakespeare spells it lustique. 

Here comes the kin^. Laf. Lustick, natht Dutchman 
. says : I'll like a maid the better while I have a tooth 
in my head ; why he's able to lead her a corranto. 

JlVs well that ends v., ii, 8. 

To make his heart merry, as he has made 
As lustiek and frolick as lords in tlieir )Kr 

Can walk a mile or two 
As lustique as a boor. 

Hans Beer-poVs IwgislhU ComUg, 
cited by Steereiu. 
What all lustick, all frolicksonief 

mtcke* of Zdmaakir*, 

A Flemish peasant is represented 

saying to his mistress. 

Come yffrow, dve man is away gane, but oaxct 
frolick, lustick, high speel, zing and dannce. 

Weakest goes to Ike Watt, J> i, 

fTo LUSTBATE. To go round. Lat. 

Thrice through Aventines mount lie doth huinU, 
Thrice nt the sronie gate in vain he beats. 

And from ihn hill, thrice tired, he retreats. 

Virgil, by ^Mrs^lO-! 

tLUSTY-GAliLANT. The name of 
old daunce, and probably of a popu- 
lar ballad in the sixteenth century. 

After all they danst lustie galUtnl, and a diwcei 
Danish lavalto or two, and so departed. 

Nash's Terror* of Ike Niiki, ISH 

LUSTYHED, s. Lustiness, or rather 
lust fulness. The old termination -ked^ 
or 'hoody instead of -ness. 

Like a young squire, in loves and lustjfked 
His wanton days that ever loosely led. 

Spent. F.q.,1,%1. 

It is common in Spenser's writings. 

That whisper still of sorrow in their bed. 
And do despise both love and lustukead. 

Dragt. Eel., 7, vol. ir. 14». I 

fLUSTY-JUVENTUS. This was the 
title of an early morality play, the ob- 
ject of which was to picture especially 
"the frailty of youth." Hence the 
title became popular in the aignifica- 
tion of a gay young man. 

Old Ind, and bold lad, such a boy, such a hstii 

Well to their workc they goe, and both they jmbls 

in ot\L' bod : 
Worke so well they like, that they still lilct to be 

working. BamrfieU's .affectionate Shepkerd^VSH. 

fLUSTY-LAWRENCE. Agoodwendi- 
er. The term occurs in this sense in 
Dekker*8 Wonder of a Kingdom. 

fro LUTE. To stop up with clay. 

Than nut all this composition into some violl, wUdM 
must he well luted or clnyrd about the mouth, or » 
emplaistrcd that the clayeng or lutyng be higberthaa 
the violl. Secretes of Mayster Alacie, 1N0. 

Let them stand so seven dnys well covered and sU^i^ 
then after distill the same* in ashes with an earn 
fire, all being well luted, ibr the space of four houi 
(lest the honey boil). 

Lupton's Thousand Notable nUiigt. 

tLUX. Expensiveness. Fr. luxe, 

YoT the learning, the pnidentiall state, knowkd^ 
and austerity of the one, and the venerable opfadoa 
the peeple have of the abstemious and rigid conditta 
of the other, specially of the Mendicants, seem to naks 
som compenstitiou for the lux and magnificence of tks 
two hist. UowelVs Familiar Lettere, WO. 

It is probable that luscious is demed 




LUXUR, 8. A luxurious or lustful 
person ; from luxury^ in the sense of 

And, Vend of heat, kindle inrcrnal fires. 
'Within tlie spendihritt tcins of h dry duke, 
A parchM aud juiceless luxnr. 

RrtfHfjer's Tragedy, 0. PI., It, 307. 

LUXURIOUS, ar/j. Lustful. 

She knows Uie heat of a luxurious bed. 
Her blush is ^Itiness, not modesty. 

AfMck Ado a. N., iv, 1 . 
() must insatiate, luxurious woman. j 

Titvs Jndron., v, 1. 
What worse diszrace did ever kinir sustain. 
Than I by this luxurinva couple have? 

tfrbstrraHd RvvUy's Thrae. Wonder^ 1,1. 

LUXURY, 8. Lewdness, incontinence. 
Thie is the sense of tlie word luxuria, 
in the usage of the schools. Hence 
luMuria, in Italian, has the f^ame 
meaning, and Itixure, in French. 
Capell calls it the proper sense of 
luxuria ; but there his classical know- 
ledge failed him. It never was so 
used, in the Latin language, before its 

How the devil luxury, with his fat rum]), and potatoe 
finjcer. tickles these together ! Tro. and Cress.^ v, 2. 
Let not ttie royal bed of Denmark be 
A couch for ZiixNry and damned incest. Hand., i, 5. 
But soft, I hear 
Some vicioas fool draw near. 
That cries, we dream, and swears there's no such 
As this chaste lore we sing, 
TtMce, luxury I B. Jons. Forest Ep., xu. 

Ab<»ut his wrist his blazing shield did fry 
With swellring hearts in flames of luxury. 

lUteker, Purple Island, vii, 20. 

It 18 the description of Fornication, 
or Porneiu8. 

Wlien women had no other art than wlmt nature 
taught 'em ; — when luxury was unborn, at least un- 
taught the art, to steal from a forbidden trcf . 

Ck/ipman's Mons. l)' Olive, i, 1. 

[Chapman, Iliad, xxi, uses thi8 word 
in a remarkable sense :] 

tWuuhl Ui hcaveti, Hector, the mightiest 
Bred in this region, had imbrued his juvelin in my 

That ftrnug niisfht fall by strong. Where now weak 

wa'er's luxury 
Hoflt make my death blush ; one heaven-bom shall 

like a hoglicnl die. 
Drowned in a dirty torrent's rage. 

A LYA.M, or LYME. A string to lead 
A hound in. See Ltme-hound. 

My d'tg-hook at my belt, to which my liiam's ty'd. 

Drayton, Nympkal 6, p. 1492. 

And again : 

My hound thm in my lyam, I, by the woodman's art 

Furraist where I nuiy lodge the goodly hie-palni'd 

hart. Ibid. 

LYBBET, 8. A slick or staff. 

A becsome of bvrche, for bsibes very fecte, 
A long lasting lybbet, for louhbers most meete ; 
A wytli to wynue np that there will not kecpc, 
Bynda it all np in one and ii«c it to succpe. 

Ctatatfor Common Cursitors, A 4, b. 

These lines are there illustrated by a 
woodcut, representing the parts and 
composition of a birch-broom. [See 

Li « BET.] 

LYDKORD LAW, prov. The law of 
Lydford, Devon ; a proverbial sayinp, 
expressive of too hasty judgment, as 
where the judge condemns fir>t, an! 
hears the cause afterwanls. Ray 
gives the proverb thus : 

First hang and draw, 

Then lu-ar the cause by Lidi'ord lav. 

i'ryr,p. 2&a. 

There is a facetious ballad preserved 
among the Harl. MS8., 2.S07, in 
which this law is the particular sub- 
ject of inquiry. It begins, 

I oft' have hi'ard of Lydford law. 
How ill the morn they Jiang and draw, 

.And ait in ji)d);eme'nt after. 
Ki first 1 woiid'red at it mnch. 
But since I find the reason'n such 

As yt deserves no laughter. 

It is then jocularly accounted for by 
the badness of the castle, where im- 
prisonment was worse than death. 
There were, probably, stannary courts 
there. Ray thinks it a strong satire 
on the inhabitants of Lydford ; but 
it was, possibly, no more than an 
exaggerated reflection on the summary 
proceedings of the stannary laws. 
The ballad is attributed to William 
Browne, the author of the pastoral, 
in Prince's Worthies of Devon, where 
it was first printed. It was reprinted 
by Shaw, in the Topographer, vol. ii, 
p. 380, with some additional remarks. 


LYFEN, V. Of uncertain meaning, 
observed onlv in these lines : 

And with such sighs, 
Laments, and acclamations lyj'en it. 

Marston, Antonio's Retenge, sign. £ 9. 

Can it mean enliven, or revive? 
LYM. See Lime-uound. 
LYM BO. See Llmbo. 
LYMMER. Apparently a plunderer. 

To satisfic in parte the wronz which had bene offred 
liim, by those lymmcrs and r«>l»bers. 

llulnsh. Hist, of frel., B b -i, col. 3. 

LYMPHAULT, from limpy and kali. 

Or Vulcmus the lymphanlt smithc. 

Chnloiier's Aforiit Encom., C b. 
He [Vulcan] plaietli the jester, now wyth hys lymp' 
haultyne, now with skofhiig, 8cc. 

Ditto, cit. by CapelL 

Lf/mphaulti/ne, is probably a press 
error for 2ymp/iault\|ng . 




LYRIBLIRING. A sort of cant or 
factitious word for warbling or sing- 

So may her ears be led. 
Her ears where miuike lives. 
To heare and not despise 
Thj lyribliring cries. 

Fembr. Jrcndia, iii, p. S95. 


MACAROON, «. An affected busybody ; 
from tnaccaroni, Italian. I have not 
seen any instances of it, except the 
following, which are given by Mr. 
Todd : 

Like a big wife, at sieTit of lothed meat, 
Ready to travail ; so I sieh and sweat 
To hear this tnacaron talk in vain. 

Donne** Poems, p. 133. 
A maearooH, 
And no way lit to spcnk to clouted slioon. 

Elffftf OH Donne, cd. 1660, ibid. 

This is nearly the same sense as per- 
sons of a certain age remember to 
have been given to the adopted word 
macaroni itself; namely, a first-rnte 
coxcomb, or puppy -, which has now 
another temporary appellation, dandy , 
corrupted or abbreviated, I presume, 
from Jack-a dandy. 
MACE, *., was anciently a term for a 
sceptre ; it means, however, in the 
following passages, a more destructive 
weapon, a club of metal. Massue, 
French, as Dr. Johnson has it in his 

O murdrous slumber I 
I^iy'st tliou thy leaden mace ujwn mv boy, 
That plays thee niusick ? JuUm Cat., iv, 3. 

Thus also : 

Arm'd with their greave8,and maces, and broadswords. 

Four Prentices, O. PI., vi, 542. 

In the sense of a sceptre, we find it 
in several places : 

Wlio mightily upheld that royal maee. 

Shenser, cited by Stccveus. 
Proud liirouiiiius 
n<M»ted from Rome the sway or kindly mace. 

3/arius and Sulla, 1594, cit. St. 


Let his diet be very good « amie meates. Two mom- 
ings next following give him h little Mithridatum in 
clarified mace ale, and cause him to sweate an houre 
or two in his bed. 

Barrough's Method of Physick, 1624. 

MACHACHINA, *. A dancer of mat- 
tachine dances ; from Mattaccino, 
Italian, a buffoon who danced in a 
mask. It is used by Harrington, in 
his translation of Ariosto, but is not 

warranted, in that place, by the 
original : 

A foule, defomid, u brutish cursed crew. 
In body like to antike worke devised. 

Of monstrous shape, and of an ugly hew, 
like masking Mackackinas all disguised. 

Some look like dogs, and some like apes in rev.«L 

Harrington elsewhere writes the name 
of the dance in the same manner: 

I compared the homely title of it unto an ilUfaTouti 
vitor, such as I have seen in stage-playes, wlten tii^ 
dance Mackackinas, which covers as sweet a fact 
sometimes, as any is in the conipanic. 

Anatomic of Jjax, sign. L. ii, 6 [169Q. 

But see Mattachin. 
t-By Mack, a popular oath. 

Is not my daughter Maudge as fine a mnyd. 
And yet, by Alack, you see she troules the liowle. 

Historic o/jlbino and Bellsma, 1636, p. 13a 

fMACKINS. Perhaps a diminutive of 
the preceding. 

There is a new trade lately come up to be a Tocation, 
1 wis not what ; they caU'eni boets, a new usme for 
lu'ggars I thinke, since the statute against gypsies. 
1 would not have my zonne Dick one of those Doets 
fur the best pig in my stye, by the mackiMs ! Boets f 
heav'n shielu him. 

Randolph's Mnses Looking -glasse, 164Sw 

MACON, Tor Mahomet. An old Eng- 
lish form ; as also Mahound, q. v. 

Praiseil. quoth he, be Macon, whom we senre. 
This laud I see he keeps, and will preserve. 

Fairfax, Tiuso, rii, 10. 
But he that kil'd him shall abuy therefore. 
By Macon and Lanfusa he doth' swcare. 

Uarringt. Ariosto, xvi, H. 

MACULATiON, s. Spot, stain, or 
corruption ; an uncommon word, not 
so properly obsolete, as never tho- 
roughly in use ; from maculay Latin. 

For 1 Mill throw my glove to death himself 
That there's no macwation in thy heart. 

Tr'o. and Cress., ir, 4. 

fMAD. Like mad, furiously, madly. 

So that the Belgians, hearing what a clutter the 
Albionians made of tlieir victory which they had iroi 
but by one spot of a die, they fell a making a bonfires 
and tire-works like mad, and rejoicing and iriumphin^ 
for the great victory. Tke Pagan Prince, 1690. 

fMAD. An earthworm. See Mooles. 

fMADGE. A popular name for an 

owl, sometimes called a madge-kowlet. 

The skritch'Owl, us'd in falling towrs to lodse, 
Th' utducky night-raven, and thuu lusie maAge 
That fearing light, siill seekcst uiierc to bide. 
The hate and scorn of all the birds beside. 

T* accompany his all-lanicnted herse. 

In hobhug, jobling, rumbling, tumbling verse. 

Some smooth, some harsh, some shorter, ond some 

As sweet melodious as madge-koiclets song. 

Taylor's WorktM, 1630. 

MADRILL, for Madrid ; whether by 
corruption, or on any authority, I 
have not discovered. 

Your enternrizes, accidents, untill 

Yuu biiould arrive at court, and reach MmdrilL 

Bp. Corbel to Ike D of Buck., Poewu, . 70. 




It is not peculiar to that author, but 
was perhaps common. It occurs 
twice in one scene of Beaumont and 

Were yon erer in Spaine? — I would have yon go to 
Afadri'tl, and against some great spectacle, when the 
court lies there, provide a iireat and spacious English 
oxe and roste him whole, hiir Maid ofthelnne, iv, 2. 

Again : 

Fur a rare and monstrous spectacle to be seen at 
Madrill. Ibid. 

I cannot account for this termination 
of the name, which does not appear 
to be exemplified in any other lan- 
Mage, «. Magician. Magus, Latin ; 
ma go, Italian. 

First enterins, the dreadfull mage there fownd. 
Deep busied ^bout worke of wondrous end. 

Spena. F. ^., III, i»,,14. 

Spenser's Archimage means chief 

My maggot-man Sam at the first Temple-znte 
Will fiuther inform you; if not, my wife Kate. 

Carr's Comts Amoris, 16S7. 

fMAGGOT-PATED. Whimsical. 

Mercury ill placed, gives n troublesome witt, a kind 
of a faniasticK man, wholly bent to fool his estate and 
time away, in prating and trying of nice conclusions, 
and maggot pated whimsies, to no purpose. 

Bishop's Marrono of Astrology, p. 60. 

MAGNIFICAL, adj. Magnificent, splen- 
did, pompous. 

Bestowed upon him certaine gifts after the Turkish 
manner, ana in0ui^n//?ra//tearmesgave him answcre. 
Knolles' Hist, of the Tt,rks, p. 993. 
Fandosto, whose mind was fraught with nrincely 
liberality, entertained the kings, prinres, huu noble- 
men with such submisse courtesie and magnifcall 
bounty. Dorastus and Faunia, A S, cit. Cap. 

Used also in our translation of the 
Bible, 1 Chrou., xxii, 5. 
fMAGNIFIQUE. Used in the same 

This king at Boloigne was victorious ; 
In peace and warre, magnifi^, glorious; 
In nis r»ge bounty he did oil expresse 
His liberality to bee exccsse. 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

MAGNIFICO, 8, A title given to the 
grandees of Venice, who were also 
called clarissimos. See Cory at, vol. ii, 
pp. 7, 1 5, 32, repr. 

Twenty merchants, 
The duke himself, and the magnificoes 
Of greatest port, have all persuaded witb him. 

Mer. of Ven., iii, 2. 
For, be sure of this. 
That the magnifico is much beloved. Othello, \, 3. 

In the dramatis personse of Ben 
Jonson's Fox, Volpone is called a 
magnifico, and he says to Mosca, 

Mosca, go 
Straight take my habit of clarissimo, 
And walk the streets. Act r, sc. 3. 

Which shows that they were synony- 

How, father! is it not possible that wisdom should 
be found out bv igrnorancc? I pray then, how do mHny 
VMgnificoes find it ? Hog has lost, ^c, 0. PI., vi, 403. 

Florio*s Italian Dictionarv, under 
Magnifico, has, ** nobly -minded, nia«;- 
nificent. Alsoa ma^/i(/?co of Venice;** 
and Minshew, in Magnificent, says, 
"tlie chief men of Venice are, hy a 
peculiar name, called magnifici, i. e., 
MAGORKS. The country of the great 
Mogul, formerly called Maghoore. 
See Howe's Continuation of Stowe's 
Chronicle, p. 1003, where he con- 
siders it as a corruption to call that 
prince Mogul, 

My almanack, made for the meridian 
And height of Japan, jriv't th' East India company; 
There tliey may snii.ll the price of cloves and prpper, 
Monkcys.'and cliiua dishirs, five years en«uinj:, 
And kilow the success of the voyage of M<njores. 

Albu'masar, 0. l*i., vii, 146. 

MAGOT-PIE. The hird now called, hy 
abbreviation, a mag-pie. Most pro- 
bably from the French, magot, a 
monkey, because the bird chatters 
and plays droll tricks like a moiiuev . 

Angurs, and understood ichitions, have 

Bv maggot pies and choughs, and rooks, broujfht forth 

The sccrel'st blood of man. Macbeth, iii, 4. 

Augurs seems to be put there for 

He calls her magot o' pie. 

More Dissemblers besides Women, cil. Farm. 

Minshew and Cotgrave both have 
maggatapie in several places ; it is 
possible, therefore, that it was called 
maggoty pie, from its whimsical drol- 
lery in chattering &c., quasi, comical 
pie, or fantastic pie. 
MAHOUND, or MAHOUN. Another 
corrupted name of Mahomet. See 
Macon. Supposed to be formed 
from Mahomed; but Skinner says, 
** Credo Gallos ipsos olira Mahome- 
teni Mahon appellasse, licet vox jam 
in desuetudinem abiit;" in confirma- 
tion of which the two parts of 
Lacombe's Dictionnaire have Mahom 
and Mahon for Mahomet. Roque- 
fort also has Mahom, Mahon, Mahons, 
and Mahum, all as ancient terms for 
Mahomet, or Mahometans. 

And oftentimes by Tervu«i^tk,>x\\\. «ft^ MaWau^L vk^vc^. 




AtkH fowly Mid; by ilahoune, caned thiefe 
That direful! stroke thou dearly sbalt aby. 

Ibid., II, viii, 83. 
Mara, or Minerva, Mahonnd, Termagant, 
Or whoso ere tou are that ^f\\i ajpuust me. 

^rUuMJ, Emp of the Turks. C 4, cit. Cap 
Of sundry fuith tosjethi-r iu that town, 

Tlie lesser pari In Clirisi bfli«ved well, 
Tiic ::rcMter far « ere vot'ries to Mahourn. 

Fair/. Tasso, i, 84. 

MAID-MARIAN. See Marian. 

MAIDEN, affj., as applied to a fortress, 
or fortified town, meant properly one 
that had never been taken, or was 
deemed impregnable. This is the 
true interpretation, and I believe still 
holds, in military language. Of 
Beauvais, on the Oise, the French 
writers say, ** Elle se glorifie de 
n'avoir jamais 6te prise ; ce qui Ta 
fait uommer la Pucelle.** This ex- 
planation has been overlooked. See 

t^ MAIGNIE. A many. 

A maignie of them the dcsier of bodyly hcaUIi had 
uccasiuncd so to doc ; a good nunibre, the straniiee- 
nesse of miracles did move; nnd vende nianye did 
the verUie and power of the heavenly doctrine diuue 
unto liitn. Parupkrase of Erasmus, 154b. 

To MAIL a hawk. To pinion her, or 
fasten down her wings with a girdle. 

Prince, bv your leave, I'll have a circingle. 
And nuzu you, hke a hawk. 

B. and Fl. Phtlaster, act v, p. 171. 

f^IAIN. A inainpace,C{\\\c\i walking. 

But the left wing ot the horsemen (considering: a 
"rest number of them were yet disparkled asunder) 
bein}£ with much ditbruUie l)^)ll^I.t tuvether, marchid 
a main puce. UoUand's Amimunu* MarceUinus, IGOO. 

fMAIN. A throw at dice. 

And not unlike the use of fuule gamesters, who having 
lost the nutiue by true judgement, thinku to fuce it 
out with a false oath. 

LifUe's Euphues and his EngUmd. 


Thou knowest well yntmgh that I am thy pledge, 
borowe, and magnrperner. 

Hall's Union, 1518, Hen. IV, fol. 13. 

tMAINTAlN. To back, as in betting. 

He thai] not want tliose will maintain him for any 
sum. Shirley's Coronation, i, 1. 

fMAINTENANTLY. Presently. From 
the Fr. 

The Scottes encouraged a fresh, assayled the> r enimirs 
with more egre mindes than they had dune at the 
firste, so that mayntenantly both the winges of the 
Ikytiske armie were utterly discomtiled. 

Hohnshed, 1577. 

To MAKE, r. To do, to be occupied 
in anything; a familiar use of the 
word. What make you here? that 
is, what brings you here? what is 
the occasion of your coming or being 
here? what are you about? It is 

very frequently used by SI 

r^ow, sir ! vhat mate you here ? As yon Ukt 
But, in the beaten way of friendship, vkat m 
at Elsinour ? Bos. To visit you, ray lord ; d 
occasion. UamL 

So, in Love's Labour Lost, the 
asks, ''what makes treason he 
that is, "what business hai» tn 
in this place?'* vSee also Tim( 
Athens, iii, 5, and Haml., i. 2. 

What mak'st thou here. Time? thou, that 

Never stood still by roe? 

B. and n. Four Plays in One, vol. 
Night's bird, quoth he, what mak'st thou in th 
To view my wrAched miserable case? 

Drayton's OipI, vol, iv, ; 
You that are more than our discreter fear 
Dares praise, with such full art, what snake yo 
Davenant to the Q. at Lady Atu 

Johnson, in Make^ No. 16, giv( 
stances of this usage from Dr 
It is, however, no longer curren 

2. To fasten, or secure a dooi 
This is stiil used in Staffordshire 
other counties. 

Make the doors upon a woman's wit, and it 
at the casement. As you tike ; 

Why, at this hour, the doors are made a^inst 

Com. 0/ Errot 

3. To make, for to compose ven 

Poesy is his skill or craft of making ; the ver} 
itself, the reason or form of the work. 

B. Jons. Discov , vol. vii, p. 146, V 
Addicted from their births so much to p«jcsv, 
Thar, in the mountains, those who scarce ha 

a book, 
^lost skilfully will make, as though from a 

took. Drayton, Polyolb., Song iv, 

This word, and maker, are usi 
this sense by Chaucer; who ha; 
makings, for poetical compositio 

4. To make all split, a phrase t 
press great violence. 

I could play Ercles rarely, or a part to tear a 
to nuike all .tplit. Juids. NighVs i 

Two roaring boys of Rome, that made nil split 
B. and Fl. Scornful Lady, ii. 
Her wit I must employ upon this busiui ss, to 
my next encounter, but in such a fashion \ 
make all split. Uldov's Tears, O. PI., 

This expression is similar: 

I love a sea-vnyage, and a blustring tempest. 
And let all spltt. B. and Fl. WUdgo^e Chi 

fi. To make danger, to trVf a Lati 
facere periculum; which woul 
better rendered **to make e: 

If there be e'er a private corner as yon go, sir 
A foolish lobby out o' the way, make danger. 
Try what they are, try — 

• B and Fl. Loyal Subjei 
Thou talk'st as if 
Thou wcrt lousing thyself; but yet I will make 
If I prove one o' th' worthies, frO. 

B. and Fl. Prophete 




After seeing the above pa^isages, there 
can be little doubt that the following, 
from the same authors, must be 
pointed so as to have tbe same mean- 
ing; : 

Mfir. Yoa must now put on boldness, there's no 

aroiding it ; 
And stiind lul hiiards. fly nt all gnmes brnrely, 
They'll uy yoa vent oat like an ox, and return'd like 

an ass, else. 
B^l. I ahall make dauger, sure. WiUgoose Chase, i. 3. 

That is, I shall surely try ; otherwise 
pointed, it seems inconsistent. 

6. To make nice, to scruple, or make 
objections to anything. 

And he that stands upon a slipperr place, 
Mates met of no vile nold to stay uim up. 

A'. John, iii, 4. 

7. To make fair weather, to coax a 
person, and bring tbem into good 
humour by flatteries. 

And by an holy semblance bleare men's eyes 

When'lie intends some dunned villanies. 

Ixion nukes fairs veatker unto Jove, 

That he might make fonle worke with his faire love, 

And is right sober in his outward semblance. 

Demure uid modest in his countenance. 

Marston's Satires, Sat. 1. 

fTo MAKE. **You are upon a busi- 
nesse that will either make you or 
mar you,'* Howell, lt>59, i. e., on a 
business of so much risk that, if it 
succeed, it will make your fortune, 
but if otherwise, will entirely ruin 
To make a dog. 

Those who said they were noble, and degenerated 
ftnm it. were not exempted from the just effects of 
my choltr; I did instruct them, that to be noble was 
not to ride a horse well, or to handle a sword, to man 
a hawk, or to make a dogg, nor to jut it in the streets 
with rich accoutrements. History of Francion, 1655. 

To make much of. 

Mi. Suffer me, I have begun to make much of him i . 
O Chremes helpe me out with it still that it cease not. 
C. Well, say that you spake with me, and conferred of 
the marriage. Terence in English, 1C14. 

To make a shoe, 

A, To take away also purse, and moncT, they call it, 
|0 wkoka a shoos; or else, to.make a little liver. 

Passengir of Bentenuto, 1613. 

MAKE« s. A mate, companion, lover, 
husband, or wife ; from maca, Saxon. 
It was used in the following pro- 

There's no goose so grav in the lake, 
That cannot find a gander for her make. 

Lyly*s Mother Bombie, iii, 4. 
All your parishioners, 
As well your laicka, as your quiristers, 
Had need to keep to their warm feather-beds. 
If thrt be aped of lores; this is no season 
To seek new makes in. B. Jons. Tale of a Tub, i, I. 
And of faire Britomart example take. 
That was as true in lore, as turtle to her make. 


Yet never durst he for his lady's sake 

Bre;ik sword or luuiice, udvanc'd in lofbr sell. 
As fair he Wiisiis Ctihrircii's make. Fairf, Tasso,vet4A» 
AmoHK whose spoils. }(reat Sotyinan's fair make. 
With her deare children, we did cnptive take. 

Mirror for Magistr., p. 643. 

To persons unacquainted with this 
word, the following quaint witticism 
would not be intelligible. In Ben 
Jonson's New Inn, the Host contrives 
to form a hieroglyphic to express this 
sentence, **a heavy pnrse makes a light 
heart ;'* which he thus interprets : 

There 'tis exprest ! first, by h purse of gold, 
A heavy parse, nnd then tw'o turtles, makes, 
A heart with a light stuck in't, a light heart. 

Act i, sc. 1. 

For want of knowing this word, 
II. Dodsley thought it necessary to 
change it to mates, in the expression 
of ** New Custome nnd his makes.'* 
O. PL, i, 269. 
MAKE-BATE, *. A disturber of peace, 
a causer of quarrels ; from to make^ 
and bate, a quarrel. The same as 

So that love in her passions, like n right make-hats^ 
whispered to both sides arguments of quarrel. 

Ponbr. Arcadia, B. ii, p. 150. 
Disdaining this fellow should play the preacher, who 
had been one of the chicfcst mnke-bates. Ibid., p. 200. 
For when men at length betrin to be weary, and to 
repent of their needless quarrels, — they wiU'ccrtmnly 
find out, detest, and invert the c(l<;c of their dis- 
pleasure upon these wretched make-Hates. 

Barrow, Sermon on Rom. xii, 18. 

Stanvliurst, in his translation of 
Virgil, calls Erinnys a make^bate. 
Hall baa a similar compound, make- 
fray : 

If brabbling make-fray, at each fair and size, 
Picks quarrels fur to shew his valiautize. 

B. iv, Sat. 4b 

In Flecknoe's Enigmatical Characters, 
that of a make-bate is drawn at 
length. P. 86. 

Swift is one of the latest authors 
who have used it, and he is cited for 
it by Johnson. The passage at large 
forms no bad definition of the word ? 

This sort of outrageous party-writers— arc like a 
couple of make-bates, who iiitiame small quarrels by a 
thousand stones, and l)y keeping fricnJs at a diBtance, 
hinder the lu from coming to a goo<l undeistaudmg; 
as they certainly would, if they were suffered lo meet 
and debate between themselves. Examiner, No. 15. 

It is used also by Richardson, in his 

Familiar Letters (Lett. 3.5), who uses 

make-debate in the same sense (Lett. 


Analogously to this, Shakespeare has 

the Mord make-peace : 

Tu be a make-peace shall become my n'jre. 

Rich. II, i, 1. 




MAKE-LESS. One deprived of his or 
her mate ; from make in that sense. 

Ah, if thou issueless shalt hap to die. 

The world will wail thee, like a makefess wife, 

The world will be thv widow still and weep. 

Skukesp., Sonnet ix, Suppl., i, p. 588. 

This word is used hy Chaucer. It is 
also in Coles' Dictionary, but is there 
rendered incomparabilis^ i. e., one 
who cannot have a makey or match. 
MAKER. A poet. See to Make, 
No. 3. 

But now let us see how the Greekes hare named it, 
and liow they deemed of it. The Greekes named him 
iro(i}Ti)v, which name Iwith, as the most excellent, 
gone through other lauguages: it cometh of tins 
word irouii', to make: m herein I know nut whether 
by lucke or wisdome, wee Englishmen have met with 
the Greekes in calling him a maker. 

Stdneif'i Defence ofPoesie, p. 606. 
First, we require in our poet or maker (for that title 
our language affords him elegantly Mith the Greek) a 
goodness oi natural wit. 

B. Jons. Discoveries, vol. vii, p. 148. 
Thus hare you seen the maker's douhle scope 
To profit and delight. Ibid., Epil. to Staple of News. 
A poet is as much to say as a maker. And our 
English name well conformes with the Greeke word : 
for of irotctv, to make, they call a maker poeta. 

Puttenh. Art of Engl. Poesie, p. 1. 
So is there yet requisite to the perfection of this arte, 
another manner ot exomation, which resteth in the 
fashioning of our maker's language and siile. 

/6iJ.,B. III. ch. i. p.lU. 
Where he her soveraigne Ouse most happily doth 

And him the thrice-thrce maids, Apollo's offspring, 

With all their sacred gifts; thus expert being grown 
In musick, and besides, a curious maker known. 

Drayt. Volyolb., xv, p. 9i8. 

So also he says of Ben Jonson : 

And for a chair may 'mongst the muses call. 
As the most curious maker of tlit ui ail. 

Elegies, vol. iv, p. 1257. 

Notwithstanding all these instances, 
and some in Todd's Johnson, even as 
late as Dr. VVarton, the word cannot 
be said to have been ever established 
in our language in that sense. As 
introduced bv Warton, it is merely a 
technical explanation of the word 

f Our elder poets graces had, those all 

She now determined to unite in one, 

So to surpass herself, and called him Browne ; 

That beggar'd by his birth, she's now so poor, 

That of true makers she can make no more. 

Verses prefixed to Protcne's Pastorals. 
iAfter this noble earlc his untimely decease, sir 
Anthony Sentlcger was returned into Irelandc lord 
deputie, who was a wise man and a wary gentleman, 
a valiant scrvitour in warre, and a good justicer in 

£eace, properly learned, a good maker in the Kn^lishc, 
aving gravitie so enterlaced with pleasantucsse, as 
with an exceeding good grace he would attainc the 
one without pouting dunipishnesse, and exercise the 
other without loaihtull lightnessc. Holinshed, 1577. 

MALE, or MAIL, *. A bag or trunk 
to carry goods in travelling. Malle, 
French. Still used for the post-bag. 

and thence for the carriage which 
conveys letters. See Minshew in 
**a maUy bouget, or budget." 

No I'envoy, no salve in the nuUe, sir. 

Lo9^9 Z. £.,ili,l. 
Who invented these monsters first did it to a gosUf 

To have u male rendie to put in other folkes stuff. 

Damon and Pithiat. O. PL, i, 120. 
Open the males, vet guard the treasure sure. 

Tamhnrltne, l&90,dt St 

Foul male some cast on fair board, be carpet OCKC w 

clean. Tnsser^t Hush., p. 13L 

Mr. Todd has found malet in tliis 
sense, for which he cites Shelton's 
Don Quixote, iii, 9. 
A sort of late peach. Malum cotmi- 
utum, a cotton apple, from the roagh 
coat. Bacon mentions it as coming 
in September. 

Peaches, apricots. 
And male-cotoons, with other choicer plumbs. 
Will serve for large-siz'd bullets. 

0rdiHary,O PL,x,23a 
A wife here, with a strawberry breath, cherry lipik 
apricot cheeks, and a soft velvet head, like a skA* 
cotton. B. Jons. Barth. Fidr, i, i. 

MALEFICES. Bad actions. Malefim, 

He crammed them with crums of benefices, 
And tilled their mouths uitli meeds of maleficet, 

Spens. Moth. Hub. TaU,\VA. 

MAL ENGINE, a. Wicked ingenuity or 
art ; from maly iind engine j or ingene, 

But the chaste damzell tliat had never priefc 
Of such malengine, and fine forgery, 
Did easely bcleere her strong extremitve. 

Spens. t\ Q., llI.i,W. 

Also as a name : 

For he so cnifty was to forge and face. 
So light uf hanil, and nymblc of his pace, 
Su 8iiu><>tli of ti.niruc, and subtile in his tale, 
That could deceive one looking in his face; 
Therefore by name Malengin tliey him call. 


It is old French also. See Lacombt. 
MALGRADO, adv. In despite of, 
notwithstanding. The Italian word 
answering to maugre, which has been 
more commonly adopted. 

Breathing in hope, malgrado all your beards 
That must rebel thus against your king. 
To see his royal sovereign once again. 

Edward II, 0. PL, ii, MO. 

To MALICE, r. a. To bear malice. 

Who. on the other side, did seem so farre 
From malicing, or grudging his good houre. 
That, all he could, he graced him with her. 

Offending none, and doing good to nil. 
Yet being malie'd both of great and small. 

Ibid., Hymn of Heavenly Lowe, T. 237. 
His enemies, tliat his worth maliced. 
Who both the land, and him, did much abuse. 

Datiiel. Citit Wan, r. 4A. 




Ird god (quod I) forgive me this offence, 
ly I went about to malice thy pretettce. 

£. of Surrey's Songes and Sonnettes, p. 7. 
- from malieing their states, 
in to pity them. 

B. Jons. Etery M. out of his H., v, 11. 

Sorcery ; witchcraft. It 
d law-term, malitia. 

malice hath laid this poison on her. 

ShirUif's Love Tricks, ii, 2. 

), 8. It seems agreed, that 
rd is corrupted from the 
malhecoVj which signifies a 
•; and this certainly is very 
to the dnmb-show preceding, 
I the poisoner of the King is 
ited ; therefore, when Ophelia 

ns this, my lonl ? 


1 is miehing malicho ; it means mischief. 

Haml., iii, 2. 

ching malicho'* he means "a 
5 poisoner." See to Mich. 
lay mean mischief, from mal- 
il action ; which seems to me 
probable: consequently, if 
malicho he the right reading, 
fication mav be delicate mis- 
See Mincing. 

GN, V. a. To regard with 
y, or to act accordingly. 

lyward fortune did malign my state. 

Pericles, v, 1. 
t is come to that extreme folly, or rather 
with some, that he that flatters them 
r spariiijcly is thought to malign them. 

B. Jons. Discov., p. 104. 


\ the latest author quoted by 
I as authority for this word, 
t' it be not quite obsolete, is 
le in use. Nor is the adjec- 
iliffti much more current, 
u poetical use. 

f, *. Curse ; as benison, for 
It is old French. See 

son chnve, cocke and I, byd twenty times 
Gammer Gurton, O. PI., ii, 13. 

igs properly to the time of 


A diminutive of Mary ; of 
d kin. Used generally in 
)t. Hence, as Hanmer says, 
d figure of rags was, and in 
aces still is, called a malkin, 
lied likewise a kind of mop 
f rags, used for coarse pur- 

poses, which was probably so called 
from performing the tasks otherwise 
belonging to Molly. Malkin and 
maukin are the same. See Minshew. 
Other derivations have been attempted, 
but with much less probability, 

Tlie kitchen malkin pins 
Her richest lockrani'bout her reechy neck. Cono/.,ii,l. 

None would look oii lier, 
But cast their g-.izes ou Mnrina's fare ; 
While ours was blurted at, and lield a malkin 
Not worth the time of day. It pierc'd mo through. 
Pericles, iv, 4, Suppl. to Sh., ii, 115. 

Marian, the lady of the morris-dance, 
sometimes had this name : 

Put on the shape of onler and liumanily, 
Or you must ni:irry Malkin, the May-hidv. 

B. /■ Fl. Mons. Thomas, ii, 2 

In Middleton's Witch is also a spirit 
called Malkin : 

Malkin, my sweet spirit, and I. Act iii, sc. 2. 

Hence gnmalkiuy or grey malkin, the 
name of a fiend, shaped like a cat; 
or, in burlesque language, a cat in 
general. See Grimalkin. 
MALL, 8, A hammer, or mallet; from 
malleus, Latin. 

Eflsoonea one of those villeins did him rap 
Upon his headpeece, with his vron mall. 

'Spens. F. Q., IV, r, 43. 

«. e., a smith's hammer. 
Also a giant's club : 

At last by subtile sleights she him hel raid 
Unto his foe, a eyaunt huge and tall. 

Who him disarmeu) dissolute, dismaid, 
Unwares surprised, and with miifhty malt 
The monster mcrcilessc liim made to fall. 

Ibid., I, vii, 61. 

Dr. Johnson explains this a blow, or 
stroke ; but, as a hammer-like club is 
always the attribute of a i^iant, I am 
inclined to prefer the interpretation 
here given. There is, however, no 
doubt, that a mall did also mean a 
violent blow. **Amall, mallei ictus." 
Coles' Diet. 
To MALL, r. To beat down, as with a 
hammer. Hence the more modern 
word, to maul. Coles has " to mall, 
batuo, tundo." Batuo is a Plautine 

But the sad Steele seiz'd not, where it was bight, 
Upon the childe, but somewhat short did fidl, 
And lighting on his horse's head hini quite did mall. 

Spens. F. Q., V. xi, 8. 

MALLENDERS, s. A disease incident 
to horses, consisting of cracks in the 
knees, producing ulcers ; a term still 
care of horses. 

Body o' mc, she lias the mallanders, the scratches,, 
the crovvn scab. B. Jons. Bart. Fair, act ii.. 

use among those who have the 




MALLIGO, s. A corruption of Malaga, 
or the wine there produced. 

Your sti-utig sackes are of the islands of the Canaries, 
oiiil of MuHiffo. G. Markham.,' Bngl. Uonsew., V\}:^^' 
And MaUigo glasses fox thee. Spanuh 6ip*jf,iii, 1. 

MALT-HORSE, «. Twice used by 
Sliake8peare as a term of reproach. 
The malt-horses were probably strong, 
heavy horses, like dray-horses. 

Monie, inalt-horse, capon, coxcomb, ideot. patch ! 

Vi/m. of Errors, iii, 1. 
You pCHSHHt Bwaiii ! you m horesou malt-horse drudge I 

Tamiuff of Shrew, iv,l. 

MALT-WORM, s, A familiar word for 
a lover of ale, one who lives on the 
juice of malt. 

None of these mad, uiusUichio, purple-hued malt- 
worms, i Urn. IF, ii, 1. 

See also 2 Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

Tlicn doth she trowle lu me the bowie, 
Em.ii as u mautt-vormr ah ild. 

Old biiVad. in liitmmer Gurton, 0. PI., ii, 21. 
You iihiill purchase tiie pruvcrs of all tlie nlevives in 
toM n, lur saving a mah-Kurm and a ctistunier. 

Life and Death of Jack Straw, loUS, cit. St. 

So Drunken Barnnby : 

Qui mr orheni duccns Iter 
Titufo ebrii iusignitur. 

Wliich lie himself translates, 

Who thro' all the world has traced, 

And with stile uf Malt-Korm graced. Joum.t F. ir. 

MALTALENT, s. Spleen, bad disposi- 
tion or inclination. 

S(i fonh lie wctit, 
With heavy l(M)ke, and lunipibh puce, that pluine 
In liini lu-wrai'd gieat grudge and mallalenl. 

Spau. F. Q., Ill, iv, 61. 

One of Chaueer*s words. 
fMAM and I) AD, childish words for 
mother and father, are of considerable 
antiquity in our laiifruage. 

Thou untiv'd travellni«: atlniircd jtnime. 
Ko man that's whf Mill liktn tlit-rto ihcni. 
The calfV, thy hooke, nmv call thee sire and dam, 
'lliY ho(l\ is tiic- dud. thy niinde the ntaM. 
Thy toylVhome caika^st^ got this child of worth, 
Which tliv i-lahdiaif uii produced forth. 

Tavhr's U'orkes, 1630. 

To MAMMEK, r. To hesitate, to stand 
muttering:, and in doubt. 1 never 
saw a more unhappy conjecture than 
thai of Hanmer, that this word is 
formed from the Frencli iiC amour ; 
^* which,*' says he, "men were apt 
often to repeat when they were not 
prepared to jrive a direct answer.** 
ijapelTs is probable: lie explains it, 
to speak Nvitii hesitation, like infants 
just beginning to prattle, whose first 
Mord is utamy mam. 

I wonder in my soul 
What you could ask me, that 1 should denv, 
Or stand so inautmcr'nuj on. L .hello, iii, 3. 

Ye, when she daygncs lo send fur him, than mammer- 
iug he dot li 'doute. Draut's 3 Sat. 3 Ii. of Horace, 

1567, cited by Steevcus. 

MAMMERING, «., from the abofe. 
Hesitation, confusion. 

It would not liold. 
But burst in twaine, vith his continaall bamBexiBg, 
And left the pagan in no little mammarituf. 

Harringt. Jru>st0, xM. 101 
Euphues penued this letter oftentimes, beduf ii a 
mammering what to aniwere. 

EHpkues /- kit EmgL, Y S, b. 
fWhoni should I aske for her? what way wot it 
best for mee to goe F I stand in a mammering. 

Terence in Enghsk, I61i. 
fBut is not this Thais which I see? Its erea ihe. 
I am in a mammering : ah, what should I do ! At^ 

MAMMET, *. A puppet, or doll; a 
diminutive of mam. ** Quasi dictt 
parvam matrem, seu matron ulam.'* 
Minshew. *^ MammetSy puppetA, icon- 
culse." Coles. *' Icuuculse — mam- 
me is, or puppets that goe by deviaet 
of wyer or strings, as though they 
had life and moving." Abr, Flenunff*s 
Nomencl.^ p. 308. It has been sup- 
posed to be a corruption of mor^ien/. 

This is no world. 
To ]>lav with mammets, and to tilt with lips.,u,Z. 
I have seen the city of new Nineveh, and Jnlivi 
Ceesar acted by mammets. 

Eeerg Woman in ker Humourt 1609, dt. St 
Nash the ape of Greene. Greene the ape of Eophnea^ 
£uphui's \\ie ape of Envy, the three famous iwgswf/i 
of the press. 

Uarxey's Piercers Supererog., Book iii, b«f. 

Often used as a jocular term of re- 
proach to young women : 

And then to have a wretclied puling fool, 
A whining mammet. in her fortunes tender. 
To answer I'll not m ed — 1 cannot love. 

Romeo /* Jml., iii, S. 
'Slight! you are a mammet! 1 could louse yon now. 

B. Jons. Alckemist, r, 5. 

It was sometimes written maumet : 

And where 1 meet your mavmrt gods, I'll swinge 'em 
Thus o'er my head, and kick 'em into puddles. 

Ji. .^ //. Island Princess, act iv, p. S46. 

This is the true reading, uot'*^ Mahumet 
gods," as some copies have it. The 
following passage illustrates it : 

lie made in that conipace, all the goddes that we call 
hiatcmetls and > doUes. 

Ilotnance of Virgilius, cit. by Stecvens. 

Holinshed also speaks of **inat9mf/« 
and idols." Hist, of Engl.y p. 
108. Ruddiman, in the Glossary to 
Douglas's Virgil, favours the deriva- 
tion from Mahomet, in Mawmeniis. 
[See Maumet.] 
sonage so called, who kept a tippling 
and victualling house, in Tower-street 
ward. The buildings, says Stowe, 
which had once been a lodging for 
the princes of Wales, had iu hit 




rmne, and beene letten ont for 8tnbHn(( of 
tiplers of beere, and such like : aiiiongat 
e Mother Mam-fudding {h% they iernied 
tnv yenres kept this house (or u great iiai-t 
r victualing. Stowe's Survey , p. lOl. 

JE, *. One of the names of 
Is of Paradise; taken from 

re uow, towards the rich Moluquet, 
ring iiraniee and wondrous birds maMuqtus. 
I indeed, if tea, or earth, or sky 
roniler %mm, or goe, or fly.) 
a-s their nest, none knows the dam that 
I them ; 

licy live, for th'aire only feeds them ; 
hey fly, and yet their flight extends, 
heir fligiit their unknown lives-date ends. 

Sylc. Dm Bart., I, 6. 

8 most literally from the 
; and all these fables were 
y believed till of late years, 
re again alluded to in a de- 
u of Wisdom : 

om corns, with sober countenance, 
r-bowrs her ofl aloft t'cul\ance. 
mamuoues wingless wings she has. 

Ibtd., II, u, 4. 

'ingless wings** an* explained 
ormer passage. 

sometimes nsed with latitude, 
te other beings, particularly 

and jocular language. The 
IS often so called. 

rospcr our sport I No mau means evil but 
!ind we shall know him by his horns. 

Jlrrrt, IF. r., v. 2. 
; last man I thought of, save the devil. 

Jeronimo, Part Ist, O. PI., iii, 85. 
was the detil a proper man, gossip ? Mirth. 

Sentleman of his inclies as ever I saw 
le stage, or anywhere else. 
B. JoM. StapU of News. Ist Intermean. 

eakers there mean, however, 
I who acted the devil ; yet the 
ion was clearly suggested by 
tomary use of that form, 
th, in an old epitaph, quoted 
demoirs of P. P. : 

Do all we can, 
Death is a mttn, 
?hat never spareih noue. 

od himself also : 

i' faith, neighbour Verges ; well, God 's a 
Much Ado ah. Noth., iii, 5. 

IS proverbial : 

it he will say I know ryght well, 
ly, that God is a good man, 
ake him no better, and say the best he can. 
■/. of Lmst^ JureHtns,OT\pviQ( Drama, i. 141. 
1 hold a right vise man. 
Merry Geste of Rohin Hoode, bl. let., cit St. 
is owne man: he liveth as he list; he is 
mans coutrolmeut. 

Terence, MS. trans. 1G19. 

HT, *. The finest white rolls. 

tCt French. Skinner. Or 

airiy because small enough to 

within the hand. Minshew, 

It has surely no reference to cherrt, 
which was coarser bread. 

No manehet can so well the courtly palate please, 
As th>it made of the meal fetch'd from my fertil leazei 
The finest of that kind, compared with liiv wheat, 
For fineness of the bread, doth look like common 
cheat. Drayt. Pol^olh., xvi, p. 959. 

The manehet fine, on higlie estates bestowe. 
The courser cheate, the baser sorte must proore. 

Whitney's BmbUms, Fart I. p. 79. 

See Cheat-bread. 

Howbeit in England our finest manehet is made with- 
out leaven. Uavm of Health, cap. iv, p. 23. 
Kisfht, sir; here's three shillings and sixpence, for a 
pottle and a manehet. Honest Wh., O. Fl., iii, 283. 

See Johnson. 

tLady of Arundels manehet. — Take a bushel of fine 
wheat-flower, twenty egts, three pound of fresh 
butter, then take as much salt and burni as to the 
ordinary manehet, temper it together >tith new milk 
pretty hot, then let it ie the space of half an hour to 
rise, so you may work it up into bread, and bake it, 
let not vour oven be loo hot. 

True Gentlncoman's Delight, 1678. 
tTuke a quart of cream, put thereto a pound of beef- 
luet minced small, put it into the cream, and season 
it with nutmeg, cinnamon, and rose-water, put to it 
eight eggs, and but four whites, and two grated 
manchets ; mingle them well together, and put them 
in a buttcr'd dish ; bake it, and being baked, scrape 
on sugar, and serve it. 

The Queen's Royal Cookery, 1718. 

MANCIPATE, part, adj., for manci- 
pated. Enslaved. Latin, manci" 

Though they were partly free, yet in some poynt 
remayned sty 11 as thnill and mnncipate to the siibjec* 
tion of the English men. Holituhed, vol. i, m 8, col. 1. 

MANCIPLE, *. A purveyor of victuals, 
a clerk of the kitchen, or caterer. 
The office still subsists in the univer- 
sities, where the name is tluMefore 
preserved ; but I believe nowhere 
else. One of Chaucer's pilgrims is a 
manciple of the Temple, of whom he 
gives a good character, for his skill in 
purveying. Cant. Tales, v. 569. 
Milton irreverently speaks of thi* 
church dignitaries, as coveting the 
highest offices of the state ; **thoagh," 
says he, *Hhey come furuisht with no 
more experience than they learnt 
between the cook and the manciple, 
or more profoundly at the colledj; 
audit, or the regent house." Oj 
Reformation, B. ii, p. 273, folio prose 

fMANDlLION. A soldier's cloak or 
cassock. ** A loose cassock, such as 
souldiers used to wear.** Blount. 
It was called also a mandevile. The 
name was derived from the Italian. 

A loose hanging gm-ment, much like U> ovtt vvv^VvN. vjt 
jumps, but without %\te>Mt%, ou\^ ^MaL\va,^ XxftX*.?* ^A V^^ 




the arms through j yet some were made with sleeve*, 
but for no oiher use Ihau to hnng on the hark 

Randle Holme. 
Thus put be on his arming truss, fair shoes upon his 

Al)Out him a mandition, that did u ith buttons meet, 
Of purple, large, and full of folds, curled with a warm- 

ful nap, 
A garment that 'gninst cold at night did soldiers use to 
wrap. Ckapm. II., x, 120. 

Then on he puts his painted garment new, 
And pencock-iike himself dotli often view, 
Looks on his shadow, and in proud amaze 
Admires the Iiand that had the art to cause 
So munv severall parts to meet in one. 
To fashion thus the quaint mandilion. 

Du Bartas. 
His blankets are two souldiers mand'dions; his cradle 
is the hollow backe-peere of a rustic armour. 

Decker** Whore of Babylon, 1607. 
Hee looketh as though he quenched his thirst with 
whay and water rnthi r then with wine and stout beere, 
and liis wa««/f7JM» edged round about u it h the stig- 
maticall Latiiie word, fur. Man in the Moone, 1609. 
A Spaniard having a Moore slave, let him goe along 
time in a poore ragged tnandilian without sleeves, 
one asking liim why he dealt so sleevelesly with the 
poore wretch, he answered : I crop his wings, for 
fcare he flie away. 

Copley's Wits, Fits, and Fancies, 1614. 

GORAS, 9, The Latin name of the 
herb called also mandrake, mandrage, 
or mandragon. Hill says, very truly, 
*' The ancients used it when they 
wanted a narcotic of the most power- 
ful kind." Mat, Med, Hence it is 
often mentioned as a soporific. Lyte 
says, in his translation of Dodoens, 

It' is most dangerous to receive intri the body the 
juyce of the roote of this herbe, for if one take never 
so'litlle more in quantitie, than the just proportion 
which he ought to take, it killeth the body. The 
leaves and fruit be also dangerous, for they cause 
deadly sleepe, and peevish drowsiness, like opium. 

Lyte's Dodoens, p 438, ed. 1578. 

And Gerard : 

Dioscoridcs doth particularly set downe many facul- 
ties hereof, of which notwithstanding there be none 
Sn)per unto it, save those that depend upon the 
rowaic and sleeping power thereof. 

Herbal, in Mandruguras. 
Give mc to drink mandrayvra. 
Char. Why, madam? 

Cleop. That 1 might sleep out this great gap of time 
My Antony is away. Jnt. 4r Cleop., i, 5, 

Kot I)oppy, nor mandragora. 
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world, 
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep 
Which thou ow'dst yesterday. Othello, iii, 3. 

I am deaf, 1 do not hear you ; I have stopt mine ears 
with shoemaker's wax, and drank lethe and mandnt- 
yota to forget you. Eastward Hoe, 0. PI,, iv, 291. 

Come, violent death, 
Serre for mandragora, and make me sleep. 

mbsfer's Dutchess of Malfy, cit. St. 

This quality is also mentioned under 
its other name of Mandrake. 
MANDHAKE, *. The English name of 
the above-mentioned plant, Mandka- 
GOKAS, concerning which some very 
superstitious notions prevailed. An 
inferior degree of animal life was at- 

tributed to it ; and it was commoDly 
supposed that, when torn from the 
ground, it uttered groans of so perni- 
cious a nature, that the person who 
committed the violence went mad or 
died. To escape that danger, it was 
recommended to tie one end of a 
string to the plant and the other to a 
dog, upon whom the fatal groan 
would then discharge its whole malig- 
nity. See Bulleine's Bulwarke of 
Defence against Sicknesse, p. 41. 
These strange notions arose, probably, 
from the little less fanciful compari- 
son of the root to the human figure; 
strengthened, doubtless, in England 
by the accidental circumstance of 
man being the first syllable of the 
word. The ancients, however, made 
the same comparison of its form : 

Quamvis semihominis, vesano gramine fceta, 
Maudragorte pariat flores. 

Columella, de I. Hort., v. 19. 

The white mandrake, which they 
called the male, was that whose root 
bore this resemblance. Lyte says of 
it, ** The roote is great and white, 
not muche unlvke a radishe roote, 
divided into two or three partes, and 
sometimes growing one upon another, 
almost lyke the thighes and leggea of 
a man.** Transl. of DodoenSy p. 437. 
Here it is supposed to cause death : 

Would curses kill, ns doth the mandrake's groan, 
1 would iuveai, Jfcc. 3 Uea. VI, id, 2, 

Would when I first sjiw her 
Mine eyes had niei with lightning, and in place 
Of hearing her inchantiug ton<!Uc, the shrieks 
Qi mandrakes had made mu-ic to m> slumbers. 

Massiuger's Renegado, ii, i. 
f And here and there a mandrake grows, that strikes 
The hearers dc:td with their loud fatal shrieka. 

ChalkhiU's Thealma and Clearchus, p. 80. 

Here only madness: 

And shrieks, like mandrakes torn out of the earth. 
That living mortals hearing them run mad. 

Romeo and Jul^ iv, &. 
I have this night dig'd up a mandrake. 
And am grown mad with it. 

Webster's Dutchess of Malfy, cit. Si. 

In the following, horror only fol- 
lows : 

Murder — that with cries 
Deafs the loud thunder, and solicits heaven 
With more than mandrakes shrieks for your offence. 
Sir John Oldcastle, P. 1. v. 9, Suppl. to Shaketp , 
ii, S60. 
Tlie cries of mandrakes never touch'd the car 
With more sad honor than that voice does mine. 

JtheisVs Tragedy, cit. &. 

The plant was consequently supposed 
to be of great efficacy in magical use : 




The renom'd pl«nU 
'Wherewitli >be kills, where the sud mattdmke scrows 
Whose groniu tre deathful. B. Jons. Sad Shrph., ii, 8. 

And jj^roaiia of dyiiin; mandrutes 
Gtther'd for ebarms. Mierocosmut, O. PL, ix, 147. 

A very diminutive or grotrsque 
figure was often compared to a man- 
drake ; that is, to the root, as above 
described : 

Thoa whonoo mandrake, thou art fitter to be worn 
in my cap, than to wait at my heels, i lien. IF, i, 2. 
He stMiu as if hii legs had taken root, 
▲ very wuMdraJte, Witt, 0. PI , viii, 469. 

It was sometimes considered as an 
emblem of incontinence; probably, 
because it resembled only the lower 
parts of a man : 

Tet lechenms as a monk^, and the whores called 
him wumdnUn. S Hen. IF, ui, 2. 

Upon the place and ground where Caldia grew, 

A mijehtie muuidiwi there did Venu$ plant ; 
An ot»ject tor faire Primuln to riew. 

Resembling man from thighs niito the shank. 

Caltha PoeUrum, cit. St. 

Its soporific qualities are noticed 
under this name as well as the other : 

I drank of poppy, and cold nuuidrake ')vdct, 
And being asleep, belike they thought me dead, 
And threw me o^er the walls. 

Jew of Malta, O. PL, viii, 384. 
Thou (sleep) that amongst a hundred thousand 

(>oani'd with a wreath of ma$Urakes, sit'st as queen. 

MuUasset the Turk, cit. St. 

MANGONEL, «. An engine for throw- 
ing large stones and missiles, before 
the invention of cannon. It occurs 
in Chaucer; and, in French, in the 
Roman de la Rose; but when the 
thing was disused, the word became 
rare. See Todd. 

r« MAN60NIZE, r. To sell slaves, or 
pamper them for sale ; from manffo, 
a low trader, or huckster, Latin ; and 
wuinganizo, to furbish goods up for 

9o, yoa wumgommng slave, I will not part from 
tibcai; yoafU mU thm for enghles, you. 

B. Jons. Poetaster, iii, 4. 

MANKIND, adj. Masculine, man-like, 
mannish, impudent, ferocious. 

tlCM, m!ift«1w Maale. Malekind or miiM- 

kimd, Nomenclator. 

A wuinkind witch t Hence with her, out o' doors. 

mnter't Tale, u, 3. 
I would I had the power 
To aay to to my husband. Sicin. Are rou mankind T 
VeL Ay. fool; — it that a shame?— Note but this 

Was BOt a man my fkther ? Coriolan., iv, 2. 

PftUaa, nor tliee I'call on, mmnkind maid. 
Tluit i^ itf birth mad'st the poor smith iifiraid. 

B. Jon*. Forest, x, vol. vi. 819. 
Ton brach, 
Are yon tum'd wumkind ? 

Mauina. City Madam, iii, I. 
Twat a sonnd knock she fpive me, 
~ girl, how my brains totterl 

B.4rFL Mont. Tkom^ ir, 6. 

A woefull Arcadia, to whom the name of this auw- 
kind curiisan shall ever bee remembred as a procurer 
of thy greatest bsse 1 

Pembr. Jread. continued, B. Y. p. 467. 

Hall, in his epigram against Marston, 
seems to use it for vicious, or un- 

I ask'd phisitions what their connsell was 
Fur a mud dog<^e or fur a mankind asse ? 

Marslon, iii. 10. 

fMANLKSS, as the reverse of manfui» 
occurs in Cliapman, II., iii, 39, and 
ix, G4. 

MANNER, phr^ To be taken with or in 
the manner. To he caught in a 
criminal fact ; originally in a theft, 
with the thing stolen in hand. Cowel 
thus explains it : ** Mainour , alias 
manour, alias metnotir, fromthe French 
manier, i.e., manu tractare ; in a legal 
sense, denotes the thing that a thief 
taketh or stealeth. As to he taken 
with the mainour (PL Cor., fol. 1 79) 
is to he taken with the thing stolen 
ahout him: and again (fol. 191) it 
was presented that a thief was deli- 
vered to the sheriff or viscount, to- 
gether with the mainour.^' Law Dic^ 
tionary, in Mainour, 

O villain, thou >itor«t a cup of sack eighteen year* 
aeo, and vrert taken with tke manner, and ever since 
thou liHst blosh'd extempore. 1 Hen. IF, ii, 4. 

The niaiiucr of it is, 1 was taken tcilk tke tnojiner. 

Love's L. L., i, 1. 

With the manner, the reading of the 
old editions, is therefore more proper 
than in the manner ; and accordingly 
Latimer writes correctly : 

Even as a tbeife that is taken, rcith the mnner that 
he stealeth. Sermons, p. 110. 

The maner was the thing with, or in 
possession of which, they were taken. 
The other form, however, was often 
incorrectly used ; as in these passages: 

How like a sheep-biting rogue, taken i* th* manner. 
And ready for the lialter, dost thou look now. 

B. 4- Ft. Rule a Wife, 4c, act v, p. 463. 
How would a man blush and be confounded to be 
taken and seen in the manner, as we speak. 

Jos. Mede, B. i, Disc. 37, p. 90. 

In the margin he adds, eitavT0<^\apf. 
\^After you is manners, a common vul* 
gar phrase, when a person wishes jo- 
cnlarly to imply his inferiority. It is 
of some antiquity, heing found in 
Brome*s Queen and Concuhine, 1 659> 
p. 61.] 
who was executed at Gaiohtvd^^^ ^\ 
whom it waB aa\d iVkAX \i^ ou^ q.>\\. ^^ 




a hoi-se's head at n single blow. 
He was celebrated in a ballad entered 
in the Stationers' books, Nov. 7, l.i76, 
entitled, •* A woeful Ballad made by 
Mr. George Manuynfon, an lioure be- 
fore lie siitfered at Cambridge Castell." 
Some verses introduced in an old 
play are said to be in imitation of 
that ballad : 

It is ill imitation of SfnHninptOH*s ; he that wan 
hjiii^pd at CHiiibridge, that ciil I)ff the horse's li«rad at 
u l.;u\v. Eastvard Uor, 0. ¥i., iv, i»4. 

The mention of Mannington, and his 
feat, is repeated again in these verses : 

O ifamiiuffton, as smries show, 

Thou cuit'st a hoi-se-head off at a blow ; 

But I contfss 1 have not forre 

For to cut off th' liead of a liorse ; 

Yet 1 dasire this grace to win. 

To cut off the horse-head of sin. 

Eastward Hoe, 0. PI., ir, 296. 

MANNINGTREE OX. Manningtree, 
in Essex, formerly enjoyed the pri- 
vilege of fairs, by the tenure of exhi- 
biting a certain number of stage plays 
yearly. It appears also, from other 
intimations, that there were great 
festivities there, and much good 
eating, at Whitsun ales, and other 
times; we may, therefore, conclude 
safely, that roasting an ox whole, a very 
old and established piece of British 
magnificence, was not uncommon on 
those occasions. To thi?, therefore, 
Shakespeare alludes in the following 
pa^isnge. The pudding wa-s perhaps, a 
fanciful addition of the poet, or such 
instances might, in fact, be known : 

Tliat roasted Manningtree ox, with the puddinjr in his 
belly. 1 Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

We may further remark, that Man- 
ningtree oxen were, doubtless, at all 
times famous for their size. Such 
are the cattle throughout the county, 
and the pastures of Manningtree are 
^^aid by Mr. Steevens, an Essex man, 
to be remarkable. 

You shall have a slave eat more at a meale than ten 
of the {Tuard ; and drink more ale in two days than 
all Manningtree does at a Whitsun-ale. 

Decker's Srvos from Hell, cit. St. 
Or see a play of stranj^e moralitie 
Shewen by bachelrie of }fauning'tree, 
^Vhe^eto the countrie fninkliiis flork-nicale swnrnic. 
T. Naske*s Choosimj of Valentines, cit. Mai. 

We find, too, that the pudding accom- 
panied the ox at other fairs : 

Just BO the people stare 
At an ox in the (air 
Kixsird whole with npndding in's helty. 
Jiiillad on a New Opera, im, Niek. Foms, ill, S03. 

MAN-QUELLER, *. A murderer, a 
killer of men ; from man and cweilan^ 
to kill, Saxon. More ancifutlv it 
meant an executioner. Dame Quickly 
adds woman-que/ler, which shows that 
she understood the first word. To 
quel/, now means to conquer. 

Wilt thou kill God's officers and the king*8 f tboa 
honey -sei'd [homicide] rogue 1 thou art a honey-seed; 
a mnnqt'.eller and a wonianqueller. 2 Hen. 2f , ii, L 

fMANHED is explained in the ex- 

That gentleman that had the menred, u acme yd 
call it, or the office to lead the men of a towne or 
parish. LanUtarde's Perambulation^ 1596, p. 501 

As. with your consell, schuld be teen mooste ex- 
pedient for the ordcryng the men, and the mmnrti 
therofr. Slate Papers, i, SIS, Weber. 

To MANTLE, r. A technical term in 
hawking, describing an action of the 
bird. It is thus explained in the 
Gentleman's Recreation : ** Mantletk 
is when the hawk stretcheth one of 
her wings after her legs, and so the 
other." Page 7, Fa/c. Terms. 

Ne is there hauke wtiich mantleth her on pearch 
Whether high low'hnj;, or accoiistint; low. 


fMANTLE-TRKE. The beam of wood 
over the opening of the tireplace. 

Tom. I have heard a bnllad of him sang at Ratdif 
cross. 3f>il. 1 iielievcwe have it at home ovtr <»ar 
kilchin mantlr-lrer. Jvtial Po^ms, p. 49. 

+MANTLER. One clothed only ui a 

In .Antwerp they pictured the queen of Bohemia likt 
a poor Irish mantler, with her Iwiir hanging alKiut ber 
ears, and her child at her hack, with tlie king ber 
father carrying ilic cndlc after her; and everyone 
of these pictures had sevcrnll motto's expressing thdr 
malice. inison's History of GreeU Mritmn, 16Sk 

tMANTLIN. A little manUe. 

A spoon to feed the bantliD{, 

.\ cow to give it milk, 
And wrap it in a mantlin 

Ise win as soft as silk. 

The Loyal OeuUnd, 1681 1 

MANTO, *. A gown. Evidently aal 
English spelling of the French word' 
manteau. Mr. Todd says, ''fron 
the Italian," and quotes sir P. Ricaat 
for it. I have observed, in a mudi 
more recent author, the word wimU] 
in the same sense : 

To reestablish a disordered lock, to recall a ftnig^ia|| 
hair, to settle the tucker, or compose the memt. 

Murphy, Gray's Inn Joum., Works, t, b. II 
fHast thou any mantoes for ladies made after 
o«>ii liishioii, uhicli shall cover all iluir i 
sliuulders, and i>reasiK, ami necks, and adcHU 
all over. Emjland's I'mmity, 168S, p. 

tMANTOON, *. Apparently a lai 
mantle. Webster, ii, 2o, meutioi 
*• outworks and muntoons.^* 

fMANTRY. The mantle-piem. 




JIantry of a chimney, manteau ie ehimeuee. 


MANY, «. A maltitude. Mcenig, Saxon. 
See Johnson and Lye. It is now but 
little used as a substantive. It seems 
very clear to me, that ma/ty, and 
meiny, though from their similarity 
they have been thought the same, are 
quite distinct words. Many, origin- 
ally, and still in common use, an 
adjective, comes from the Saxon. 
Meiney (pronounced meaney) is 
clearly from the old French mesnie, 
which signified a country house, or 
tlie family inhabiting it. But it is 
tnie that the two words were early 
confounded in spelling. I shall add 
here only the instances in which the 
mdjectivc many is made a substan- 
tive, as it still is occasionally ; and 
Slace the rest, however spelt, under 

O thoa fond many I with what loud appIauBe 
Did'st thou beat heaven with blessing Bolinebroke. 

2 Hen. IV, i, 3. 
And after all the raskall nwmy ran, 
/ Heaped togetlier in rude rabblement. 

SpeHS. F. Q., I, xii, 9. 

So Dryden. 

** The many," in the above examples, 
is exactly equivalent to the ol iroWm of 
the Greeks; that is, "the mob,*' "the 
multitude." But "the many'' of, or 
belonging to, a certain person, must 
sienify his attendants or followers, of 
wnatever name ; and should be writ- 
ten meiny, to distinguish it. " Many 
a man," and ''many a one," mean 
only "many men," or "many ones;*' 
that ifl, "a man, or a one, many 
times repeated." See the Glossary 
to Gavin Douglas, in the word 
Menze, In those instances, and 
others like them, many is still an 
A bawd. Fr. and Ital. 

A mmfmerda, in plain English, a bawd, is nn olde 
cfaiir-eole diat hath bcene burnt herselfe. and there- 
fore is able to kindle a whole ereene coppice. 

(herhury** New and Cho'tte Chnraetrrs, 1615. 
As some get ttietr living by their tounges, hs inter- 
preten, lawyers, oratours, and flatterers; some >>y 
taylet, as mnanerelhifs, concubines, rnrteziuics, or in 
plaine EiiKlisli, whores. Taylur's Jfortes, 16-^0. 

After these, a maquerrlle, two wcnclics, two wanton 
nmsten. Shirley's Triumph ofPrnre, ICW. 

The pander did his ulDcp, hut broiii;ht him a c tizcn 
clad \n damoisells appnrell. so she nud her uinqurrrU 
were ptid accordingly. HoweU's Famliar Lett., 16oU. 

MARABLANE, *. An evident corrup- 
tion of myrobalancy an Oriental 
aromatic, long retained in the Phar- 
macopoeias of Europe under the 
name of myrobalans. The name was 
originally Greek, and meant aromatic 
acorn or nut ; hut what was latterly 
imported from the l^ast was rather a 
dried fruit, something like a date, or 
a plumb. It was used in confections, 
as well as in medicine. 

In ronserveii, candies, marmalades, sinkado^, ponados, 
Marablaue, &c. ForiTa Sun's Darling, ii, 1. 

The English physicians confounded 
it with behen, or hen. See Holland's 
Pliny, xii, 21, and Mosan's Gen. 
Pract. of Phys., Index 2, under 
JBehen; and Minshew, in Miraba- 
MARBLES, *. plur, A colloquial 
name for what is also called the 
French disease, &c. &c. 

Look into the spittle and hosiiitalls, there you shall 
see men diseased of the French nviriAtit, {giving 
instruction to others. 

R. Greeners Theerrs fuH'tnti out, irc^ 
Hnrl. Misc., viii, 392. 

It is repeated in the same page ; but 
he elsewhere calls it marbles, without 
the epithet French : 

Neither do I frequent whore-houses to catch the 
inarbles, and so vrow your patient. 

Ibid., Quip fur an Vpstart Courtier , HarL 
Misc., vi, p. 4<)6. 

It is however, httle worth while to 
explain all the low JHrgon of R. 
Greene's pamphlets, except when it 
illustrates other writers ; nor have I 
attempted it. 
To MARCH, ». To be contiguous to; 
from Marches, infra. 

Of all the inhalntants of this isle the Kontislimen are 
the civilesi, tiic which countrie mnrchrih altogether 
upon tlic 8ea. EMphiifs, Eng., D 4, b. 

So Dnvies says, that the king of an 
island should have no marches but 
the four seas. Cited bv Johnson. 
fMARCH-ALE. A choice kind of ale, 
made generally in the month (/ 
March, and not fit to drink till it w^/ 
two years old : 

But not a man here shall taste my March beer. 

Till a Ciiristmas carol he docs sinjr; 
Then all clapp'd their hands, and they shouted an4 
'Till the hall and the parlour did rinsr. 

Ballad of liobin Uuini and Clorindu 

fMARCH-HARE. Hares are said to 
be unusually wild in the month of 
March, which is their rutting time. 




And ndther took tlie ^ifU he brooglit here, 
Nor yet would i^ive liini Iwirk Uis daiighier, 
Tberefore e're since this cunning urchcr 
Hath been as mad as any March hare. 

Homer a la Mode, 1666. 
As mad as a March hare; wlierr. madness compares. 
Are not MidBummer hares as mad as March haresf 

Heywood's Epigrammes, 1567. 

MARCHER, s. A president of the 
marches or borders. Explained in 


Many of our English lords made war upon the Welsh- 
men at their own charjce; the lands which they 
iraint'd thev held to their own use; tliey were called 
lords marchers, and had royal liberties. 

Danes on Ireland, cited by Johnson. 
To stop the source whence all these mischiefs sprung, 
He with the marchers thinks best to begin, 
Which first must lose, ere he could hope to win. 

Drayt. Baron's Wars, 1, 49. 

MARCHES, *. plur. The borders of 
a country, or rather a space on each 
side the borders of two contiguous 
countries. Murche, French. The 
word is also Gothic, Saxon, German, 
and in low Latin, marchoy wliich see 
in Du Cange. Hence the noblemen 
who were appointed to preserve the 
boundaries and guard tJie frontiers, 
were called lords marchers. See 
Stat. 2 Hen. IV, cap. 1^, 26 Hen. 
VIII, cap. 6, and, for their extinction, 
27 Hen. VIII, cap. 26. 

Ther of those marches, gracious sovereign. 
Shall be a wall sufficient to defend 
Our inland from the pilfering borderers. 

Hen. V, i, 2. 
The English colonies were enforced to keep continutil 
guards upon the borders and marches round them. 

Dories, cit. Johnson. 

MARCH-LAND, *. An old name for 
the division of England called Mercia, 
of which it seems a corruption [a trans- 
lation]. See Laneham*s Letter on 
Kenil worth, frequently. 

MARCH-PANE, *. A sweet biscuit 
composed of sugar and almonds, like 
those now called macaroons; called 
also massepnins in some books, as 
Rose's Instructions for Officers of 
the Mouth, p. 282 ; though he aUo 
has marchpane. The word exists, 
with little variation, in almost all the 
European languages ; yet the deriva- 
tion of it is uncertain. Skinner says 
it is " quasi dicas massa panisi* t. «., 
a mass of bread. Lye will have it 
from the Dutch, in which besides 
marcepeyn, which he considers as a 
corruption, there is massereyn, which 
means pure bread; but this is not 

very satisfactory. In the Latin of 
the middle ages they were called 
Martii panes, which gave occasion to 
Hermolaus liarbarus to make some 
inquiry into their origin, in a letter 
to cardinal Piccolomini, who had 
sent some to him as a present. Po- 
litian's Epistles, Book xii. Balthasar 
Bonifacius says they were named 
from Marcus Apicius, the famous 
epicure : *' Ab hoc Marco, panes 
saccharo conditi vulgo eiiHninuin 
dicuntur Marci panes, iit notat 
Balthasar Bonifacius IX, .1 ludiera: 
vel potius ab alio quodam juniore, . 
M. Gavio Apicio, qui sub Augusto et 
Tiberio fuit ad omne luxds iugenium 
mirus,*' &c. Fabric. BibL Lot., ed. 
Ernest., vol. ii, p. 468. Minshew 
will have them originally sacred to 
Mars, and stamped with a castle, 
which is nearly the opinion cif Her- 

Whatever was the origin of their 
name, the English receipt-books all 
show that they were composed of 
almonds and sugar, pounded aud 
baked together. Here is one for a 
specimen : 

To make a marchpane. — Take two |M>nndi s of alniotida 
being blanched, aud dryed in a sieve over i he Hrc 
bente them in a stone mortar, and when i hey liee 
small mixe them with two poiinde of sujpir beeiu{ 
finely beaten, udding: two or three spoonefuhi of ruse* 
water, and that will keep your almonds from oitinf. 
when your paste is beaten fine, drive it thin with 
a row ling pin, and so lay it on a bottom of wafers^ 
then raise up a little edge on the side, and to bake it, 
then yce it with rosewater aud sugar, theu put it in 
the oven againe, and when you see yt>ur yce is risen 
up and drie, theu take it out of the oven and ganiih 
it with pretie conccipts, as birdes and beaaU being 
cast out of standing moldes. Sticke loof oomfiti 
upright in it, cast bisket aud carrowaiei in it, and lo 
serve it ; guild it before you serve it : yon mav also 

Erint of this marchpane paste in your molcu fot 
aiiqueting dishes. And of this paste our comlit 
makers at this day make their letters, knots, armrs, 
escutcheons, beasu, birds, and other fandes. 

Delighlesfor Ladies, 1608, 12mo, •ig;n. a IS. 

Of course there were many varieties 
of so fanciful a composition ; aud 
receipts occur in all old books of 

Marchpane was a constant article ia 
the desserts of our ancestors, and 
appeared sometimes on more solemn 
occasions. When Elizabeth visited 
Cambridge, the university presented 
their chancellor, sir William Cecil, 




with two pair of gloves, a marchpane^ 
mnd two sugar loaves. Peck's Desid, 
Ckiriaga, ii, 29. See also Menage in 

Good thoo, lave me a piece of marchpane. 

Bom. and Jul., i, 5. 
KoDO of yoor dnll eountry madaint, that spend 
Their time in atndjiog receipta to make 
Mmrckptuu, and preserve plumbs. 


Vest, some good curious marchpane* made into 
The form of trumpets. Ordinary, O. PL, x, 239. 

Metaphorically, anything very sweet 
and delicate: 

I was then esteem'd. Fki. Tlie very marchpane of 
the court, I warrant you 1 Pha. And all the gallants 
came about yon like flies, did tbey not? 

B. Jont. Cynthia's Brv., iv, I. 

A kind of mareh-pane men, that will not last, madam. 

B. fFI. Bale a Wife, ^c, act iit. p. Mh. 

Castles, and other figare^, were often 
made of morcApaite to decorate splen- 
did desserts, and were demolished by 
•hooting or throwing sugar-plums 
at them : 

They barred their gates. 
Which we as easily tore unto the earth 
As I this tower of marchpane. 

B. /• Fi. Faithful Friends, iii. 3. 

Taylor the water-poet has more parti- 
cularly described such an encounter : 

lip-licking comfit makers, by whose trade 
Itaintirs (come thon to me) are quickly made, 
Baboiiiies, Ice. 

Cattle* for ladies, snd for carpet knights. 
Unmercifully spoild at feasting fights, 
Where battering bullets are fiae sugred plums. 

Praue ofHetnp*eed, p. 66. 

fMARD. See Merd. 

If after, thon of garlike stronge 

The savour wiu expell, 
A mard is sure the onelv meane 

To put away the smell. 

KendalV* Flower* of Epigramme*, 1577. 

MARE, 9. A sort of imp, or demon ; 
aupposed to be from mara, a northern 
apirit. Hence nighUmare, 

Fkom foul Alecto, 
With Tisage biacke and bio. 
And fkom Medusa that 9iare 
That lyke a feende doth stare. SkeUon, Full. Sparrow. 
Mnahrooms canae the incnbiu, or the mare in the 
■tomnch. Bacon, cited by Johnson. 


4 Of the mare. — BphiaUe* in Greeke, in Latine ineuhu* 
and hteaho. It is a disease, where as one thinketh 
himaelfe in the night to be oppressed with a great 
wdghi, and beleeveth that something cometli uuoii 
him, and the patient thinketh himseue stranglea in 
this disease, ft is called in English the mare. 

Sarrough'* Method ofPhyeiek, 1634. 

fMARFS NEST. A ridicnious disco- 
very. In Ireland, it is said, when a 
person is seen laughing immoderately 
without any apparent cause, it is usual 
to say, ** 0, he has found a mare's nest, 
and he's laughing at the eggs.*' 

Why dost thou Uugh? 
What wtare^s meet hast thou found? 

Bcmdmei^ act v; sc. S. 

MAR6AREL0N, properly MARGARI. 
TON. A Trojan hero, of the le- 
gendary history; called by Shake- 
speare " bastard,'* and described by 
him as performing deeds of prowess 
which seem to imply gigantic stature. 

Bastard MargareUm 
Hath Dorens prisoner. 
And stands. Colossus Uke, waring his beam 
Upon the paslied corses of the kmn. 

Trouu* and Crest., r, i. 

The name should be Margariton^ 
which we find in Lydgate's Boke of 
Troy, where a person of that name is 
mentioned as a son of Priam, but not 
said to be a natural son. Lydgate 
makes him attack Achilles, and fall by 
his hand : 

The whych thynge when MargaryUm 
Beheld, &c. 

lie CHst anune aveneed for to be 
Upon Achilles for all his great misht, 
And nin to iiiin full lyke a manly icnight, 
On horse backe for the townes sake. 

Book iii, sign. Sib. 

As the first edition of Troilus and 
Cressida, which was the quarto, was 
printed surreptitiously, even before it 
had been acted, the mistake in the 
name might easily be made. Mr* 
Steevens quotes two lines on Margo' 
riton, as from Lydgate ; hut they are, 
in fact, from the much modernised 
and much amplified edition, formed 
into stanzas, and published in 1614, 
by Thomas Purfoot, London, with 
the new title of The Life and Death 
of Hector, &c. &c. It is where this 
hero is rushing on against Achilles, 
by whom he is soon slain. 

Which when the valiant knight Margarilon, 
One of kin}( Priam's bastard childereu. 
Perceived and saw such havocke of them made^ 
Such grief and sorrow in his heart he had. 


The poem is here augmented to abofis 
30,000 lines, yet the author is un- 
known. This is Shakespeare's an- 
thority for calling him bastard ; the ' 
poem, therefore, must have been pub- 
lished in an earlier edition, or he 
could not have seen it. Warton says 
that he Miitpects the edition of 1614 
to be a second. Hist. Poetry, ii, 
p. 81. The name, which is not clas- 
sical, was probably coined to express 
<*the pearl of knighthood;" €t^^ 




HARGARITE, 9. A petrl ; from fnar- 
garita, Latin. 

I lone to view 
This unknown land, and nil their faboloua ritet, 
And gather margaritet in my brazen cap. 

Fuimn* Troes, 0. PI., vii, 469. 

Hence Drummond, in an epitaph of 
one named Margaret : 

In shelis and gold, pcHrles are not kept alone, 

A Margaret here lies beneath a stone ; 

A Margaret that did excell in « orth 

AU those rich gems the Indies both send forth. 

Foems, 1656, p. 186. 

Margarita^ in Rule a Wife and nave 
a Wife, is thus spoken of: 

But I perceire now 
Why you desire to stay, the orient heiress, 
The Margarita, sir. Act i, sc. %. 

Alluding to orient pearl. So ngain : 

Tiiat sucli un oyster-shell snould hold a frarl. 

And ut so rare n price, in prison. Act iv, sc. 3. 

A pamphlet published by Thomas 
Lodge, in 1596, was entitled, ** A 
Marqurite of America." 

MAHGK, and M ARGENT. Both these 
au' rather antiquated forms of the 
u Old margin. They have been longest 
preserved in poetry. Dr. Johnson 
has given sufficient instances of their 

MARIAN. Maid Marian^ a personage 
in the morris dances, was often a 
man dressed like a woman, and some- 
times a strumpet ; and therefore forms 
an allusion to describe women of an 
impudent or masculine character. 
Though the morris dances were, as 
their name denotes, of Moorish origin, 
yet they were commonly adapted here 
to the popular English story of Robin 
Hood, whose fair Matilda, nr Marian, 
was the very person here originally 
represented. See Mokius-danck. 
Heywood's piny of Roheit Karl of 
Huntingdon, part the first, ih thus 
entitled: "Robert Earl of Hunting- 
don's Downfall, afterwards called 
Robin Hood of merry JSherwoode, 
with his love to chaste Matilda, the 
Lord Fitzwater*s Daughter, afterwards 
his &ir maid Marian J" Her change 
of name is thus Htated in the play : 

Next 'tia apred (if therto she agree) 
That fair Matilda lienreforth rhnngc her name; 
And while it is tlie chance uf Rubin Iloode 
To live in Sherewodde a poore oatlawes Ufe, 
She by maid Marian's name be only cal'd. 

To which she replies : 

I am contented, read on, Little John, 
Henceforth let me be num'd maid Marian. 

Jkmiif. qfJL B. ofH., sign. Fib. 

She is also mentioned by Drayton : 

He from the husband's bed no married wonab van. 

But to his mistress dear, his loved Marian, 

Was erer constant known. PolyM., xxvi, p IITS. 

In some of the popular ballads called 
Robin Hood's Garland, she is named 
Clorinda ; but they are of no great 
antiquity, nor of any authority. 
The degraded maid Marian of the 
later morris dance, more male than 
female, is alluded to in the following 
passage : 

And for woman-hood, maid Marian may be the 
deputy's wife of the ward to thee. 1 Hen. iF, tii, S. 

And in this : 

Not like a queene, but like a vile nuaie Marian, 
A wife, nay slave, unto a vile barbarian. 

Harringl. Ariotto, xlii, 37- 

Robin Hood's maid Marian was a 
huntress, like Diana, chaste as the 
goddess herself, and very amiable. 
See Jonsoi)*s Sad Shepherd, &c., 
where she is drawn with some beauti- 
ful touches of character. 
fMARlGOLD. A gohl coin. 

I'l write it an' you will, in shoi-t-hiind, to dispatch 
immediately, and |ircstiitly go iiut five hundred 
mari-go!d4 ' in u pU)-«e fur yuu, Cunie a^ ay like an 
arrow out of a Scythimi lni« . 

CiAcUi. Cvltrr o/CuUmait Street, 166S. 

fTo MARINATE. To salt or pickle fish. 

You spoke to me for u ro<*k, who had seen the world 
abroad, audi thii.k ihi* hcarvr hereof uill tit vovr 
ladiships turn. He cnn nmriuat tisii, make ((ellies, 
he is excellent lur a pickant siiwce, and ihe Imu^ov; 
besides, madanie, lie is jMinsiiis; )co«id for mh ullia. 

Uoterirn Familiar Letters, 16M. 

MARISH, s. and adj, A marsh, 
marshy ; from marofs, Fr. ; whereas 
marsh is from mersht Saxou. Dr. 
Johnson has amply illustrated the 
use of these words ; hut he has omitted 
to sav that thcv are both fallen into 
di8u>t', and that Milton is the latest 
wriier of eminence that has used 
them. 1 shall content mvself with a 
verv few instances. 


As when a captain dulh hrsie^e some hold 

Set in a mar'tsh. Fair/. Tasto, \\i, 90. 

Urinur truni the marish rushes, to o'erspread 

The ground whereon to church the lovers treail. 

Brotcue, Brit. Past., 1, ii, p. M. 
-lit being then of so great iniportance, wee will i^joy 
this serenitie, in turning towards the east, not cor- 
rupted by the fogs, nor vapours of lakes, standi, 
murrishes, caves, durt, nor dust. 

Passenger of Benvenmto, 1812. 

It was used also as an adjective : 

Then fen. and the quagmire, so marish by kind, 
And are to be drayned, now win to thy mind. 

Tnsfer's MuMk.. 

MARITINE, for maritime. Whether 
this be an antiquated form, or a 
licence of the poet here cited, I have 




not discoTered. Great liberties, as to 
rhyme, were thought allowable at 
that period of the Ian village. 

lliis Cnniberland rate oat, niid strongly doth confine, 
This iiieetiiig there with thmt, both meerlj maritiiw. 

Dmyt. Potyolb., xxx. p. 1224. 

fMARKET-PENNY. Money for liquor 
oil the market day. 

Crispin fnlls very Incky this rear, for being on a 
Sattirdny, th»y cnn pi to niarket, bny rictuiils, and 
spend thif marktt prnny in the uiomin]C, dine ut noon, 
drink and enjoy theuiselve^ hU the Nfternoon, and 
tliey that are soltcr husbands may (ro to ued at a 
proper hour nerei thcU-ss. Four Rubin, 1735. 

MARKET-S I ED. Market-place ; from 
market, and ifefie, a place, Saxon. 

And their best archers nlac'd 
The markelsted ah(mt. Itraytou, Folydb., xxii, p. 1061. 

So home-sted, still in use, and Gir- 
dle-stead, supra. 

MAROCCO. See Morocco. 

fTo MARLE. To marvel, or wonder. 

And such am I ; I slight your p.*x>ud commands ; 
I marU vho put a bov into vimr hnmls. 

Jtaudolftk's Poem*, 1643. 
Lead on, I follow yon. — 1 mar'le, my lord. 
Our Amarons appeare not, with their brace. 

Meune't Amorous Warre, 1648. 

'fTo MARLE. To manure with marl. 

These were in former times digged, as well for the 
vae of the ehalke townrdea bnihiiii||, at for to marie 
or amend their arable lauds tlnn^wiih. 

Lambarde*s PerambulatioH, 1&96, p. 445. 

fMARON. The large chestnut. Fr. 

A. I will eate thfte or foure chestnute, what will you 


P. They like me so, so; they are hot in the first, and 

dry in the second degree, they doe binde, and if they 

be mmnme* or great chestnuts, they would l»e the 

better ; and the longer time tliey are kept, the more 

•avorie and healthfuil they are. 

Paeseuger of Bempetuito, 1612. 

ters OF Marque. 

HARQUESSE, a. Shakespeare has 
taken the liberty to use lady mar- 
que9Be for marchioness. Marquesse, 
ID the early editions, is only equiva- 
lent to marquis, which was always 
the official orthography of the title, 
and is now again employed. 

Toa shall have 
Two noble partners with you : the old dutcliess of 

And lady wa*rquU Dorset ; will these please you ? 

Hen. Fill, v, 2. 

Yet marchioness was then in use, and 
occurs three or four times in the same 

Fill full thy sailes, tbit after-times may know, 
What thou to these our times dost fnnidly show ; 
TUnt as of thee tiie like was iie\ er heard, 
I'hey eruwne thee with h marrot, or a mard. 

Taylor's H'orkes, 1630. 

MARROW, «. An equal, mate, or com- 
pauion ; a lover, husband, or wife. 

A word still completely in use in the 
Scottish and northern English dia- 
lects. The following account of it is 
given in the Glossary to Guvin 
Douglas's Virgil : " The word is often 
used for things of the same kind, and 
of which there are two ; as of shoes, 
gloves, stockings : also eyes, hands, 
feet, &c. Either from the French 
camerade, Angl. camrad (t. e., com- 
rade), Aocius, 8odalis, by an aphsere- 
sis ; or from the Fi^ench mari, Latin 
maritus, in which sense the word is 
also taken. Thus Scot, a husband 
or wife is called haif marrow, and 
such bird^ as keep chaste to one 
another are called marrows,^ &c. 
Skinner unaccountably derives it from 
maraud, French. The first deriva- 
tion forming merade fi*om cameratie, 
and thence marmw, is perfectly 
ridiculous : the second is probabh^ 
and was adopted by Dr. Johnson. 
.Miushew give us one from the 
Hebrew, which is as near as possible 
in its radical letters, and may be pro* 
nounced with the very same sound ; 


jnO» »»ero, or maro, a companion 
(from the root y^), nor do I see why 
it should be qnne rejecti-d 

Birds of 11 fethur, best liyt; to-nether ; 
Tlien like partners hIxhu your iicn-kei j{0« j 
Marrowes adew : God semi yon liiyrc »etlier. 

Firtl Part Promos jr Cassund'., ii, 4. Six pi , i, 21. 
Thou|(h buying and Helling dutli wonderful wel, 
To such as have skii hou- lu buie Hiid to acI : 
Yet chopping and chiuigiiig I cannot ronimeiid. 
With theef of his marrow, for '^ear of ill end. 

Tnsser's Hush., August, f^ 40. 

In the edition of 1744 thin is thus 
explained: ''Because it is the com- 
mon practice of all thieves ; and two 
horrte- stealers who live a hundred 
miles from each other, shall chop and 
change their stolen goods unpuuished 
for a long time.** 

Cieoii. your doves are very dainty, 
Tunie pitfeons else are very pliuty. 
These niay win some of your mnrrows, 
1 am not caught with doves mid sparrows. 

Drayt. Muses' JSlys., Nym. ii, p. 1469. 

Coles has, **tlie gloves are not mar- 
rows ;'* which he renders in Latin, 
**cl)irothecfie non sunt p.ires.'* It 
8how<, however, that the phrase was 
ciineni ; otherwise he would not 
have tli.u<;ht it necessary to translate 




Marrow is also used for strength, or 
internal vigour : 

Now the time is fluib 
Wlien crourhinf; mamoir, in the bearer strong, 
Cries of itself, no more. 7Vmo.-i of J., v, 5. 

tTlie nioou's my constant mistress, 
And the lovely o« I my marrow. 

Wit and DroUaj, 168S. p. ISl. 

MARRY, interj. In many instances a 
corruption of Marie, as an assevera- 
tion confirmed by the name of the 
Virgin Mary. Thus Coles snys, 
"Marrt/ [oath] per Mariam.'* Such 
is the origin of marry come up, origi- 
- nally marry guep, gip, or gup. But 
of guep, gipy or gup, what is the 
origin i I suspect it to be a corrup- 
tion of ^0 up, which it seems was con- 
temptuous. Thus the cliildreu said 
to Elisha, ** go up, thou bald-head, 
go up,** 2 Kings, ii, 23. 
Marry guep was undoubtedly an in- 
terjection of contempt: 

Is any man offended P marry gep 

lotli your jadeship 

J. Taylor's Motto', p. 4 k 

'W'ith a horse-nij;ht cap, dotii your jadeship skip ? 

1 thought th' hadst scorn'd to budge a step 
lor fear. — Quoth Ecclio, marry ffuep. 

Hudib., 1, iii, 202. 

Ben J oil son has marry gip : 

Marry-gip, goody Siie-justice, mistress French hood. 

Bartk. Fair, act i. 
iFair niul softly son at her, marry gap, pray keep 
your distMnce, and make a fine leg everv time you 
speak to her ; besure you behave yourself liandsomly. 

Unnatural Mother, 1698. 

Marry come up, is now used instead 
of Mary go up. See Mary. 

iTru.s. Give my son time, Mr. Jolly? marry come 
up Covley't Cutler of Coleman Street, 1663. 

MARRY TRAP. Apparently a kind of 
proverbial exclamation, as much as to 
say, '* By Mary," you are caught. It 
might be particularly U8ed when a 
man was caught by a bailiff, or nut- 
hook ; but the phrase wants further 
illustration : 

Be aviz'd, sir, and pats eood humours; I will say 
marry trap, with you, if you run the nuthook's 
humour on me. Merry W. W.,i,\. 

fMARSHALL. A common corruption 
of martial. 

Bis soft, milde, and genUe inchnation in his ripe 
yeeres, and his indisposition to marskall affaires. 

Tatdor's Workes, 1630. 
Which when Vespasian and young Titus saw. 
They cride kill, kill, use speed and marskall law. 


MART, *. War. Originally for Mars, 
the god of war; and so used by 
S|jen>er : 

Come IniUi, and « ith you bring triumphant Mart, 

In loves and genUe jolhties arrayd. 

Alter his murdrous spoils. F. Q., 1, 8, Induct 

It was always a poetical word, and 
does not appear ever to have been 
common otherwise : . 

And cryd, these fools thus under foot I tread 
That dare contend with me in equal wuuri. 

Fntf. lk*$o, in, M. 
My father (on whose face he durst not look 
In equal ntart) by his fraud circumvented. 
Became his captive. Mast. Batkf. Lo9^Vi,7. 

But if thou long for warre, or young lulus tedn 
By manly mart to purchase praise, and tare bii fom 
tlie gleeke. Turbtrv. Ovi£t Ep., F S k. 

It was probably this usage of mart 
that led so many authors to use leiiert 
of mart, instead of marque; sup- 
posing it to mean letters of war, 
whereas it really comes from mareha. 
Under this persuasion, Drayton pot 
"scripts of mart'* as equivalent: 

All men of war, with scripts of mart that went^ 

And had command the coast of France to keep. 
The coming of a navy to prevent. 

Battle ofAginemtrt, P. IS. 

But see Letters of mabt. 
To MART, V, To sell or traffic ; from 
the substantive mart^ a market. 

I would have ransack'd 
The pedler's siikun treasury, and have pour'd it 
To lier acceptance ; you hMve let hinigo 
And nothing mar/f c/ with Iiim. Wint. TaUt, rr, S. 

To sell and mart your offices for gold. Jul. Cos., iv, S. 

So Marston : 

Once Albion lived in such a cruell age. 

That men did hold by servile villrnage, 

Foore brats were slaves, of bone- men that were borne. 

And matted, sold. Scourge of Fillanie, 1, 2. 

Mr. Todd quotes also bishop Hall 
for it. 
To MARTEL, V, To hammer; from 
marteau, French. Used as a neuter 

Her dreadful weapon she to him addrest, 
Wliich on his helmet mqrtelled so hard. 
That made him low incline his lofty crest. 

Spens. F. ^., III, vii, 48. 

MARTERN, s. The animal more com- 
monly called a martin, Marte, French. 
A kind of weasel. Mtutela foina. 

The pole-cat wartem, and the rich-skin'd lucem, 
1 know to chnse. B. and Fl. Beggar* s Busk, iii, S. 
fl give unto Humphrey Bourchier, my son, my gown 
of tawny damask lurred with jennets, nnd my coat of 
black velvet furred with marterns. 

Test. Vetust., p. 6S8. 

MARTIALIST, *. A mnrtinl person, a 
soldier. This word was once very 
common, and is amply exemplified by 
Mr. Todd. 

He was a swain whom all the graces kist, 
A brave, heroick, worthy martialist. 

Brovme, Brit. Fast. ,1,%, 
And straine the magicke muses to rehearse 
The high exploits of Jove-borne marlialistt. 

Fits Geffrey on Sir JV. DnJtt, 




[AS, «. A corruption of 
las ; that is, the feast of St. 
which falls on the 11th of 
r. Falstaff is jocularly so 
1 being in the decline, as the 
; that season : 

ih the Martlewua your muter. 

2 H«n. ir, ii, 2. 

ow was the customary time 
;ing up provisions to dry, 
d been salted fur winter pro- 
18 our ancestors lived chiefly 
ted meat in the spring, the 
d cattle not being fit for use. 

im not to mst hii wantoD eyne 
Mcoii, or salt hnlNsrdine ; 
ehes of some snioked beeve, 
i wrilhen wythe Biiice MartiiCt eve. 

Hall, Sat., B. iv, S. 4. 

r : 

at JUartilmas, hang up a berfe ; 
nd the like, ytr [ere] {^rasse hcefrome in, 
lall look cheerely, when othrre look ihin. 

Sotemh., ^11. 
ire wafer-cakes your fill, 
eef hung up since Martlnaas, 
I veal. George a Greeue, O. PL, iii, 48. 

Vast it was cumnion to sell 
:opper gilt, which were {{iven 
:« or love-tukcns. These are 
ided to: 

rtin't rings, thiit are faiire to X\\if eye, and 
uiiiside. Iiut if H man break tlietn asunder 
to them, iIh'v arc- iiothiti); but bnisse and 
Compter's Commouw., 1617. p. 28. 
>ther ail be ^old tliNt (clistercth, sith saint 
ij/s be but copper within, thougli they be 
, nyes the xolusmith. 
in PercivalJ, cited in Brand's Pop. .4ntiq., 
ii, 26, 4to ed. 


, or MARAYEDI. A small 
coin. Maravedi, Spanish, 
ue was about half a fart lung. 
9 Diet, 

X wuuredU, a blank. 

Middlet. Span. Gipsy, ii, 1. 
ut bis word, take mine, which will pass 
more marawedies, than the best squire's 
for farthing tokens. 

T. Heywood's Chall.for Beauty, ii, 1. 

lerj. An ahbrevinted oath, 

by the Virgin Mary; cor- 

'terwards to marry ^ as above. 


Marie, fie on him, fie ! 
Lord, is he come intii the countrye? 

iVrtr Ctfstoatr, O. Ph. i. 275. 
lall he learn? Mary, to slioot noughilie. 
Asekam, Tcropk., p. 113. 

A not uncommon corruption 
IT/ so we have mary-hone. 

lowe that the worde of God is a two edged 
i eutreth through (sayeth saith Paule) 
dhriding asunder of the soule and the 
of tlie j<mitet. and the wtarie. 

Ifortkirooke mgeusut iHeing, li77. 

Take and make almond milke with the broth of be^ 
flMry-)o»«f, and of a cocke that is well bovled. 

Faikway of Aealtk,}i\.\, 
Some more deront clownes, partly guessing 
When he's almost come to the blessing. 
Prepare their staves, and rise at once, 
Say'ng Amen, off their wmry-hones. 

Uimer m la Mode, 166S. 

MARY AMBREE. See Ambree. 

MAKY-BUDS, «. The flowers of the 
mary-gold, which were remarked to 
open in the morning, and shut up in 
the evening. 

And winking wtary-huds begin 

To ope their golden eyes. Cymh., ii, 3. 

MARY-MAS. The feast of the Annun- 
ciation of the Virgin Mary, the 25th 
of March. The Mary mas fast was 
the preceding day, the 24th, that feast, 
like others, being preceded by a 

At fast or loose, with my Giptian, I meane to have a 

Tenne to one I read his fortune by the Marymas fast. 
First Part of Promos and Cassandra, 
ii, 5, 6 Plays, i. 24. 

MAS. A colloquial abbreviation of 

And you, mas broker, 
Shall have a feeling. B. Jons. Staple of Xef^s, ij, 4. 

Mas Barto'loniew Burst, 
One that hath been a citizen, since a courtier, 
And now a gamester. Ibid., A'nr /mm, iii, 1. 

1 carouse to Prisius, and brinch you mas Spcniiitus. 

I^yly's M. Bombir, ii, 1. 

Hence also mashyp was u^^i'd for 
mastership : 

You may perceyve by the wordes he gave 
He taketn your mashyp but for a knave. 

/(»»rP*,0. Pl.,i,79. 
Sir, I beseech your mashyp to be 
As Kood as ye can be unto me. Ibid., p. 92. 

I find it also in the plural, written 
masse t for masters : 

And now to yoo. gentle-craft, von masH shoemakers. 
Greenes <^ip, ^'C, Uarl. Misc., ▼, 411. 

fMASH. All to mash, i. e., all to bits. 

Hold thy band, hold thy hand, said Robin Hood, 

And let our quarrel (all ; 
For here we may thrash our bones all to mash, 

And get no coin at all. 

Ballad of Robin Hood and the Tanner. 

fTo MASKER. To confuse ; to stupify. 

Where, after they had seized into their haiids nnd 
carryed away housliold-stuffe of much worth. l»ecMUse 
they of ihe house being sodaiuely taken, and their 
wiit maskered, had not tlffrndrd the niHstcr ilieruf, 
slew a iiunilier, and l»efore retnme of the iJuv. light 
drparted and went tlietr wnyes a great pare. 

Holland's Ammianus MarceUinvs, 1606. 

MASKI^RY, s. Masking, masquerad- 

And, Celsn, pry'thee let it be thv care to>nigbt 

To have some pretty show to solemnize 

Our high installment ; some niiisirk. maskery. 

Malcontent. O. Pi.. iT, »7. 
All these preaentmenU 
Were only wuukeries, and wore fahw faces. 

AcMHf c of Ikuti tf ittnlbQ^^C *3l« t\\..^na^ 

HAS &i 

UASKIN. A diDiinntive of maui u 
Mnlkin of Mall, &ud Peterkm of 
Peter. &c. 

Bjr i),E HiHi, lotlliaiuU Ihei irerc » indnd. 

Ctip-. Mtfdm). Ant Dr., iT, p. »*. 
MASKS. BUck mnikR were frequently 
worn by Indies in public in the time 
of Sbakespeare, pnTticularly, and per- 
hnpa uniferaally, at tlie tlieatrei. 
Tbey are expressly mentioned here : 

Lulin, TonrbooDluiBnt^ Cbi rut will foUow: 

It im (^ nkni'd'uiCk'clictrlj. Ihiw joiir tjei 
Out u jnr iHili. U. t r\. B'ffMr'i £u*. net t. 

Shakespeare ia (bought twice to hnve 
made tlte speakers in bis drama allude 
to the maxkt of the audience; but, 
in the first inRtnnce, "these black 
maik*" might possibly menn "such 
as ibese," supposing Isabella to have 
one on at the time: 

cmliieM bcnn (n lioia loudR 

tau (n lioia loudt 

Hence, if a theatrical compnnj had 
not a boy or young man, who c 
perform a woman's psri, the charncter 
might be perl'orraed in a iiiagk, which, 
being a fashion so ninch in use, gave 
ao UDComman appearance in tl 
scene. Quince proposes this eip 
dient to Fiute, in .Mids. Nigtit's Dr. 

The mistakes of person-', in tlie comic 
drama, were often made mure pi 
bable than they now seem, by thii< 
custom. The mask was partly ' 
to preserve the complexion : 

But uaee ilit Jid ncf 1e« her li«liii|i-[liiM, 
Alld llircw ha luD-ctpirUlBil mnlt axH. 

Aiid puicli'il ibt JiLljr-tibctun u1 Hit fun, 
Thai iww ihfl ii become u blark u 1. 

IWd etiUI. qf ri.. m. %. 

Rosaline has a matk on, iti Love' 
Labour Lost : 

£ir». Now hurbihU tour iHit.' 

a«. t'hir r>U tlie fice II cmen •. ii, 

tMASTKR-FKIZE. The best trick or 
move, in wrestling. 

It behoved liim lo pta; bii mMiler-prizf in tbe befiD- 

tMASTER-VElN. A prindpal artery. 

tMASTERFUL. Arbitrary j wilfuL 

" s benne > malrrMI Ihrefe unsHnt iIhib. 

tMASTERY. To prove mmlay, to try 
10 WHS slroD^est. 

Xl•olle^^ Hiihrrj ^ lU T*t*l, IM. 

HASTLIN, or MASLIN. Anyibioi 
composed of mixed materials, inatesil 
of being formed of one kind only ; ti^ 
metal of different ores united, or breti 
made of different kinds of grain. Dr. 
Johnson supposes it to be a eorr^ 
tioD of mUce/lane; but it ia ratlKT 
from the Dutch matleluyn : or, if 
mettelin was the originiil fumi, it 
might be from the old French ahta- 

Hot braa, DDT njqier, nor tiMtilin. nor miaenL 


The mixed grain itself was callxl 
ma*HiH, liefore it was made into bread; 
periicularly rye and wheat. Sk; 
Miiisfaew, &c. Pefhnps, therefore, 
TuBser means " a loaf made of wai'- 
line, and particularly micli masllin u 
ia conipused of rve and wheat." 
tMASTY. A inasMff. 

So. fwUieir jong our wMl.* ciirn mil Hrbl, 
Eogcri; hirk, biKllrlhEir Iwrti, anil hile. 



n< u*to'i*tft v. 
MATCHLliSS, a. Not matched, un- 
like i perhaps peculiar to this pii- 

To MATE. V. To confound, stupify, 
and overpower : from mater, Franch, 
of the same meaning, and that froD 
mattut, low Latin for stupid, V 
matare, to confound ; which, accord- 
ing to some, is itself derived from tbc 
Persian mal. meaning dead, 
qiiislied, and adopted in the expres- 
sion cheek-mate, in the game of cliess, 
and the correspnnding term in other 
l«ii(!;ua)ces. Salniasius shows traeti 
of mallas, even in good Latinity, 
(See Menage, in Mater.) But Br- 
nestus does not admit the reading of 
Cicero on which it is chiefly founded. 
TurnebuB found matlv, triatis, in a 




old Latin GlosBary in MS. Fid. 

eni., xxviii, 6. To amate seems 

another form of the same word. 

What, are too mad. that you do reason ao? 
It. Not nmo, but mmUd; how, I do not know. 

Com, of Errors, iii, 8. 

in : 

ak TOO are all wtatol, or atark mad 
aind 8h< 

For that ia good deceit, 

she haa w^^ted, and aniaz'd my sizht, 


Ibid., r, 1. 
'mH., T, 6. 

h wuitei him firtt, that first intends deceit. 

2Heu. ri, iu.l. 

leject : 

mple make of him your haplesse joy. 
at myself now wtmted, as ye see. 

Spetu. F. q., I. ix. 12. 

errify : 

ryes saw no terroor. nor eare heard any martial 
1. Imt that they multiplied the hidionsuesae of 
his mat<d mind Ptmir. Jread., III. p. 249. 

>affle or defeat : 

I9C of their great forces, wisdome, and good 
'nmint, they might caaily have mated his enter- 
in Italy. Comines, iy Darnel, D d 2, dt Cap. 

>iizzle : 

wine mates them, they understand it not ; 
Jjev have very good capacity in ale. 

^ Wits, 0. PI., Tiii,4»8. 

e it is used with evident allusion 
heck -mate : 

I the pagan's brow gave such a blow, 

rmld. no doubt, have made him ckeekt and mated, 

that faa 1 to you before reliearst) 

imiour was nut easie to be pearst. 

Harrimgt. Ariotto, jociv. 

RICULAR-BOOK. A hook in 

;h the names of students were 


IMONY, 8. Wife. See Wed- 

ic, which was more commonly 

I in that sense. 

ResUnv my matrimony undefiled. 

B. /- Fl. Little Fr. Lawy., Act iv. 

'rimonium is used sometimes in 
n for uxor ; as, " severiusqne 
rimonia sua viri coercerent, cum 
IS dotis fraeuis tenerentur.*' 
fit., IV, 3. But it is not so used 
he purest authors. Suetonius in 
u:., 2.1, is quoted for it. 
re with h words, in which they 
ed and struck .it one another as 
*al action, receiving the hlows on 
: bucklers, and keeping time, 
called t'roui matar, to kill, be- 
e they seem to kill one another. ' 
vens's Spanish Dtctionary. They 

suppose it Italian, have derived 
>m matto ; but it is surely Spanish. 

Maiassin, in Menage's French 
iiies, and Matto, in his Italian. 

Thesedaucerswere commonly marked ^ 
and some Italian dictionaries detine 
it merely as a dance in masks ; as, 
for instance, Antonini. See Macha- 
CHINA. Mr. Douce thus speaks of it : 
" It was well known in France and 
Italy, by the name of the dance of 
fools or matachinx, who were habited 
in short jackets, with gilt-paper 
helmets, long streamers tied to their 
shoulders, and bells to their legs» 
They carried in their hands a sword 
and buckler, with which they made 
a clashing noise, and performed vari- 
ous quick and sprightly evolutions.*^ 
Douce, Iltustr. of Sh,, ii, 435. 

Do kill your uncle, do, but that I'm patient, 

And not h cholerick, old. leasiy fool, 

Like to vourfHtlier, I'd dance a matlackin with yon. 

Should mnkeyoii sweat your best IiUkkI fitr't, I «<iuld. 

And. it may be. 1 will. B. and Fl. Elder Brother, v, 1. 

It is evident that by ** dancing a 
tnattackin** he there means to imply 
fighting a duel, which sufficiently 
marks the militarv natureof the dance. 
So also other authorities: 

So as whoever saw a matachtH dance lo imitate fijeht- 
ing. this was u ftjfht that did imitnte the Mutackin: 
for they lieuig but three that luught, every one hxd 
two Hdvei'saries striking him, who etmok the third, 
and revenging perhiips tliiit of him which he hnd 
received of the oila-r. Peuibr. ArcaJ., I, p. 62. 

It should seem, by the above passage, 
that three was the number of dancers 
for the matachin. 

One time he daunced tlie malnchine d»iunre in nrnioHr, 
(O with what h grarefull dexteriti«li 1 think to 
ninke me see that he had been broussht up \\\ such 
exercises. Ih., 1 1, p. 116. 

Lod. We have brought yon u mask. 
Flam. A ,Hfttae/nne it seems. Iiy your drnwn sworda. 

Wkite Ucril, 0. PI., ri. 357. 

ll i-* there, indeed, erroneously 
printed machine^ but the old quarto 
1612 has matachine, rightly. See 
CapelPs School, p. ll.i. Drayton 
speaks of ** WRntonmatachines,'* but 
he evidently mistook their nature. 
Muses* Elys.y vi, p. 1493. 

jTlmt the citizens of the high court grow rich by 
simpliciiie; hut those of London by simple craft. 
That life, death, and time, doe with short ciklgela 
dunce the inatackine. Tluit those which dwell under 
the zonn torrida are trouhled with more damps thea 
those of trigida. Oeerbur^'s Characters, 1615. 

\Jvar. What's thia, a masque? 

Hind. A matachin y<m'l find it. 

Prince of Priggs Betels, 1658. 


And when he had all the Javce out of them, of 
which he made some pottle of drinke, he caused the 
sicke gentleman to dnnke off a ,nandlin cnpfuil, and 
willed his wife to give him oC tUal %Km« «X Ti\<nro\Ci^ 
uuone, and mgjbL Jests ojf George P«e\e^u.\. 





MAUGRE, adv. In spite of. Malgri, 
French. 'J'his word has not been 
very long disused. Spenser wrote 
it maulgre, 

I love thee lo, Uiat maugre all thy pride, 
Nor wit, nor reason, can ray passion hide. 

Tyselftk Night, Hi, 1. 
Not have his sister ! Cricca, I will hH%-e FlaWa, 
Maugre his head. Albumatar, 0. PI., vii, 144. 

Dr. Jortiu thought that Spenser 
sometiroeA used it as an imprecation ; 
as here : 

Ne deeme thy force by fortune's doonie unjust. 
That hath (maugre her spight) thus low me laid in 
diut F. ^.,ll.v.l2. 

Certainly we cannot in that place in- 

terpret It 
spite ;" for 
her spite. 
** curse on 


notwithstanding her 
it is, in eonsequence of 
If we may explain it 
her spite," the sense is 
So here also, where it is 
interposed singly, according to Spen- 
ser's own pointing : 

But ftoward fortune, and too forward niglit. 
Such happiness did, maulgre, to nie spiglit. 

F. ().,lll,v. 7. 

As a confirmation we may remark, 
that maugrSer, in old French, meant 
to curse. See Roquefort and La 
combe. Elsewhere Spenser employs 
maugre in the common wav, as in 
F. Q., Ill, iv, 15, VI, iv, 40. 
tMAUGRE, *. Hann. 

1 thought no mawgre, I tolde it for a bourde. 

Barclntf's F^tr Eglog, n. d. 

MAVIS, *. The thrush ; pn»perly the 
Bong-thrush, as distinguished from 
the screech -thrush or lar^e missel- 
thrush. See Montagu's Ornitholo- 
gical Dictionary. Hence this dis- 

The thrush replyes, the mavxM descant pin vs. 

Spnii.Epithal., 1. 81. 
So doth the cuckow, when the warh sings, 
Begin his witless note apace lo clmtter. 

Spenser, Sonnet 84. 
When to the mirthful merle the wnrbling matis sings. 

/>r«y^, xiv, p. 931. 

It is still a current name for that bird 
in Scotland : 

In rain to me, in glen or shaw. 
The nuan* and Uie hnt-white sing. 

R, Burns, Poems, p. 328. 

Mr. Todd's conjecture that it meant 
the male thrush is therefore erroneous. 
See these birds distinguished also in 
Holmes's Acad, of Armory, B. II, 
ch. xii, § 73. 

fTurdna. kCx^ f^^X^' drive, tonrd oisean dn 
Bette. A thrash : a matisss : a blackebird. 

Nomenelator, 168S. 

f His tumket, sometimes is greene beaaes, and 
Nuts, peares, plunibes, applet, as they are in ai 
His musicke waytes on hun in every ooab. 
He mavis, bnlfinch, blackbird and the thrash ; 
The mountine larke sinjcs in the loftv aky. 
And robin>reabrest makes him melody. 

TeMhr^s Wbrktt, IML 
tThe swallow, martin, lennet, and the thntah. 
The mavis that sinj^s sweetly in the bosh. Ilii. 

MAUMET, «. A puppet; a cormption 
of mammet, which seems to have led 
to the notion that it referred to Mi- 

God that ever any man should look 
Upon this maumet, and not laugh at him. 

Ihtmk Knigkl, O. PI., iv. 4ft. 
And where I meet your manmet ^d; I'll twing *m 
Tims o'er my head, and kick 'em into puddles. 

B. and Fl. IskmdPriMeen, b, S. 

Mr. Tyrwhitt thought that Chaacer 
used maumetrie for Mahometanism ; 
it may, however, mean in that place 
idolatry in general. Cant, T,, 4656. 
See Mammet. 
MAUND, «. A basket. ilfaii</, Sazoo. 
The word is also Dutch and old 
French. See Mand, and Manne, in 

A thousand favours from a mnund xhe drew. 

Shakesp. Lover*s CompL, Snppl.. i, 742. 
With n manud char^'u with hou<*holil iiierdmndize. 

//nil, Snt., iv, 2, 1). «a 
And in n little lunnnd, hein;^ nuide »f ozierit small, 
Wliich sencth him to do full uianv a thing witliall, 
He very choicely sorts his siniph-s ^t Hhroari. 

bratft. Pol^olb.. xiii, p. 919. 
Bcho'd for us the naked graces stay, 
With maunds of roses for tu strew the wav. 

Herric/c's P'oeuu, p. SM 

Hence, Maundy Thursdatjy the day 
preceding Good Friday, on which the 
king distributes alms to a certain 
number of poor persons at Whitehall, 
so named from the maunds in which 
the gifts were contnineti. See Spel- 
man, and otiicrs. Mavndie is used 
by the last-ciied Hiithor for alms. 

All's gune.nnd death Imih taken 

Away from us 

Our maundie, thus 
The widdowes stand lorsaken. 

Herri ck, Saered Poems, p. 4S. 

To MAUND, V. To beg; perhaps ori- 
ginally from begging with a basket to 
receive victuals or other gifts. 

A rogue. 
A very canter I, sir, one tjiat tnnunds 
Upon the pad. B. Jonson, Staple of ?»., aft ii. 

To maund upon the pad meant, in 
the cant language, to beg on the 
highway ; nevertheless, it might have 
originated as above conjectured. See 
B. & Fl. Beggar's Bush, ii, 1. 
To MAUNDER, r. To matter, or 






! ; supposed by Dr. Johnson 
^m maudire, French. 

perfam'd, I now shall Uke my pleasure, 
IT neiclibottr justice mauiuUr at me. 

B. amd Ft. BuU « ITr/e. /v . iii, 1. 

1 cant language, to beg ; from 

and keq> constables waking, wear ont 
wliiDcui«l, mmundtr fur buiter-imlk. 
»d rl. Thierry mnd Tkeodoret, act v, p. 192. 

* have also a maunder, for a 
and a maunder er upon the 
»eggar who robbed also : 

SfriM^lowt, the great comiiiaiider of the 
and king of canters. 

Jowiml Crew, O. PL. x, 3o6. 
rach nipping Christian, but a manndertr 
U, I confess. Btmriug Girl, O. PI., vi, 108. 

Glossary at the end of the 

unple, suppose a begger be in the shape or 

I wtaumdering, or wauderinx souldier, with 
lqei;e, or eye. or some snch uiaime ; then 
Al there passeth by him some lord, knight, 
H grnileman, it makes no matter which, 
juuur, ur liis uorship shall be Hffnmied in 
v. Tutor's Workes, 1630. 

R, s, A girl. The word is 

^d in Nodfolk and Suffolk. 

1 derives it from moert Danish. 

^*s South and East Country 
Sometimes corrupted to 
Its connection with Norfolk 

fuarked : 

mother that do want a scrnirr. 

n'rt :i Norfolk woman (cry tiice mercv) 

id» an* mothert, and mothert wn ninius. 

It. Brume'* EmjL Moor, lii, 1. 

also modder : 

II Philiis then cunsuuie her youth as an 

aintie Venus? will Phillis still be a modder, 
ire to be call'd by the deare-sweele name 
other? J. Frannce't Jrychurch, A 4 b. 

talk hke a fuolisli manther ! 

B. Jim*. Alch., iv, 7. 

lays it to his sister. 

thard says to Kate, in Bloom- 

uffolk ballad, 

» once a gigling maoKiker you, 
nd I a red-fac'd chubby boy. 

Afro/ Talu, 1803, p. S. 
I wench, as they say in some places, a 

WxtkaW DietioiuirU. ed. 1606, p. 272. 

game at cardct. 

of nations pluid at mate and chesse. 

ITeatesl goes tu Hall. D 1. 
I set of maw or prima-vista from them. 
■/ Frirnds. cited by Steev. Hen. FIJI, v, 1. 

1 Harington calls it *' heaving 
maw;** why so, does not 

It follow'd heawing of the 
tbout civility or law. 

tbout ciniity or law, 

play, and yet in court oft scene. 

nave U» trump both king and queene. 

Epigr., ir, 12. 

Itt, p. i'o:i. 

This heaving was clearly some gro* 
tesque bodily action performed in the 
game, and deemed characteristic of 
it. Turbervile says : 

To checke at chesse, to kemwe at wuue, at mack to 

passe the time. 
At coses or at saunt to sit, or set their rest at arime. 

Book of FameoturU. 

Hence it was, probably, that it was 
deemed an indecorous game for grave 
personages : 

Yet in my opinion it were not fit for them [schoUrsJ 
to play Ht stuollMill among wenches, nor at mum- 
chance or ntaw, with idle loose companions. 

Bainoldes'M (hertkrow of Stage FU$*, 1S99. 

Many particulars of maw are intro* 
duced by Chapman in his May-day, 
act V, but none that throw any light 
upon the preceding expression. It 
is said as a kind of sarcasm by a 
nephew to his uncle, who is of an 
amorous turn, 

Methousht Lncretia and 1 were at momo} a guu^ 

uncle, that you can well skill of. 

The uncle replies, rather pettishly. 

Well, kir, 1 can so. Act r, p. 108. 

Braithwaite says, that '* in games at 
cards, the maw requires a quicke 
conceit or present pregnancy." EnyL 
Gent,, p. 226. Why, he does not 

f Specially for the giving signes of hys game at laaic^. 
a play at cardes growne out of the country from the 
meanest into creUite at the courte with the greatest. 
Arthur Hall's Account of a Quarrell, 1576. 
tA gtrntleman who did greatly stui and slammer in 
his speech, playing at taawe, UiU downc a winning 
carde, and ttien said unto hii partener. How sa-ay 
ye now, wa-was not this ca>ca-ard pa-as-assing «'e- 
we-well la-a-ayd. Yes (answered th other), it is well 
lavd, but yet it needes not halfe this cackling. 

Copley's ints. Fits, and Fkneus, 1614. 
f Hee is no gamester, neither at dice, or cards, yet 
there is not any man within forty miles of his head* 
that can play with him at aiair. 

Taylor's Workes, 16S0. 

MAY, 8. A maid. A word borrowed 
from Chaucer and his time. 

Thi* fairest m^y she was that ever went, 
Her like she has not left beliind, i wrene. 

Spenser, Sh. £al.. Noo^ ▼. St.. 
Fayre Britton maye, 
Wary and wise in all thy waves, 
Never seekinge nor findinge piTre. 

Pntlrnh Partken,, par. 6. 
Syr Ciuline loteth her be^t of all. 

But nothing durst he s lye, 
Ne descreeve Itis couns^yle to no man, 
But deerlye he lovde this may. 

Percy's R 'I., i. p. 43. 

in the Glossary Percy says, *' tnatj^ 
for maid, rhythmi ffratid ;'' hut it is- 
no such thing. It is an old, autho- 
rised word, no less so than maid. la 
a very old song, prinred by Ritsonn 
we read of "The feyrest mat^ iti. 




towne" (Anc. Songs, p. 2o) ; where 
DO rhyme required it. 
MAY- DAY. The custom of going out 
into the fields early on May-day, to 
celebrate the return of spring, was 
observed by all ranks of people. 
*• Edwarde Hall liaih noted," says 
■Stowe, *• that K. Henry the Eighth, 
in the 7th of his raigne, on May-day 
in the morning, with queeneKatlieren 
his wife, rode a Maying from Green- 
witch to the high gronnd of Shooter's 
hill." Survey of Lond., p. 72. 
"Where some cnrions sports then de- 
vised for him ar^ described. Stowe 
^ays also, *' In the moneth of May 
the citizens of London of all estates, 
lightly in every parish, or sometimes 
two or thre parishes together, had 
their several Mayings, and did fetch 
in May-poles," &o. Page 73. The 
citizens were much attached to this 
recreation, which was, indeed, a very 
natural and salutnrv one. 

Prav, lir, be patient ; 'tis as much impossible 
(Unless we sweep them from the door with cannons) 
To scatter them, ns 'tis to make them sleep 
- On May-day ntoniing, w liich will never be. 

Henry VIII, v, 3. 
Tie will not let me sec a mubiering, 
Kor in a May-day niuriiinj; felcli in May. 

Ftvr Prentices of L, O. Pi., vi, 461. 

See Brand's Popular Antiq., chap. 
XXV. These is a masque tor May- 
day in Ben Jonson's Works, v, 213, 
Wh. See III May-day. 

tMAYOR'S-POSTS. It was formerly 
the custom to erect painted posts at 
the door of the mayor s house. This 
practice is occasionally alluded to by 
our old writers. 

MAZE IN TUriLE. See Tuttlk. 

Itf AZER, s. A bowl, or goblet. It has 
usually been derived from maeser, 
which in Dutch means maple, or a 
knot of the maple wood ; whence it 
has been concluded to have meant 
originally a wooden goblet, and to 
have been applied afterwards, less 
properly, to those of other and mure 
valuable matter. But Du Cange gives 
a more curious account of it. Ac- 
cording to him, it was in it::$ origin 
the appellation for cups of value. 
The amount of what he says is, that 
murrhinum, or tnurreum, the ancien' 

name for the most valuable 1 
cups, made of a substanc 
unknown, continued in the 
ages to be applied to those 
glass, which had been at first 
in imitation of the murrhine. 
word, by various corruptions, 
mardrinutn, masdHnum, magi 
from which latter mazer was t 
The French word madre is su 
to have the same origin ; an 
applied still to substances cu 
variegated ; but at first more j: 
larly to the materials of fine ; 
(see Diet, de Vieux Lang., T 
Hanap de madre^ &c. Thus > 
** scyphus pretiosi maseris, 
** cupa magna de mazero, ornal 
alto, duohus circulis, et p( 
argenteis." This much better ac 
for the application of the term i 
of value, which seems to alwa} 
been the prevalent use. W< 
however, wooden mazer, Harl. 
vi, 1 66. 

So jcoldeii tnator wont suspicion breed. 
Of deadly lu-nilocks poison'd p<ition. 

Hull's hrjinnce to Envy, prefixed to li 
A niiichtv mazer howie of wine was sell, 
As i( it had to him been sncnflde 

Spens. F. (>., 1 

Yet Spenser seems to have a 
the derivation fronj nwjtle, 
speaks of 

k viazer ywnmght of the mnple ware. 

i>hep. Kal., Autj 

Great magnitude seems alwai 
properly attributed to then 
Spenser above, **a mighty m 
aiul the follov\ing passages: so 
major howl might be no impr 
conjecture, had we no other deri 

All that Ilybla's hives do > ield 
Were into one broad mater fiU'd. ' B. Jon 
The muses from their Heliconian eprinx 
Their brimful mazers to the feasting bnng ; 
When with deep draughts, out oi those 

The jocund youth have swill'd their thirsty 

Drayt. AywjaA, lii 

Johnson has given an instance 
word from Dry den. 

tThcy toke siway the sylver vessell. 

And ail that they myght get, 
Feces, uuisurs, and spones, 
^Vuklu they non fi»rsrete. Robin Hi 
Ah, Tytinis, 1 would withuU my heart, 
Kvtn " iih thi' I)f8t of my rurv'd mazers part 
To hrar hifn. as h«* ii^'d. divinely shew 
\\ hilt 'us lliiii paints the divers coloard bow 

Mandolph** Pot. 




ff. A head ; nsnally derived, 
ery little probability, from 
Freuch, which means only 
The very quotation from 
re contradicts it, where the 
lid to be chapless (that is, 
jaw), and yet to be knocked 

mazzard with a spade, 
n, who always supposes our 
to have been great Grecians, 
from fiUTTuai, meaning the 
achoires : ^nd, as it occurs 
le>ychiiis, wa*, to be sure, 
ly ready for plain fiuglish- 
iopt! The fact is, that it 
* been a burlesque word, 
AS likely to be made from 

anything else; comparing 
o a large goblet. The two 
•e ofteu confounded. Syl- 
» mazor, for head, in serious 

Du Bart., I, 4. See Todd. 

yet quite disused in bur- 
low conversation. 

1 knock'd Mbout the mazzard with a 
c Hand , t, 1. 

r— or I'll knock you o'er the mazzard. 

Othello, ii, 3. 
Your brave acqnaintaiice 
u ale. so fortibed your mazard, 
no ulkinie to vuu. 
R. ifit withoul Money, ii. p. 294, vol. ii. 

corrupted to mazer : 

is pate, or so ; only his utazfr, because 
lead in a cloth as well as mine. 

HoHfst Jrk.. () PI., iii, 329. 
xnorous conquests, at the last, 
will sUce your wuuer. 

Jll Fools, 0. PL, ir, 1. 

RD, r. To strike on the 
) knock the brains out.] 

Men a spirit, 1 had been mnzarded. 

B. J<m*(m, Moiqtu* at Court. 

There was formerly, in 
use, a redundant insertion 
noun me, which now seems 
ige. Instances of it occur 
aently in the writings of 

c him out ; wind me into him, I pray yon. 

Lear, i, 2. 
luild me thy fortunes upon the biisis of 
lleiixe me the duke's youth to Hjrht with 

Tterl/lh N.. Hi, 2. 

)riginally to have meant, do 
hing for me; but it was 
s by no means confined to 

nted me three demi-cnlvenns just in the 

B. Jont, i^Miy Mom m hitff.,i^L 

Now it was the enemy had planted 

But as he was by diverse princtpall yoanc grentlenen, 
to bis no small slorie, lifted up on liorseracke, comet 
mee a page of Amphialns, who with humble smiling 
reverence delivercu a letter unto him from CUnias. 

Femhr. Jrcad., B. iii. p. 277. 

Johnson notices this usage, but does 
not remark that it is now obsolete. 
His instances are all from Shake- 
To MEACH, V. To skulk ; merely a 
mis-spelling of mich. 

Say we should all meack here, and stny the fenst now, 
Wiiat can the worst be? we hane plaid the knaves, 
That *s without question. 

B. jf- Fl. Hon. Mom's F., v. 1. 

See to Mich. 
MEACOCK, *. A tame dastardly fellow, 
particularly an over-mild husband ; 
for which reason Coles renders it, 
among other things, '* uxorius, uxori 
nimium deditu^ et obnoxius.'* Skin- 
ner, and after him, Johnson, derive 
it from me9 coq, French ; but mes is 
a particle used only in compounds, 
and such a compound as mescoq does 
not appear in the French of any age. 
The plain English cum pound meek' 
cock, is a much more probable ac- 
count of it; being frequently, and 
perhaps oriirinally, applied to a hen- 
pecked husband, a cork tliat yielded 
to the hen. It generally implies 
effeminacy. Skinner's second con- 
jecture of mew-cock, is not much 
better than his first ; for who ever 
heard of a mew^d-cock? 

'Tis a world to see 
How tame, when men Hnd women luti alone, 
A uteacock wretch can make the curstest shrew. 

TamtHg of Skrew, ii, 1. 
A woman 's well hotp'd up with such a meaccck. I 
Itad raiher have a husliand that would swaiddle me 
thnce a d»v, than such a one that will he zull'd twice 
in half an fiour. Decker's Honest ff'k., O. PL. iii, 277. 
A meacocke is he who drcadth to see hloud shed. 

Mirror for Magistr., p. 418. 
If I refuse their courtesie, I shall he accounted a 
mecocke, a milk»op, taunted and retnuntcd, with 
cliecke and check aiate, flouted and retlouted with 
iutollerable glee. Euphues, M 1 b. 

MEACOCKE, adj. Dastardly, effemi- 

Let us therefore give the charge, and oncet upon 
youder effeminate and meycocke people. 

Ckurckyafd's Worthies of Wales, p. 39, ed. 1776. 

To MEAL, ». To mingle, or mix with ; 
merely a corrupt form of to we//, to 
meddle, or mix with. 


He doth with holy abstinence subdue 

?'*«at in himself, which he %vvtx% ou \i\« ysrvivt 



To quUfy in atlun. WcnheamT' 

See to Mell. 
A MEAL'S MEAT,i.e.,Rnieal of meat. 
Meatenougb foramea). Tliix phrase, 
which even dow is sometimea heard, 
in low conversation, does not often 
occur in books. It was, perhaps, of 
more dignity formerly than now. 

Yim ne'er vel bad 
A ■icaJ'f mof rumi m^ Uble, ■« I remcmbFT, 
r<oi from my vuxlrobc uiy cut luitr 

B. / n. Himat U-r,; FotMui. Ut ii. p. MS. 

MtaU is still naed in the country for 
the quitntitv of milk given by & cow 
Atone milkiiig. We And it in Browne's 
Pastorals : 

Euli ihepkenl't UiuchUi with licr cleanlr poll, 
Wu come • llelil U tnilli Ihe morainr'i n«If. 

B. 1, Song ir, p. n. 

Prom mal, a pnrt, or portion. Salon. 
Whence also the coJiimon meaning of 
meal, either alone or in compound, 
t» piere-«iea/, &c., and DsOP-HEAL. 
MEAL-MOUTHED, ai/j. Delicate 
mouthed, unable to bring out harsh 
or strong expressions. This term, 
whicli survives in the form of mealy- 
mouthed, appeiirs to have been the 
original word. Applied to one whose 
words are fine and soft as meal, as 
MtHNhew well explains it. Most fre- 
quently applied to affected and hypo- 
criticfll delicacy of speech. See Mr. 
Todd's excellent 'itlustrstion of the 
word ; from wliich I bi 

Sl«t,i. W.. ii, IBM. 

To MEANE, K. To moftn, or lameot. 
In the following passage of Shake- 
speare, oil the enrly editions read 
meane, which the critics changed to 
moans. We now know, from Dr. 
Jamieson'a Dictionary, that the word 
is Scotch in that sense, and therefore, 
probnhly, nortliem English also. 
signifies nioo. in Scotch, to intend, or 
mention, and has therefore been ex 
plained as a law-term in that dialect . 
aud the addition of videlteel seems to 


imply that a burlesque applicatti 
a regular form was intended. 
Heron's (i. e., Piukerton's) Letters <rf 

L)i. Shi Lilh ipled Uni already, vilh Uhw 

To MEAN BY, for to mean of. This 
phrase occurs in the Merchant of 
Venice, where Arragou is choosing 
the casket. The modern editions till 
latelv substituted of, but the readiif 
of tlie folios is this : 

What man* mcD dnire,— llial many may be wial 
Bt the (ful multitude, that ctiaig by ^Bai.,a 

Thus king James, in his speech about 
the gunpowder plot : 

I did upon the iDatant interpret and apprehoid ioaH 
dark pbruei lliertm— to be imhI if Ihie huUt 

The expression appears to have been 
very common. See the notes on the 
first example, ed. 1813. But the 
following passage of Putteuham ii 
the completest illustration of it. He 
cites these lines on queen Eliu- 

Slic came abroide ercn •ealodiy, 

Here be snys, though the name is doI 
mentioned, yet 

Any •impLe ju^emenl miebt eaaily percnn 1* hIw 
it nu mnil, tCal li, bf\i, Eliubetli. oncH cf 
EoEland. and dauglitcr lo kiog Heni; Iki KfUt; 

All! If Baft. Fttlit, B. iii, ck. Ik 

MEARE. See Mee&e. 
MBARE-STONES. Boundaries. Skin- 
ner and Mituheu). See Mesbk. 

He Fa baylye] kDonhi^w biiaDdiiilaiid,aiid caoaB 
SalttoufaO, Oat. 30. 

MEASLES, *., originally aignified 
leprosy, though now used for a T«y 
different disorder. The origin is the 
old French word meteau, or metd, t 
leper. Cotgrave lias "meteau, t 
meietled, scurvy, leaporoiu, UxanMii 
person." Meeelrie means leprosy, 
which word Chaucer naes. Dis- 
tempered, or scurvied bogs, are ttill 
said to be meailed. 

Wbicli we diwlain abouU 

feCtar aa, yi 




J MEASURE, «. A grave solemn 
dance, with slow and measured steps, 
like the minuet. 

For hear me. Hero; wooing, weddings and repenting, 

IS as a Scotch jig, a measure, nnd a cinque pace : the 

first suit is hot and hast^, like a Scotch jig, and fall 

as fantastical ; the wedding, mannerlr, modest, as a 

wuature, full of state and andentry. muck Ado, ii, 1. 

Bat after these, as men more dril grew. 

He did more grave and solemn wuasuret firame, 8m. 
• • • • • 

Yet all the feet whereon these sMsrarM go. 
Are only spondees, solemn, grave, and slow. 

Sir J. Daviu on Doiumg, St. 65 8b 66. 

Hence the phrase was to tread a 
meamrCy as we used also to say, to 
walk a minuet: 

S«7 to her, we have measor'd many a mile 
To trtad « 9uaattre with her on this crass. 

um^i L. £., ▼, S. 
I bare trod a wu€umr0, 1 have flatter'd a lady, 8cc. 

As jfou like it, ▼, 4. 

Ab these dances were of so solemn a 
nature, they were performed at public 
entertainments in the inns of court ; 
and it was not unusual, nor thought 
inconsistent, for the first characters 
in the law to bear a part in treading 
the measures. See Dugdale's Origines 
Juridiciales. Sir Christopher Hatton 
famous for it. 

Hone o' yonr doll measuru; there's no sport bnt in 
vQnr cofnntry figanes. 

Bird in a Cage, 0. PL, viii, 26S. 

forms the title of one of Shakespeare's 
comedies, seems to have been a cur- 
rent expression, equivalent to like for 
like, denoting the law of retaliatiop, 
or equal justice. Thus, in a play 
which probably is not his : 

From off the gates of York fetch down the head. 
Year tier's nead which Clifford placed there; 
Instead whereof let Am [Clifford'sj sapply the room. 
Maaswefor measure mast be snswerea. 

8 Hen. VI, ii, 6. 

Thus the title of Shakespeare's co- 
medy implies that the same law 
should be enforced against Angelo 
which he enforced against others. 
A MEASURING CAST, met., from the 
game at bowls. A cast of one bowl 
so like to that of another, that it 
cannot be determined which is nearest 
to the jack, or mistress, but by mea- 

Hast tnoo done what is disputable, whether it be well 
dons? It is a metumrit^ cast whether it be kw^ 
or no. JUCir, Oood Tkn^kts in Worse ^wus, p. S9. 

tMECHAL. Adulterous. From the 

That done, stnusht nmrdsr 
Om of thy Wiest grooms, and nil yon boCli 

Grasp'd arm in arm in thy adulterate bed, 
lien call in witness of your meckall sin. 

Bape of Luerece, O. IL 

To MEDDLE, t?. To mix ; from metier, 
French. Whence also to Mell. 

More to know 
Did never meddle with my thougbts. Tempest, i, S. 

He cut a lock of all their heare, 
Which, wiedling with their blood and earth, he threw 
Into the grare. Spens. F. Q., II, i, 6L 

The red rose msdUd, and the white yfere. 
In eyther cheek depetncten livety cneere. 

Ibid., Skep. Kal., April, ▼. 68. 

Chaucer used the word in this sense. 
See the Persone's Tale, vol. iii, p. 146, 
ed. Tyrw. For other instances, see 
MEDICINABLE, a. This word was 
formerly used to signify medicinal, 
or useful as medicine; though, by 
the analogy of its formation, it should 
mean capable of being relieved by 
medicine. Shakespeare has it several 

Any bar, any cross, any impediment will be medieina- 
I2« to me : I am sick in displeasure with him, and 
whatsoever comes athwart his affection, ranges evenlv 
with mine. Muek Ado, ii, ^ 

Some griefs are medieinable ; that is one of them. 
For it doth physic love. Cymbel., iii, 2. 

Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees 
Their m^d'cinabU gum. Othello, v, 2. 

Old oil is more clear and hot in medieinable use. 

Accept a bottle made of a serpentine stone, a'hirli 
ffives any wine infused therein for four and twenty 
hours, the taste and operation of the spaw water, ancl 
is Tcry medieinable for the cure of the spleen. 

And it is observed by Gesner, that the jaw-bones, 
and hearts, and galla of pikes are very medieinablf 
for several diseases, or to stop bloud, to abate fevers, 
to cure agues, to oppose or expel the infection of the 

Jilague, and to be many wayes medieinable and useful 
or the good of mankind. 

Isaac Walton, Complete Angler, p. 147, ed. 1661. 

Sir J. Hawkins has changed it to 
medicinal in both places. See his 
edit., p. 159. Minshew has the word 
in this sense. See also Johnson, 
f MEDICINE. Chapman uses this word 
in the sense of bait for fish, or rather 
perhaps as a preparartion for ground- 

And as an angler wud'eine, for surprize 
Of httle Ash, sits pouring &9m the rocks 
From out the crooKed horn of a fold-bred ox. 

Odjiss,, xii. 

tMEDLER-CORN. " Provender or 
medler come, farrago." WithaU 
Viclionarie, ed. 1608, p. 158. 

To MEECH, V. The same as meach, 
and mich, A mere variation of spell- 
ing. See to MiGU. 

MEED, «. Reward. Saxon. A word 
long obsolete in convec««X\o\i ^xA'vci 




pro8e» but always more or less used 
in poetry. Few instances are neces- 
sary, of a word so well known and 

Vouchsafe me for mj meed, but one fair look. 

Two Gent, of Verona. 
Where death the victor had for meed assini'd. 

Faufax, Tueo, ii, 81. 

2. It is much less known, that it 
sometimes meant also merit; as laus, 
in Latin, signified sometimes desert. 
Virg, jSn., i, 461. 

Each one already blazing by our meeds. 

3 Fw. r/, ii, 1. 

The above is erroneously explained by 
Johnson ; though he adds, meed is 
likewise merit ; and yet, as if diffident 
of both expedients, he proposes deeds 
as a plausible substitution. 

My meed liath got me fame. Ibid. 

But in the imputation laid on him by them, in his 
meed he's unfdiow'd. Hamlet, r, 2. 

This Johnson explained, ** in his ex- 
cellence;" yet in his Dictionary he 
totally omitted this sense, nor is it 
supplied by his excellent editor ; but 
the following passage is still given, 
as metimng present, or ffi/t : 

Plutus, the Kod of gold. 
Is but hit steward ; no meed but he repays 
Sevenfold above itself. Timon, i, 1. 

Thou shalt be rich in honour, full of speed, 
Thou shalt win foes bv fear, and friends by meed. 

Look about you, 1600, cit. by Steerens. 

Minshew refers to merit, as a sy- 
nonym to meed. 
To MEED, V, To deserve ; from the 
second sense of the substantive. 

And yet thy body meede a better grave. 

Heytcood's Silver Jge, IClS.'cit. St. 

Sir John Hawkins found the following 
curious lines, designed to rend alike 
backwards and forwards, as an in- 
stance of this verb; but the first 
exemplifies this sense of the verb : 

Deem ill meed. 
Dear madam read. 


Of which the first is Pence, the island abovesayd, tlie 
second Nanicustoma, the third Calonstunia, the fourth 
Pseudostoma ; as for the fift Boreonstoma, and the 
sixt Sthenostoma, the]r be farre lesse tbno the rest : 
the seventli is a mightie great one, and in manner of 
a meere, blacke. Ammianvs JUmrellintu, 1609. 

IMEERE, written also meare. A boun- 
dary. Mare, Saxon. 

And Hygate made tlie meare thereof by west. 

Spem. F.Q., 111, ix, 46. 

To MEERE, ». To divide ; from the 

At such a point 
Wlitn lialf to half tlie world oppos'd, he being 
The merred question. Antony and Cleop., iii, 11. 

That is, lie being the defined or 

limited question. Spenaer also uses 

Tlie Latin name. 
Which memr^d her rule with Afric and with Byze. 

StttHM ofR., St. 22. 
For bounding and mearing, to him that will keepe it 
Justely, it is a bond that brideleth power and desire. 

North's PL, L 55, D. 

After all, this is not quite satisfactory 
as to the word in Shakespeare. Can 
it be an old law verb? Meer, for 
right, is given in all the law dictio- 
naries. ** Meered question," there- 
fore, might mean *' question of right.'* 
I give this entirely as conjecture. 
See Jacob's Law Diet., &c. 
tMEERE-STONE. A boundary stone. 
Meere tree, a tree used for the same 

Terminalis lapis, qui in agrorum finibua ponitur. 
Wpfuz. Borne. A meere stone: a land marke : a stone 
set and placed in the ends of land or fields. 

Nomenelator, 1583. 
Arbre assis 6s homes. A meere tree: a tree which 
is for some bound or limit of land. Ihd. 

MEESE, or MEES, for meads, or fields. 
See Skinner and Kersey. 

And riehlT clad in thy fair golden fleece 
Boo'st hold the first house of hear*n's spadooa mtesf. 

SyU. Du Bart., I, iv. 

To MEET WITH, signified sometimes 
to counteract. 

We must prepare to meet ufitk Caliban. 

Tempest, iv, 1. 
The parson knows the temper of every one in hit 
house, and accordingly, either meets witl their rices, 
or advances their virtues. 

Herberts Country Parson, cit. by Johnson. 
You may meet 
With her abusive maJice, and exempt 
Yourself from the suspicion of revenge. 
Stephens's Cynthia's Rnenge, 1613, cit. by Steevens. 
I know the old man's gone to meet with an old wench 
tliat icill meet with him, or Jarris has no Juice in his 
brains. Match at JUidn., O. PL, ^ii, 401. 

This is explained, in the notes, "be 
even with him." 

To be meet with, similarly meant to be 
even with, to have fair retaliation. 

Faitli, niece, you tax signior Benedick too much; hat 
he'll be meet icith you, I doubt it not. Much jldo,i,l. 
Well, I shall be meet unth your mnmbling ntouth one 
day. B. Jons. Bartkol. Phir, ii, 3. 

Well. lie prevent her, and goe meet her, or clae she 
will be meet unth me. Holiday's Ttchtu^ffamia, i, I. 

tMEET. To put or place. Fr. mettre. 

He to her heart did a dacger meet. 

The Three Knights, an oU haUai. 

fMEET-ROD. A measuring rod. 

A meat-rod to measure the land with, arbor pertica. 
Withals' JHctionarie, ed. IflOS, p. 60. 

fMEETELY. Moderately. 

Shee promiseth thee nu'e^^Zy well. 

Terence in Bnolisk. 161i. 

MEINT, or MEYNT. part. Minted. 
A word of Chaucer's time, but adopt- 
ed by a few later poets. It is the 




participle of the verb to menye, of 
SaxoD origin. 

TUl witli Ui elder brother Themit 
His bradiih wirei be mewnt. 

^ens. July, rer. 83. 
And in one Teesel both torether wteint. 

FUtdUi'9 Purple /W., iv, St. SI. 
nil both within one bank, they on my north are 

And where I end thqr fi^ nt Newark into Trent. 

Dnjft. Polyolb., xxvi, p. 1166. 

MBINT, or MENIE, «. A company 
belonging to, or attending; upon, a 
superior person; from mesnie, old 
French, which Roquefort defines, 
'* famille, maison, tons ceux qui la 
composent." [Prop**'^', the attend- 
ants of the household collectively.] 
Often confounded with the English 
word many. See Many. 

Ob whose content*, 
They lununon'd np their wuiny, stmit took horse. 

Lear, li, 4. 
Small Fidan, with Cledangh increaie her goodly 

Short Kebly, and the brook that christneth Aber- 
geiuiy. Drayt. Folf/olb., It, p. 729. 

So should I qnicklr, without more oUoe, 
Famish myself and all my wuymt too. 

Hon. Qkoit, p. 110. 
They were set and scrred plentifully with venison 
and wine, by Bobin Hood and his meynU^ to their 
great contentment Stove^ Survey, p. 78. 

Here erroneously spelt many : 

That this faire many were eompeli'd at last 
To fly for succour to a little shed. 

Spens. F. Q., Ill, ix, 11. 
And, with my numie'a blood, 
Iiubnid their fierce devouring chaps. 

Warner t Alk. Bng., I, t, p. 16. 

Cotgrave exemplifies the French word 
by old French proverbs : ** De telle 
seigneur, telle me«nt>;" which be trans- 
lates, " Like master, like mei/nie" 
MELANCHOLY, A solemn, and even 
melancholy air was affected by the 
beaus of queen Elizabeth's time, as 
a refined mark of gentility. This, 
like other false refinements, came 
from France. 

Methinks, no body should be sad, but I : 
Yet I remember, when I was in France, 
Young gentlemen would be as fcud as night. 
Only lor wantonness. King John, iv, I. 

How do I feel mrself ? why, as a nublcnian should 
do. O how I feel honour c^inie creepinj; on ! ' My 
nobility is wonderful melancholy: Js it nut uiott 
gentlnuuiUk§ to he melanckoly T 

Life and Death of Lord Cromvell, in, 2, Suppl. to 

Shakeap., ii, 405. 

Why, I do think of it ; and I will be more proud, and 

melanekoly and gen t l e man l ike, than I have been, I'll 

insure you. B. Jone. Beery Man in his //., i, 3. 

Again : 

I, truly, iir, I am roightUy given to melancholy. 
Mat. Oh, its your only fine humour, sir, your true 
wteUinckolv breeds your perfect fine wit, sir: I mu 
metancholy myself, divers times, sir. and tUcit do I 

) no more but take pen and paper presently, and ove« 
flow you half a score, or a dozen of lonueu at a 
sitting. Hid., iii, a. 

Mtlanekofy I mary gup. la melemeiolif a word for a 
barber'a montii? ttoa shonldst sav heavio, doll, and 
dollish: Melanckoly is the creast of courtiers* arnus, 
and now every base oompanion, being in his mnble- 
fnbles, says he is melancholy. PetnL Motto, thou 
shonldst say thou art lumpish. If thou encroach 
upon our courtly tearmes weele trounce thee. 


An excellent picture of one of these 
fashionable melancholies is drawn by 
sir John Davis, in the 47th of his 
epigrams, entitled Meditations of a 

See yonder melancholic gentleman, 

which hood-winked with his hat alone doth sit ; 
Think what he thinkes, and tell me if you can. 

What great aflhires trouble his little wits. 
Ue thinkes not of the war *twixt France and Spaine^ 

Whether it be for Enron's good or ill ; Sec. 8te. 
But he doth seriotisly betninke hia, whether 

Of the gul'd people be bee more esteemed 
For his lone cloake, or for hia great blacke feather. 

See the whole, which is full of hu- 
mour, in Cens. Lit., viii, p. 126. 
Pills to purge melancholy, which 
D'Urfey afterwards took as a title to 
his collection of ballads, bad long 
been a kind of proverbial phrase : 

But I have a pill, 
A golden pill to purge away this melancholy. 

B. Jons. Staple of N eyes, ii, 1. 
Madam, I think a lusty handsome fellow. 
If he be kind and loving, and a right one. 
Is ev^ as Kood a pill to purge this melanchofy. 
As erer Qtden gave. B. and M. Pilgrim, i, 1. 

Melancholy of Moor-ditch, Though 
we have at present no direct proof nt* 
it, I am strongly inclined to think 
that some melancholy madman, well 
known at that time to frequent tbe 
neighbourhood of Moorditch, was tiie 
subject of the allusion. The cer- 
tainty of this cannot, perhaps, now be 
recovered. See I Hen. IV, i, 2. 

My body being tyred with travell, and my mind 
attyred with moody, muddy. Moor-ditch meUmcholv. 
Taylor's Pennilesse Pilgrimage, p. li'i. 

See Moor-ditch. 
MELICOTTON. See Male-cotoon. 
MELLi s. Honey. Mel, Latin. 

Ev'n such as neither wanton seeme, nor waiu.ird, 
mcll, nor ipUI. learner. Alb. Engl, 1613, p. 97. 

Used also by Sylvester, Du Bart., 
p. 457, ed. 1621. 

tBy thee, we quench the wildc and wanton fires. 
That in our suule the Paphian shot inspires ; 
And taught (by thee) a love more firm and fitter. 
We find the mcl more sweet, the gall less bitter. 

2>w Barlas 
tThat mouth of hers which secmd to flow wytli .wU. 

Gascoigne's Works, 1557. 

To MELL. To meddle, or be concemeti 
with. Meier, French. 




Men are to wuU with, boys are but to kisa. 

jlirs Well, iv, 3. 
Hot fit 'mongst men that doe with renaon mell, 
Bnt 'mongat wild beasta and aalvage wooda to dwell. 

Spens. F. (Q.. V, ix, 1. 
Tliat every matter waa worae for ner meUing. 

Ibid., V. xii. 35. 
Wherewith proud courta in greatneaa acorn to mell. 

Draff Urn, Ecl.,\x, p. 1430. 

See also Idea 39. 
fMELLISONANT. Sweet-sounding, 
used rather as a burlesque word. 

Mop. Belwether of knighthood, you ahall bind me to 

lo. Pie haveH no mora a aheep-beU ; I am knight 
or the wuUitonmiU tingletangle. 
Mop. Sure one of my progeny; tell me, gratioua 

Waa thia wu lHs o n am t tingletangle none 
Of old Actaeon'a hoondaf Randolph's AmynUu, 1640. 

MELL-SUPPER. A north-couutry ex- 
pression for the harvest-home feast. 
After much dispute on its derivation, 
it seems most natural to deduce it 
from the Scottish mell, a company, 
according to Dr. Jamieson, especially 
as it is confessedly northern English. 
See Grose, &c. See also the quarto 
edition of Bourne's Popular Antiqui- 
ties, where all the discussious of its 
origin are collected in the notes. 
Vol. i, p. 447, et seq. 

To MEMORIZE. To render memo- 
rable, to record. 

I perauade me, from her 
Will fan aome bleasing to this land, which ahall 
In it be memorU'd. Henry VIII, iii, 2. 

Which to ancceeding timea ahaU numonte your 

To either oomntry'a pralae, aa both your endleaa 
gloriea. Drayton, Polyolb., ?, p. 768. 

In vain I think, right honounible lord. 
By thia rude ryme to memorise thy name. 

Spenser, Sonnet to Lord Buckkurst, 
prefixed to F. Qm. 

MEMORY, «., for memorial. 

my aweet maater, you numory 

Of old air Rowland. As you like it, ii, 8. 

Thoae weeda are wiemoriet of thoae woraer houra, 

1 pr'ythee, put them off. Lear, ir, 7. 

Th' abundance of an ydle braine 
Will judged be, and painted forgery. 
Bather then matter of juat memory^ 

Spens. F. Q., ii, Intr., 1. 

fTo MENAGE. To manage. Fr. 

For wiadome he waa eateemed a aecond Titua, the 
aonne of Ve8|)aaian ; for the glorious nunoffima and 
carriage of hia wanrea, Uke tor all the world to 
Trajanua. EoUasUPi Jmmianus MaresUintu^ 1609. 

tMENGLE. For mingle, a mixture or 

Acervatim, adrcrb, on heapea, without ordre, in a 
nungle. EUotes Dieiionarie, 1669. 

fMENIALTY. The lower class of 

The vulgar meniaUy conclude therefore it ia like to 
increase, becauae a heamahaw (a whole aftemoone 
together) sate on the top of Saint Peter's church in 

Nash, Chrises Teares our Jerusalem, 1618. 

Hall uses menalty for the middle 

Which waa called the evyll parliamento fortbe no- 
bilitie, the worse for the mauUie, but worate of all 
for the commonaltie. EalPs ITiium, 1548. 

name of a supposed familiar spirit, 
mentioned in the old legend of Sir 
John Faustus, and consequently a 
principal agent in Marlowe's play of 
Dr. Faustus ; but there he is MephM- 
tophilis : 

Come not Lucifer, 
I'll bum my hooka : Mepkostophilis I Act r. 

And thence current in Shakespeare's 
time as a term of jocular invective : 

Pistol. How now, Mephostophilus ! Merry W. W., i,l. 
'Sblood, why what! thou art not lunatic, art thou? 
an thou be'st, avoid, Mephostophilus I 

B. Jons. Case is Altered, ii, 7- 
Then he may pleasure the king, at a dead pindi too, 
Without a Mephostophilus, audi as thou art. 

B. and Ft. Wife for M., r, 1. 

He is introduced also by Massinger, 
and most of the early dramatists. 
To MERGE. To amerce, or punish by 

Then hath he the power 
To meree your purae, and in a aum ao great 
That shall for ever keep your fortunea weak. 

Mts. of Inf. Mar., 0. PL. v, 2S. 
Justice shall merce thee. Law Tricks, 6 3 b. 

tMERCEMENT. A fine. 

Mulcta, vel multa, Cic. Pecuniaria poena. Amende. 
A. fine : a penaltie : a inerceMent, or forfeit. 


MERCHANT, «. Familiarly used, as 
we now say a chap (with much the 
same meaning, being only a contrac- 
tion of chapman), a saucy chap, or the 

I pray vou, air, what saucy nterchani waa thia that 
waa so full of his ropery ? Bom. and JuL, ii, 4 

But, if I had had the boy in a oonTenient place. 
With a good rodde or twaine, not paat one howreli 

I would have ao aoonrged my marchani, that hii 

breech should ake. New Oust., O. PL. i, 256. 

I knew you were a crafty merchant, you helped my 
master to such bargaina upon the exchange last 
night. Match at M., 0. ?L~m, 438. 

The crafty merchant (what-ever he be) that will set 
brother against brother, meaneth to deatroy then 
both. Latimer^s Serm., p. IK, b. 

Those subtle merchants will no wine, 
Bicauae they cannot reach the vine. 

Turbervile, in Chalm. Poets, ii, 608. 

MERCIABLE, adj., for merciful. One 

of Spenser's Chaucerian worda. See 

MERCIFY, V. To pity. A word not 

found, except in the following line of 

Spenser : 

Whilat she did weep of no man mercifide. 

X O..Vl,Tii.M. 





MERCURY. A name originally given 
by the alchemists to qnicksilver, and 
still in use. Several washes, and 
other preparations of it, were for- 
merly employed as cosmetics; the 
making of which was a source of gain 
to the empirical chemist. 

And Jf«reiiry.— has he to do with YenuB too ? 3*. A 
little with her &ce, lady, ot ao. B. Jons. Poet., ir, 8. 

MERD, 9. Dung, or excrement. A 
word formed either from Latin or 
French, but never, I believe, in current 
use. Jonson introduces it, in ridi- 
cule of the farrago of an alchemist : 

Burnt doata, chalk, merds, and clay. 

Powder of bonca, s<»ling8 of iron, eUss, 

And wcfflda of oUier strange iugrrcuenta 

Would horat a man to name. Jlckem.y act it. 

To djapnte of gentry without wealth is to discuaa the 

origin of a merd. Burt. Anat-t p. 321. 

These examples are in Todd. 
MERE. A lake. Mere, Saxon. Still 
used in Cheshire, and elsewhere, for 
the lakes of the country. 

Oar weaver here doth will 
The muse his source to aiug, as how his course he 

Who from his natural spring, as from his neighb'ring 

Suffidentiy supply'd, shoots forth his silver breast. 

Drayt. Polyolb., xi, p. 861. 

Then Crock, from that black ominous mere, 

Accounted one of tliose that England'a wonders make. 

Of neighbours Black-mere nam"d, of atnngera Brere- 

ton's lake. Jhid^ vad passim. 

MERE. Simple, absolute decided. 

Upon his mere request. Meta.for Meas., ▼, 1. 

Engaged my friend to his meer enemy. 

Who UMmsh my wuere revenues be the train 
Of milk-wnite aheep. Browne, Brit. Past., i, 1. 

MERE, a. A boundary. Johnson says, 
from fieip4tt; but it is rather from 
/tipos, a derivative from the verb. 
Written also tneare. [See Mcere.] 

To guide my course arifcht, 
What mound or sieddy mere is offered to my sight. 

Drayt. Polyolb., i, p. 669. 
Tlie tanona team, that, on the Cambrian side. 
Doth Sliropshire aa a mear from Hereford divide. 

Meare^tonea are often spoken of, 
meaning what we call land- marks. 
See Jolmsoii. 
MERELY. Simply, absolutely. 

We are wureljf cheated of otir livea. Temp^ i, 1. 

Ilnakkrai, into beaidea he waa m«fr/y unacquainted 
in the eovntey, had his wita aatoniahed with sonow. 

Pemhr. Arc, p. S. 

fTo MERIT, is used by Chapman in 
the sense of to reward. 

The king will ai«ri/ it with gifts. II., it, 369. 

MERLE. A blackbird. Merle, French. 
Merle t Saxon. 

Whan Uie aweet merle and warbling mavis be. 

Drayt. (hcl, p. 1599. 

MERLIN, s. Hhe/alco tesalon of Lin- 
naeus, a small species of hawk ; some- 
times corrupted into murleon. It was 
chiefly used to fly at small birds ; and 
Latham says it was particularly ap- 
propriated to the service ot* ladies. 

A cast of merUns there was besides, which living of a 

f pliant height over certaine buslies, vv'>uld beate tim 
irds that rose down unto the bushes. 

Prmb. Arc, p. 1 ". 
Masse, cham well beset, here's a trimme caste ot 
murUoiu. Dam. and Pithias, O PI., i, 218. 

The merlin is the least oi all hawks, not luui-U bigger 
than a black-bird. 

Holme*, Acad, of Arm., B. II, cU. xi, ^ 57. 

Latham calls it marlion. Though he 
speaks of it as a hawk fit for a young 
lady to employ, he disdains to treat 
of it: 

Let me curteouslT crave pardun and favor, to leave 
the lady and her hawk together, as birds with whsm 
I never had nor have skill to deal at all. 

Paulconry, Book ii, chap. 33. 

MERMAID, s. Used as synonymous 
with syren. 

train me not, sweet mermaid, with thy note. 

To drown me in thy sister's flood of tears ; 

Sing syren for thyself. Com. of Errors, iii, '2. 

In several other places where it 
occurs in Shakespeare, it seems clearly 
more applicable to the syren, than 
to the common idea of a mermaid. 
See particularly Mids. N. Dr., ii, 2, 
where the ** mermaid on a dolphin's 
back " could not easily have been so 
placed, had she had a flsh-like tail, 
instead of legs. 

A merman, the male of this imaginary 
species, is mentioned by the water- 
poet : 

A thing turmoyling in the sea we spide 
Like to a meareman. Taylor's Works, P. ii, p. 29. 

Mermaid* in Homer were witches, and their songs 
enchantments. Holl. Plin., Index. 

It was also, says Mr. Giflbrd, '* one 
of the thousand cant terms for a 
strumpet." Mass. Old Law, iv, 1. 
2. The sign of the Mermaid was a 
famous tavern, where ShHkespeare, 
Jonson, and other wits ot* the time, 
used to assemble. It was situated in 
Cornhill : 

The Mermaid in Cornhill, Bed Lion i' th' Strand. 

Netoes/rom Bart. Fairm 

It is spoken of Uke Button*s, and the 
other places of resort for wits iu 
later times : 

A pox o' these pretenders to wit I your Threa Onnns 
Mitre, and JfcrauUd uien.\ -unK. a, c»xxv Q)\ \.r^<b w^iw-^ 
among them aH. R. Joiu. B«rV. 'F.«v,\- 




Your eating 
PbeaMnt and god>wit here in London ! haunting 
Yonr Globes, and Mermaids! 

B. Jont. Dew. an Jm, iii. S. 
I had made au ordinary. 
Perchance, at the Mermaid. 

City Match, 0. PI., ix, 834. 
What things have we seen 

Beauwu. Bp. to B. Johm., vol. x, p. 367. 
tThe carriers of Bampton doe lodge at the Mermaid 
in Carter hue, and there also lodge the carriers of 
Bncklaod, they are there on Thnrsdaics and Fridaies. 

Tavhr's Coemograpkie, 1637. 

[3. The name of a dance.] 

fThe Merwuud.-^Tht leaders-np change sides, then 
turn each the other's partner, till they come into 
their pkces ; then cast off and tnm round once ; then 
the li^rure of 8 turn. Newest Academy of Compliments. 

MEKKY, prov. * Tis merry in hall, when 
beards wag all, A proverb very cur- 
rent in old times. See Ben Jons. 
Masque of Christmas, vol. vi, p. 2; 
Ray's Prov., p. 135. It was also in 
an old song, sung by master Silence : 

Be merry, be merry, my wife has all, 

Por women are shrews, both short and tall, 

Tis merry in hall, uiheti beards vag all. 

2 Hen. IT, v, 8. 

It is cited by Heywood in his Epi- 
grams. See Warton, Hist. Poet., 
Tol. iii» p. 90. 
tMKRRY ANDREW. A stage clown or 

Those blades indeed are cripples in their art, 
Himick his foot, but not his speaking purt. 
Let tiiem tlir traitor, or Vulpone try ; 

Could they 

Bage like Cethegus. ur like Cassius die, 
They ne'er had sent tu Pnris for such fancies. 
As monsters heads and Merry- Andreyevs dances. 

Rochester's Foems, 17IU, p. 66. 

MERRY-MAKE. Sport, junketiug. 

Theuot now nis the time of merry-make. 

Sp. ah. Kal., Nov., 9. 
With fearlesse wierrie-make, and pipin*.' still. 

FtetcA. I'urp. Isl.,'\, 27. 

fMESLING. Mixed corn, usually wheat 
and rye. 

l....a^u, Quod ex pluribus satis pabuli causu datur 
jutitcutis. J}rag6e a chevaux. Mescelline : provender 
for cattell. Komenclator, 

But the miller ought to take but one quurt, lor 
grinding of one bushel of hard corner and ti he letch 
and carrie back the grist to the owner, lie may take 
two quarts of hard come; and this hard come is 
intended of wheate, rye, and wusliu (u Inch is wtieute 
and rye mixed). Ana for mault, tlie miller sIihU tiike 
but halfe so ranch toll, as he taketh for hard come, 
(sc. one pinte in the bushel) for that muult is more 
easily grownd than wheate, or rye. 

Daltom's Coumtrey Justice, 1630. 
Rie III divers places is mixed with wheat, and a kind 
of bread made of them, called messeling -bread, for it 
\% lesse ubstmctive, nourishcth better, and lesse 
fillcth the body with excrements. 

f'euHer's lia Recta, 1637. 

MESPRISE, 8. Misuke ; a French 
word, hardly altered, which occurs 
several times in Spenser, but in no 
other author that 1 have seen. See 

MESS, 9. A party dinine together, a ael. 

*Not noted--— 
But of the finer natures ) by some sererali 
Of head-piece extraordinary} tower m§»am 
Perchance are to this bwiiieM purbliad. 

Uncut np pies at the nether end iUtd 

With moss and stones, partly to make « ihew with. 

And p&rtly to keep the lower wuss tnm. eatinc. 

B.Srtl, Woman Atf., i, 8. 

As at great dinners of feasts the com- 
pany was usually arranged into foiin» 
which were called messes, and were 
served together, the word came to 
mean a set of four, in a general way. 
Lyly says expressly, 

. Full re makes a messe, and we have a messe of masters 
thnt must be coozened, let lu Uy oor heads tofsther. 

Mother Bomhit, n, 1. 

Hence Shakespeare says. 

You three fooU lacked me Xool to make up Uie wus$. 

L. L. L„ iT, S. 
Where are your wuss of sous ? 3 Hen. FJ, i, 4 

Namely, his four sons, Edwar^ 
George, Richard, and Edmund earl 
of Rutland. 

Fenelop's fame though Greekes do raiie, 
Of faithfull wives to make up three. 
To think the troth, and say no lesse. 
Our A.\isa shall make a musse, 

A. Smefs Verses fr^Ueed to Ansa. 

Lucretia and Susanna were the pre- 
ceding two, therefore Penelope and 
Avisa made up the mess. 
A vocabulary, published in London, 
1617, bears this title : 

JaHua li»guarumttMadrHiHguis,or a messe a( toognes, 
Latine, English, French, and Spanish. Id eatly served 
up together for a wholesome repast, kc 

The editor also says that, there being 
already three languages, he translated 
them into French, " to make up the 
messe.'* Address to Engl. Reader. 
MESSEL. A leper, an outcast ; evi- 
dently for mesell, which is French, 
and is explained by Cotgrave, " a 
meselled, scurvy, leaporous, iaearoits 

Press me, 1 devy ; press scoundreU, and thj wusseU. 

lomd. Sod., n. L 
Abiiffeled up and down the townfor a«cMelaiida 
scoundrel. Hid,, ii, 4 

Mesely for a leper, and mieselritt 
leprosy, occur iu Chaucer. See 
fMESSlNG-FAT. A mashing-vat ? 

Ten barrells, one mes»ngefatt, one oowk, tisodon^ 
kivers, with other necessaries there. 

MS. hmnUtry, ISfiSw 

fMESTFUL. Sorrowful? 

Emong all other birds 

Moste mes^ll birde am I : 
Emong all fetnered foules 

I first complaine and crie. 

KendalPs Flowers of Bpigrammss, 1677. 




MET, «. A limit, or boimdary. Meta, 
Latin. A word, perhaps, hazarded by 
the following author : 

Untimely never comet the lives last met, 
In cndie death nuiy rightly rLiioie his det. 

/. iMmau, in Miirr. Mag., p. 432. 

METE, r., to measure, can liardly be 
said to be disused, as it still occurs in 
niauy passages of the authorised 
translation of the Bible. Creech is 
cited for it in Johnson. In one pas- 
sage it is used as a participle : 

Lands that were 9utM by the rod, that labour^ spared. 

Rne»0. Tr^ O. FL, It, 838. 

Also for to aim, to measure with the 

Let the mark have a piick [point] in 't to nute at. 

L, L. Lost, iv, 1. 

In the older editions it is printed 
meat, [See Meete.I 
Both used for a tailor's yard measure 
or wand. 

TUce thou the bill. 
Give me thy mtte^ard and spare not me. 

Tarn. Skr^ iv, 3. 

See also Levit., xix, 35. 

A true touch stone, r sure mete-vaHd lies before 
their eves. J»ekam*s Sckoolm. 

Burke is quoted for met-wand. See 
Todd. Perhaps it is still in use in 
Ireland, and so pronounced. 
METBEZA, s. A mistress. Probably 
meant as Italian ; but only Frenchi- 
fied ItaHan, made from maitresse. 

Why nethiuks I see that siynor pawn his foot-cloth ; 
that mttnta her plate ; this madam take physic, 8cc. 

Malcontent, i, 3, O. PI., ir, p. 19. 

MEVE, or MEEVB, t?., for to move. 
This occurs on! y in the older writings. 

I could right well 
Tea tymes sooner all that luiTe beleyved, 
ThMi the tenth part of all that he hath nuved. 

J^rP*,0. Pl.,i, 91. 

A pledfe you did require when Damon his suit did 

me«9e. JMinum and Pitkias, 0. PL, i, 204. 

O mif htie kinj^e, let some pittie your noble harte 

maev€. IHd., p. 243. 

Also in p. 243. 
MEVY, s. Thrush, for Mavis. [Or 
perhaps the sea-mew.] 

About Us sides a thousand se^-guls bred, 

The iiMsy, and the halcyon. Brovne, Brit. Past. 

MEW, V, To moult, or shed the fea- 
thers. Muer, French. 

Whose body nuws more pUusters every month 
Thui women do old ftces. 


Hence a very clear emendation in 
their play of Wit without Money, 
where the person addressed bad lost 
hia clothes : 

How came you thus, sir, for you'ie strangely mete' J. 

iii, 4. 

In the old edition it had been printed 
mov'd; which Mr. Weber restored, 
thinking that it made sense, whicli 
can hardly be granted. 

il may welcome you home, as doubtins; your countrv 
may have metped thnt relation in so long an absencK*^ 
she having exposed her noble issue, being conviction 
enough to make you dischum her. Cleteland't iforke. 

[It is said also of stags shedding their 
horns :] 

\0f Galatea. 
The stag, 'tis said, his horns doth yearly mew: 
Tliiue husband daily doth his horns renew. 

Cheen*» Epigramt, 1677. 

Also, to keep shut up ; from the sub- 
stantive, mew I 

More pity that the eagle should be mew*d. 
While kites and buzzards prev at liberty. 

A', mch. Ill, i, 2. 

MEW, *. A place in which falcons 
were kept ; also, metaphorically, any 
close place. Probably because birds 
were confined in them while moult- 


Forth coming from her darksome mew, 

iMted Ik 
Speus. F. q., I, v, 20. 


Where she ail day did hide her bitted hew. 

To be clapt up in cbse and secret inew 

Fairf. Tauo, v, 43. 

See also the authorities in Johnson. 
MICH, V, To skulk, or act by stealth ; 
thence to indulge in secret amours. 
The etymology seems uncertain. 
Written also meach, and meech. 

Not for this micking base tninsgression 

Of truant negligence. mu. Tears. O. PI., vi, 212. 

Say wc should all meach here, and stay the least. 

Sure she has 
Some meeching rascal in her house. 

Ibid., Scornful Lady, v, 1. 
My truant was micht, sir, into a blind corner of the 
tomb. Wid. Tears, 0. PI., vi, 225. 

What made the gods so often to trewant from heaven, 
and mif A here on earth. Bupkues, p. 29. 

Therefore miehing malicho, in Ham- 
let, iii, 2, probably meant concealed 
mischief. See Malicho. 
MICHALL, a., if a right reading, must 
be derived from wicA, truant, adulte- 
rous. [It is only a corrupt form of 
MECHA.L, or tmechal, adulterous.] 

Pollute the nuptial bed with mickall sinne. 

Heyw. Eng. TroM., Y 1. 

The editor of the reprint, in the Anc. 
Drama, changes it to mickle, vol. vi, 
p. 161 ; but doubts of his own cor- 
rection, and indeed with reason. 
MICHER, s, A truant, one who acts 
by stealth. It is frequently united 
with the notion of a truant boy. 

Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a mieker and 
eat blackberries ? 1 Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

How tenderly lier tender hands between 
In ivory eage she did the mieker bind. Sidney. 



Wbit. Inro mirirr, itulc > wife, ud noI Dillie Tour 
nid inei>il.>Fqiiaintci) viih it> JTu. jT/-!/'- V'rr. 

MICKLB. a. Grent. Suoii. In Scot- 
Innd muekU. Hardly obsolete. 

O, nieite It i)it povrrful grvce tlut lio 

In Diutj, herliB, ttonEi, uid Uieir Ime qiuilJLJe&. 

mm. Mi /iJ.. ii, 8. 

See also the authorities iu Job Dion. 

MIGHTFUL, o. Fall o'f'^ght, pow- 
erful. A word formed quite con- 
fomiRbJy to the analogy of our lan- 
guage, but not occurring except in 

thld pHS»)ge : 
Mv Inrdi, ygu kDDK, u do llie ifigklfMi fodi. 

ni. J«(K».,iT,». 

MIGNIARD, a. Tender, delicate; 
from tlie Frencb mignard. Appa- 
rently used only by comic licence. 

Hispulichiiiii UpHlm. B.J-au.DtiilanAMM.i,*. 

MIGMAIt1)IZB,s. Delicacy. French, 
except tbnt tlie second i is inserted. 
It iH probably used as an affected 

Aua tiilFrmin hrr. >di1 her rrntuni loo. 

You c'n pu* ol^vtm!" **. ?0M. s"^S^W.,iii, 1. 

The Kpeaker is understood to be a 
courtier, from tkie Kpeech. 
MIGNON, o. To flatter ; from the 

DO Br^Mn. 1 j'^j^j^J"^^^^^ phihui. n, ass, 
MIHIL,or MIHEL. For a long time 
the current and familiar pronunciation 
of the CbristJHti name Michael. 
Hence we And Mr. MihU Crotwill in 
R. Brome's comedy of the Convent 
Garden Weeded ; and hence the bur- 
lesque title to one of John Taylor's 
worka, "Tub Lecture, by Mykeel 
Mendiolf," i. e., Micliael Mendsole. 
Mikii MumchanM is the title of a 
piece sometimes attributed to R. 
Greene, on the "art of cheating in false 
dyee-play." Cem. Lit., mi, 390. 
The Dame appears, even now, on a 
tombstone near St. Martin's, West- 
minster ! " Mr. Mihill Slaughter, A. 
Octob. 17, 1817, Ml. 37." It is on 
the Bouth siJe, as you go from Lan- 
caster-court, Strand. 
Noble, in his continuation of Granger, 
vol. iii, p. 39^, says that Michael 

Mattaire wrote hia name Mikdl. He 
probably wrote it Mikfll, which has 
been mistaken for the other. 
This is partly a French pronunciaiioD. 
St. Michel, on the Meuse, near Vrr- 
dun, is still currently called S. Mikel, 
or Mihiel. 
MIHELMAS. Michaelmas; conform- 
ably to the preceding account. 

Htve nulJoiu At Uihtimat, pumeu In Lent. 

TiuKt'tBiub., Utrel, edit. lUI. 

MILAN SKINS. Some article of fashion- 
able elegance in dress. I think they 
were fine gloves roannfectnred n 

And ij (hii honal ligkt, for ret tu moraiDii. 
Sanni the mirenFc ot their gilded daablcU 
And MiUM iHiu UieT ihev'd to me direcUf 

MILL (or rather milled) SIXPENCES. 
Milled monev was invented by Antoine 
Brucher, in France; and the first so 
struck in that country was about 1553. 
Elizabeth of England coined milled 
money from about 1562 to 1572, 
when the use of the mill was discoa- 
tinued, on account of its expense, till 
about 1623. After 1662 it remained 
completely eetabliahed, on account of 
many advantages which more than 
compensated for tbe cost. Mnater 
Slender alleges that hia pocket wu 
picked of 

boinli. Xnrj Wirti, i L 

It seems that they were someti 
kept as counters : 

occupations winch females have lat- 
terly gained from the otber sex. A 
milliner whs originally a man, and, 
we may presume, from Milan, whence 
he imported female finery. 

lie ■«■ perfumed Lke > millinrr. 1 1/(1117 IF, i, 1 

MILL-STONES, proe. To weep miil- 
atonet was proverbially said of a per- 
son not likely to weep at all ; q. d., 
" he will weep mHl-»tone», if any- 
thing." Gloucester says to the 




IsUmes «hen foola* eret drop tears. 

mdL m, i, 3. 
(sion is repeated after- 

of the mea : 

ink on this, and he will weep. 
(«/, as he lesson'd as to weep. 

Scene 6. 
(e, good gentleman, 
! hears how we are used. 
ones. Ouar and Pompey, 1607. 

d Cressida it is applied 

lughter, but equally in 

le idea of their being 

Act i, so. 2. 

mgh a tnill-stone, to be 


; TOtir eies are so sharp that you 
e 'through a mihtone, out cleane 
e, and so canning that yoa can 
itions of women whom you never 
lAlly^a Euphu€S and his England. 

capable of mimicking. 

most mimetick apes, 
don Fuco's antick shapes. 
ig's Albino and Bellama, 1638, p. 9. 

'o walk in an affected 
utting the steps small, 

e wears: hold up your head and 
Meny W. W., v. 1. 

examples, and otlier 
nson. Among the rest, 

8 are evidently derived 
litive meaning of cutting 
e, mincing, is used for 
ate. See Malicho. 
ears to be used in the 
Asage for magnet^ or 

The mne 

:t my spirit to run this marshal! 

f a distressed queen. 

Dumb Knight, 0. PI., iv, 429. 

rs tell us, that in Kent the 
called mine, quasi mine- 
on local use of the word.] 
)ld orthography of mien, 
being that of its ety- 
?, French. It seems to 
Itered for the sake of 
I, to avoid giving the 
d to the t. But mein 
itter express the sound, 
tably to the analogy of 

n with yallownesse, for this revolt 
as. Merry Wives, i, 3, 4to of 1630. 

Tn commentators rightly 
mge of countenance." 

Know yoa that feUow that walketh there ? He is nn 
alchymist by his mine^ and hath multiplied all to 
moonshine. BUot, 1593, quoted by Dr. Farmer. 

MING, or MINGE, v. To mix. 

Whidi nerer mngs 
With other stream. Sir A. Gorgets Lneasu 

And so together he would minge his pride and porer- 
tee. KndalVs Poems, 1&77. O I. 

She Carres it fyne and minges it thick. 

Dranfs Trans, from Hor., Malone Q. 

Warburton, with his usual courage, 
made a substantive of it, and would 
have forced it into a passage of 
Shakespeare (All's W., i, 1); but as 
a substantive I believe it cannot be 

Hall seems to use it for to mention ; 
but it may mean to mix in conversa- 

Could never man work thee a worser shame 
Than once to minge the father's odious name. 

Book iv, S. S. 

MINGLE, n. «. Contraction for mine 
ingle. See Ingle. 

Because it is a common thing to call cue, and mingle, 
now a days, all the world over. 

Honest Ifh., 0. PI., iii, 307. 

Sometimes also ningte : 

Horace, Horace, my sweet ningU is always iu laboar 
when I come. Ikeker's Satirom.,Or. Dr., S, p. 103. 

Also passim, in the same play. 
MINGLE, s. Mixture. 

He was not sad, for he would shine on those 
That make their looks by him. He was not mexiy. 
Which seem'd to tell them his remembrance lay 
In Egypt, with his joy; but between Iwth. 
O hearnly mingle. Ant. and Cleop., i, S. 

With brazen din blast you the city's ear ; 
Make minale with our rattling tabourines. 
That heav u and earth may strike tlieir sounds toge- 
ther. Ibid., iv, 8. 

MINGLE-MANGLE, *. A confused 
mixture, an irregular medley; from 
mingle and mangle, being at once 
mixed and mutilated. 

Germany was visited twenty years with God's word, 
but thev did not earnestly embrace it, nor in life 
follow it, but made a wungle-mangle and a hotch 
potch of it Latimer, Serm., fol. 49 b. 

Latimer has the expression not un- 
frequently, and even as a verb, " to 
mingle-mangle the word with man's 
inventions.** Ibid., 91 b. 
It is exemplified also from Hooker 
and Hartlib. See Todd. 

If we present a mingU-mangle, our fault is to be ex- 
cused. Lyly^s Mydas, Prologue. 

See Decker, Gul's Hornb., p. 52, Nott. 
See also Puttenham, p. 211. 

tNow that is the fact they find fault withall, and 
reason of it, saying, that a mingle mMt^le should not 
be made of comedies ; but verilv in shewing themaelvet 
to be so wise, they manifest tneir foUie. 

Terence in English, 1614. 
tThese mitule mangle, motlT toyes they spend 
The time, tul night doth makAtA.«m^<(«Ek«:«vt^'««GA. 

TttyVy^a W<yr\ttaA^iKl^ 




f Hou- pitteont then mant best of wit it martyr'd. 
In b.iruruui nuuinertatter'd, torue, and qaarter*d, 
80 mingU mangkdt and so hack't and hewd, 
80 acunrity bflaconide aud bcmewde. Ikid. 

fMINGLER. One who mingles. Ap- 
plied specially to persons who mixed 
wools of different qualities previous 
to their being cardea. 

We cannot properly wade into the abuaea of raeasnr- 
iuy. unleas we begin oar enqairy frum Uie originali 
of clothing, which reats upon such as min;:le, card, 
and spin woolls. The ftdngUrs are naually in great 
fault, lor whereas by the statute, clothing is to be 
made of fleece wooll oneW, nevertheless they mingle 
fell woolls aiKl lambs woolls. 

The Golden Fleece, 1657. 

MINIKIN, a. Small, delicate. A dirai- 
nutive of mtn, which means small in 
German, Scotch, &c. See Jamieson's 

And for one blast of thy minikiH mouth, 

Thy sheep shall take no hami. K. Lear, iii, 6. 

The v/ord /eat is explained by Baret, 
''proper, well fashioned, minikin, 
handsome." Alvearies in loo. 
Minikin seems sometimes to have 
meant treble in music, being directly 
opposed to base : 

Yet servants, knowine minikin nor base. 
Are still nllowed tu tiudle with the case. 

Lorelaee's Poems, p. 41 ; To Elinda's GUne. 
'Sfuot what treble minihu squraks there ? 
Marston^s Antonio aud Melnda, Auc. Dr., ii, 150. 

Min, moins, and all this family of 
words, seem to come from minor, 
MINIMUS, or MINIM, «. Anything 
very small. The word is Latin, but 
came into use probably from the 
musical term minim, which, in the 
very old notation, was the shortest 
note, though now one of the longest. 
The old musical notes were the long, 
the breve, the srtni'breve, and the 
minim. The ioug, and the breve, are 
now disused (except that the latter ap- 
pears sometimes in the church music); 
and the semi-breve remains the longest 
note (corrupted to sembrive, or sem- 
bref) ; the minim the next, then 
crotchets, quavers, &c., &c. ; all in- 
vented to suit the constantly increas- 
ing rapidity of musical performance 
and composition. 

Get you gone, you dwjirf, 
You tuiitiiHus, of hindriiij; kiiut-^niti made. 

MiUj. N. Dr., iii, 2. 

Milton used the word mhiim : 

Nut all 
Miniius of nntun*. some ut' serpent kiud 
Wondrous in li-ni^h and corpulence. 

Par. Z.,Tii,481. 

And Spenser: 

To make one mtaitaM of thy poor hand-mayd. 

fMINION, 9. and a. Anything deli- 
cate, small, or pretty. From tie 
Fr. mignon, 

Abrodiietiu, a delicate penoD, a mbdon, 

mioUt Dictumarie,\m. 
His hynea Wkytba yow mijfufom howa* io wdtt, tkst 
be jnurpoaytbe not to dsnarte eo shortly ham theas. 
as fie apoyntyd. and as I late wrote onto yonre mrttt. 

Anger made great Alexaoder (like the kaat partof 
himaelfe) kill bis minioi^KU fhend Clytus: for.ksd 
it been dmnkeaneaae. bee would have ta^t oat kis 
hart blond before he heaid him spcake : for, drwdoa- 
nesse is an aftemoones madnesae, and eatt do oadDSf 
adviacdly. JUcA CeMtut FmrnAti with rarietk 

^'ExeeUtni Diicriptiomt, 1816. 
He wolde kepe gooaly horses, and live wmi t im h wU 
eleganUy. IkMrwr'^ ^tfAyHS. ISti 

fMINIS IRESS. A female aerrant. 

The olde foxes cruell and severe mynistresse. 
Will leame the enterer nerer to come forth. 

I%e Pat$enger qfBeKttKtUo, Ifll 

MINIVER, «., or MENIVER. A kind 
of fur. Thus defined by Catgrave: 
" Pellis est cujusdam albae beatiols, 
qua utuntur academicii senatores et 
juridici, ad duplicanda superhume- 
ralia, togas, et stolas purpureas.'* So 
Fortescue: **Capitium ejus dod alio 
quam m^nerero pemilatur." DeLawi* 
Leg. Angl. Where, says Du Caugr» 
"expressit Gallicum menuvair." It 
was, according to Cotgrave, the fur cf 
the small weasel, menu-vair, 

A velvet hood, rich borders, and aometimea 
A daintv miniver cap. Masting. City Mad,, K,i 

Perdie by this minever cap, aud accovding to h* 
nuijesty's leave. 

Decker's Satirowuut., Or. Dr., iii, 13i. 

According to some authors, it was tbe 
soft fur from the belly of aqnirrdi, 
weasels, &c. So, Wilkins, Real Char. 
Alph. Diet., in loco. Others suppose 
it the skin of a Russian animal. 
MINNOCK, or MINNICK, *. A word 
which occurs in the first quartos of 
the Midsummer Night*s Dream, for 
which the folio substitutes mummidi. 
Dr. Johnson was inclined to suppose 
the word genuine, and derived frooi 
the same source as minx. Thaa, mm- 
nock, masc. ; minnix, or minx, feni. 

Anon his Thisbe must be aaawered, 
Aud forth my minnock cornea. 


If minnock was ever in use, it must be 
found somewhere. MiwueJk certainlf 
makes sense ; but it seems rery im- 
probable that any printer should 
blunder at so common a word, ta 
make one which never existed. 

MIN 5 

fMINUITV. A trifle. This word oc- 
cur* in the Hialory of Don Quixote, 
1675. f. 64. 

MNUTB -JACKS, in Shelcespcare's 
TVmMi, have been generaUy iuier- 
preted to menn the snmcA* Jacks of 

THE CLOCK HOUSE : but how they 
&»n be called minute-jatki, whose 
office u only to strike hour« ur 
quarten, is not eAi>ily explained. It' 
any automatons vere alluded to, it 
miut aurely be some wbose actions 
vere impelled by the minute Land or 
the penanluni. Bnt I rather tliink 
tliat no more is meant by miuote-jacks, 
than "feltowt that wntcli their mi- 
nates to make their ndvnntsge, time- 

Taa foiA of furtnae, timelier frientli. time'i Air., 
O^uhI kMt Mto. minon, ud miiimlt^ir} 

There is no doubt that by the "Jack 
that keeps tfae stroke," Rich. Ill, it, 
2. is meant the "Jack of the clock- 
WRABLE, a., for Bdmiral>le. 

Tbe word is uncommon, and perhaps 
may be considered as a poetic licence 
in that passage. 
MlRABOLAIf, «. The proper form of 
the word above noticed under Maba- 
BLAM. The fact is, that it was a 
kind of plumb ; though tbe kernels 
of tlie stones were probably also used 
in medicine. The fruit wns the objecl 
of the coufectiuner, mid tlie follow- 
ing ia an old receipt for prepnring it : 

n prtKTtl aJriMaiu [flrsull AS error (or ttiraia- 
tM^ er >ufa-n(aJs«ui.'-Iake your nuli-culiula- 

ii«wh4 iU* «t Ihen i Hwy will lii^lc u lunn ni ■ 

Kof b«t«, mi therefiiw you mti net friire Hie 
ipC*(tlwii ud vlwii Ihrr an boiled I i-niler, 
■ial»inq><i(lbai,(ndtircwmtlKa»Hiu Oaauj 
etkar tUl^ aii w jn lu; knpc tlirm |ill llii yuie. 

Ther« ia a long article upon them in 
Johnson's Gerard, p. l.>00, which 
cnnmeratea fire species. Of their 
tjnalities, it says, 

AU tb* Unli or MinMrrH aR in lule usmngeul and 
(iiuvc. Uki te tke miripe lur^i or icmee berrjri. 
Ti'iTcUow ud Billtrier, n\m tirlan mnt, nop the 

Tlic figures represent them as not 
unlike fi^*, 
tMIRACLIST. A narrator of miracles. 

tlexra Ibe mirarliil nport it. who himulre m u 
nclur. DirUntviH af Ptfiik Imfetbtra, IMS. 

t-MlRISH, MJrv. 

MIRKB, «. Darkness; co^iimonly writ- 
ten murk, especially in modern edi- 
tions. AfiPK, tenebro:, Saxon. 

Ere tviee in wmrk and nccidenlnl damp, 
™i uipeciu « qiieiic L.. J^j^^ j_ , 

The word, and all its derifslires, are 
still current in the Scottish dialed, 
and are abundantly exemplified in Dr. 
Jamieson's excellent Dictionary. 
MIKKE, a. Dark. 

■Dmw. HtuZl'^KT. ofSroll.. C S, wl'."] a. 


Murky is still a poetical word, and 
not unfrequentiv used. 
MIRKESOME, a.'a. Dark. 

ThreDEli mirhsnu aire tin- Mdr rar aha Bik*. 

And IlLri. in aikiil. dent :ind ^:rt...^ -hJe. 
III! chariicUn ind cirdn ttna/r hi' ninrle. 

F«^r/. r«t«, riii,*. 

MIRROR. Amon;; the fantastic fnshious 
of his day, ridiculed by Ben Jonson 
and other*, was that of wearing mir- 
rors or small glasses, in various ways, 
as ornaments. Even in men's hats. 

place j'oai nifw in your liit, n. I uM ynu. 

1). Joiu. Cy«lii^-i lUr.. tj, L 

This, we may suppose, was the very 
height of affectation, by the manner 
in which it is introduced; bat there 
is no doubt, to use the words of Mr. 
Gifford, tliat both sexes wore them 
publicly, the men as bronches, or 
ornsmi'ntR in iheir imu, and the 
woiiita at their »irdles, or on tbeir 
brenatg-. nny,soinciimes in the centres 
of their fans. For tbe latter circum- 
stance he quotes Lovelace, wbo makes 
a lady say, 

Mvliveb^.^-----— ■ '■-—- 


name of a Spanish romance, trans- 
lated into English nC the eud of the 
sixieeuth century, and then very 
popular. See \i\^\) !ia«.\tti.'i ».w\ 




DoNZEL DEL Phebo. It formed a 
part of Don Quixote's collection : 

The barber takinr another book, laid, this is the 
Mirror of Inightkood. I kuov his worship well, 
quoth the curate. 

Hence Butler gives that title to his 

A wight he was, whose Tery sight would 
EatiUe him JOrrw ofKmghthood, 

Hudibr., I. i. 16. 

trader in miscellaneoas articles; a 
dealer in trinkets and ornaments of 
various kinds, ^uch as kept shops in 
the New Exchange. So at least I 
conclude from the following passages ; 
and I have not met with the term 
elsewhere : 

Now- I would be an empress, and by and by a dutch- 
ess ; then a great lady of state ; then one of your 
miiccUany madams ; then a waiting- woman, &c. 

B,Jon4. CyHtkWs Rrv., iv, 1. 
As a waiting woman, I would taste my lady's delights 
to her; as a mUeellMty madam, invent new tires, and 
go visit courtiers. Ibid. 

tMISCHIEF. With a mischief, a com- 
mon old phrase, sufficiently explained 
in the following examples. 

Abi in malam rem, go hense foith a mitchiefe. 

Eliotes Dictionaries 1659. 
When the simpring scomfull pusse, the supposed 
mistris of the house {with a wdsckiefe) who is, indeed, 
a fciiide of creature retired fur a while into the 
vountrey to escape the whip in the city. 

Taylor's Workes, 1680. 
But above all, her skill is much credited to helpe yong 
women breed and fructifie, so that if shee be as 
barren as a stockftsh, yet the matronly medicines and 
instructions of this wise cunning woman, will in a 
little time make her encrease %irith a vengeance, and 
multiply witk a misekiefs. Ibid. 

fMISDIET. Bad or injurious diet. 

Now for the body, it as well levels at it ; for those 
who distemper and nusdiet themselves with untimely 
and unwonted surfeting. 

Optick Glasse of Humors, 1639. 

fMISDIETER. One who follows an 
injurious diet. 

If consorting with wusdieters, he bathe himselfe in 
the muddy s&eames of their luxury and ryot, he is in 
the very next suburbes of death it selfe. Ibid. 

MISER, s. A miserable wretch ; used 
without any reference to avarice, to 
which worst wretchedness it has been 
confined in more modern usage. 

Decrepit miser! base, ignoble wretch I 

1 Hen. ri, V, 5. 
Tliose pains that make the imVrr glad of death 
Have seiz'd on me. Tajier. and Gism., 0. PL, ii, 198. 
And so this miser, at the same verie point, had like 
chaunce and fortune. Holinsh., p. 760. 

He staid his steed for humble miser^s sake. 

Spens. F. O., II. i, 9 
with thee the wol 

Doe not yet disdaine to earrie with thee the wofull 
words of a miser now despairing. 

SidsuyU Arcad., p. 117. 

tMISER'S GALLON. A very small 

Her ordnance are gallons, pottles, quarts, pii 
the misers gallon. Taylor's Worh 

fMISERABLE. Covetous, miser! 

Which tlie king thankfully recdving, not 
miserable nature, and that his |dft rather did 
from hope of gain than good wilL 

FasquiVs Jests, <f-< 

MISERERE. A lamentation ; th 
ginning of the 51st, or fourth 
tential psalm, " Miserere mei, D 
Often, says Kersey, presented b 
Ordinary to such malefactors as 
benefit of clergy allowed them. 

No more ay-mees and misereres, Tranio. 

B.^rFL Tamer Tarns 

Certainly the right reading, 
first edition has "miseries;" 
second, absurdly, " mistrisses ;* 
the metre points out the true rea 
Thus also : 

Would sing a woful miserere, Pedro. lb. 

Not misereri, as the old editions 
it, and Sympson after them. 
fMISEXPENCE. Reckless exper 

O wretched end of idle vanity. 
Of wUsexpenee and prodigality. 

The Beggar's Ape, 

fMISHMASH. A confused heap 

Chaos. Ovid. Lactantio, eonfnsio atque o 
rerum omnium, et informis materia, qnan 
invexerunt, ex ea extitisse omnia fabuluites 
Orpheo. Oonfkuion universeUe de toutes 
A confused or disordered heape of all things t' 
a mAskmash. Vom- 

And these are so full of their confused drc 
tions, that a man would thinks he heard 1 
with a frapling and bawlins clamor to come • 
a miahmAsh and hotchpotch of most distast 
xinsavorie stuffe. 

Holland's Jmmianus MarcelUn. 

MISKIN, s. A dunghill: pre 
mixen, Saxon. A provincial 
which is still in use in some 
Grose has mix-hill as a Kentish 
which is only a corruption. 

And would jrou mellow my young pretty Biist 
In such a misHn. B. 4r Fl. Nigkl-Walk 

Erroneously printed mis-ken^ 
not being understood. 
MISKIN, s, A little bagpipe, % 
plained in the marein. 

Now would I tune my wUskins on this green. 

Drayt., Bel. 2, 

Noticed also by Phillips, Kerse 
fTo MISKNOW. Not to kno 

A serving-man I in cast cloathes have scene. 
That did himselfe so strangelv orerweene. 
That with himselfe he out of knowled^ grev 
And therefore all his old friends he misknnci 

Taylor's Work 


For 1 shall never (with Gods grace) be asli 
nixke publick profession thereof upou all o 
lest God should be ashamed of me before i 

tee. aW 3M«rar i^ iW wot^%^ 




*" It m«^ 

noC sreo the vord dsevliere. 
k'SE, #. Bad expense, erJ 

Biiiiljti ifiJirt UMith— awiafml 

ord was tued bj Umil, and other 

rines. See the ezamplet gi^ea 


^UD, a. Improperly or unjusti- 


IS Hearr. stmutk'wat wmaanmi York. 

S Em, ri, ii. ft. 

ai EME. To displease. See 


jE, lord of. The master of 

at Christmas, ia auy nobleman's 

er great house. 

Chhstmasae, Uiere w%a ia the kinge's hoaie, 
ever hee vas lodged, a lord* of' mdtrnU, or 

of mche disporten, and the like had ye in 
Be of every noble nan. of honor or_food 

ye, were he ipiritaaU or temporall.— These 
ffinniug thor role on Alhcdloii ere, continued 
: tiil the morrow after the feast of the Purifi- 
ommonly caUed Candkmaa day- In all which 
sre were fine and mbtile disguisinga, maakea, 
ameries, Ice. Stow^s London^ p. 73. 

love ia a lord of «wni^, and keepetn the 
IS in my corpt. ^h> Coufl Coim,, F 1. 

I JoDson*8 masque of Christmas, 
p is thus described : " MuruU, 
Avet cap, with a sprig, a short 

a great yellow ruff, like a 
r," &c. This lord of misrule 
imetimes styled the Christmas 
, of which a remarkable iu- 

has been already noticed. See 
TMAS Prince. There is little 
thai all these contrivances for 
aging and enlivening the sports 
istmas, were derived from the 
mcient feast of the Boy-Bishop, 
being found superstitious, and 

to various abuses, was put 
by proclamation, in 1542. See 
ologia, vol. xviii, p. 313. 
DEN, «. A name for missel- 

caikd ako mnmti^ wheaor ih^ ■mIm>^ 

JtlSSELTOK. s. The v^^^^iiar aftd 
tooievhat aT«l(fkHi$ pfwivK^uMi ^mT 
this p«ni«itk«l pbmi has alwa\« umki^ 
it an object of $apef«tilHMi. Tln^ 
high estimation iu which il wa* h^Ki 
hy the Droids is well kuo^Ku; Km 
in the times here to be illu^imted. U 
was dkieir used (or ChnMma» ilet\>- 
raiioQ. the custom louge«l pre-^ 
serred was the hanging up of a bu^i^i 
of it in the kitchen* or servants' ha!l« 
with the charm attachcti to it, thut 
the maid, who was not kis»eii undrr 
it at Christmas, would not be marritni 
in that year. 

MISTER, s. Kind* or sort of; said tx) 
be from mestier, French. A wonl of 
Chaucer's time, but continued in use 
by Spenser and others. 

Such a^fr Mying m» a^^rnHh to mirkis 

Where Spenser** own Glossary ox« 

Slains it by the word ** mminor/* 
[ence we easily undort«tand the 
'*mster wight** of SptMiser nnd hit 
contemporaries, ** manner of |:or«on.** 

What misUr wight the was, and Mhnicr whntutfht? 

Miir/". TkMts W. AS, 
What suj/^r^chance hath broiiKlit thint to th^ ItrlU 
Without thy aherp? itnNriir, .\Afy» IV. KfK T. 

That is, "what kind of chunoe?'* 
So Drayton : 

Theae wusUr arte been better (tUinir thre, 

AV/.v/N# 7. fd. UWI. 

The later editions rend, ** lake hidden 

To MISTER, v: To «iBrnify, or ho of 
consequence ; or rnthrr, p(M'hn|)ii, only 
impersonal, **it mistreth.** Founll 
hitherto only in thin pn«NMu;c. 

At for my name it mislrttk not to irl , 
Call me the tquyre of damei, that nn^ if*ai^f«mnth w • II 

Spent A* g. 111. VII, M. 

Mr. Todd, who qiioteN Upton's right 
explanation at the place, hns min- 
interpreted it in the Dirtionnry. 
MISTERY, s. An art, or ii trade. 
Warburton says, very rightly, on thf 
following passage, that in this sunsv 




the word fthould properly be spelt 
with t, not mystery: being derived, 
not from the Greek fMyartipta, Ivut the 
French mestier. Perhaps, however, 
it is rather from maistery. 

Painting, sir, I hare heard tar is a nusttrv, but what 
misterv there should be m hanging, if I should be 
Langed I cannot imagine. M.for M., iv, 3. 

And that, which Is the noblest mjtsterie. 
Brings to reproach, and comnioninfamie. 

Spens. Moth. H. T., 231. 

He speaks of the profession of a 
soldier. The term is still technical. 
An apprentice is bound that he may 
learn the "art and mistery" of such 
a trade, 
tlb MISTHANK. To do the contrary 
to thanking. 

I bad (in harbour) heav'd mine anchor o're, 

And ev'n already set one foot a-shoar ; 

When lo, the dolphin, beating 'gainst the bank, 

'Gan mine oblivion moodily mU-ihtmk. Du BarUu. 

tMlSTLE. Misseltoe. Called also 
mistledine. See Misselden. "Mis- 
fie or mistledine, viscus." fFithals* 
Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 93, ''the 
parts of the trees." 

MislU which grou eth upon apple trees and crab-trees, 
is a ^retit number of white or yealow berries, viscuoi. 

Withals' Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 06. 
Tlie first day, of the powder of the scuU of a man 
burned, one dramme at once, and the next day of the 
miscU of the oke, made in powder, one dramme, and 
the third day the powder of pionv roots, one dramme. 

Bammgh's Mft\od ofPhynek, 16S4. 

MISTRESS. The small ball at the 
game of bowls, now called the Jack, 
at which the players aim. 

So, so, rub on, and kiss the mistress. 

Tfo. and Cr., iii, 2. 

Rub is still a term at the game, ex- 
pressive of the movement of the 
bowls, and they are said to X:t««,when 
they touch gently. 

Zelmane using her own hyns, To bowl near the mis- 
tresse of her own thouglits! Fcmhr. Arc^ p. 281. 

Like one 
That rubs the mistress when his bowl is gone. 

Fansk. Lm., ix, 71. 
I hope to be as near the mis tr esse hs anv of you all 

IFeatestffoes to W., 4to, G 3. 

The speaker has declared that he was 
going to play at bowls. So Brome : 

Rather than to have my head bowl'tl at her, thougli 1 
were sure it should kiss the mistresse. 

Queeti attd Concubine, ii, 3. 

See more examples in Malone'sSuppl., 
vol. i, p. 241. 
MITRE TAVERN. A famous place of 
resort in the time of Shakespeare and 
Jonson. It was iii Bread-street, 

Tl:r JJitre in Clunpc, and then the Bull Head, 
AnU^nany like places, that make noses red. 

Heycsfrom Bartl. Fair, 4to. 

Come we'll pay at bar, and to the Witre u 
street, we'll make a night on't. 

Match at Midn., O. PL 
Why this will be a true feast, a rivht Mitre i 

A Mad World, O. F 

This tavern was i^terwards rei 
to Fleet-street, where one of the 
remained till very lately : 

Meet me strait 
.■\t the Mitrt door in Fleet street. 

Bam, AUey, O. PI 

fMITRIDATE. Mithridate, a celel 

There in niv knapsack, (to pay hungers fees) 
I had ^rood bacon, bisket, neates-iongue, che 
With roves, barl>ehes, of each conserves. 
And mitridate, that vigrous health preserves 

Taylor's Worl 

t^o MIZEL. To rain small ; to d 

Effeminntenesse is an enemy to good iiu 

when either the man dares not plow, be 

wuzells, nor the wife rise, for that it is a cold i 

Bich Cabinet furnished with Varietie of i 

Discriptions, 1616. 

MO, or MOE. Formerly a coi 
abbreviation of more ; so coi 
that, in the public version < 
Bible, it was continued so late 
edition of 1717, Oxon., and pc 

The children of Israel are mo and mightier li 


The black-letter, quarto, of 158-^ 
in the same passage, ** greater 
mightier than we." 

And gone the stations all a row, 
St. Peter's shrine and many mo. 

/o«r Ps.OA 
The moe the stronger if they gree in one. 

Ferrex and Porrex, 0. PI 
1 will bring seven limes moe plagues upon yo 
ding to your sinnes Levit., 

In Lyncolnes inne and Temples twayue, 

Grayes inne and other mo, 
Tiiou shalt them fynde whose painfull oen, 
Thy verse shall nourish so. Heyw. fhyest 

At the same period mo, and 
were both used, and it doei 
appear why one or the other wa 
ferred in any particular passage, e 
when it favoured a rhyme. 
MOBILE. An adopted Latin 
from mobilisy moveable. Now en 
disused, being superseded by it* 
traction mob, the vulgar, the 
herd. Dr. Johnson has exem| 
it twice from prose authors, 
there are also poetical authoritie 

Fall fn)m their sovereign's side to court the « 
Loudon, London, where's thy loyalty ? 

T. Uurfy's Song of London 
Tho* the mobile haul 
Like the devil and ^, 
I'or rehgion. property, justice, and taws. 

5<;»i^ of an Orange, Stale Poem*, 

Thus it appears that all the thre 
lables were pronounced, as in the 




vord, whidi proTet tbat it 15 not from 
the French. 

The progress from wtobiie to 9106, is 
seen in two of Dryden^s prefaces. In 
that to Don Sehastian, he writes, 

Tiiat due prapuatioB wiudt '» nqwred to all ptMt 
cvenU ; as ia putknlar. that of raiainf the wultU in 
the befiimiiif: of the fovth act. PabL 1690. 

In the preface to Cleomenes: 

Yet, to rntifj the barbaroiu part of aay andience, 
I ptrm them a ahort rabble-teene, becanae the mot (as 
tliey call them) an represented by Plutarch and 
Pulybiiia, vith the same character of baseness and 
c- 'vaniice, which are here described. PabL 1693. 

Here he evidentiv considers the word 
mob as not established English. 
HOBLE, r. To veil or cover the head 
close ; either from mob, a close cap, 
still in use, or that from this. Written 
also mable. 

But who, a woe ! had seen the mMed queen. 

HtamLt u, 2. 
The moon doth m«M» up herself. 

Skirlof'a Gent, of Venice. 
Tliere heads and fhees are maUedin fine linen, that 
DO more is seen of them than their eyes. 

Smndy** Trmteh, p. 69. 

The first folio of Shakespeare reads 
inobled, clearly an error of the press ; 
the second, mobled ; the quarto of 
1611, the same. 
BiOCCAGE, «. Mocking; more com- 
monly written mockage, from mock. 

But oil this perchaunce ye were I speake half in 

Sir Tko*. CkaUmer^s Moria Enc, 4to, 1549, M S. 
A mere wuxkage, a counterfeit charm to no purpose. 

Burton, Anat. of Mel., p T2\. 

tMOCK-BEGGAR. An inhospitable 
and uacharitable person. Hence the 
term Mock-beggar's Hall, for a 
mansion, ill kept up, and where no 
hospitality was practiced ; a mansion 
very fine outwardly, but ill furnished 
within. It was giveu as a name to 
some old mansions ; one at Wallasey, 
in Cheshire, was so named, and 
another near Ipswich, in Suffolk. 

A gentleman without meancs is like a faire house 
without famiture or any inhabitant, save ouely an 
kUe housekeeper; whose rearing v^m cliargeable to 
the owner, aim painfull to the builder, and all ill 
bestowed, to make a moei-begger that hath no good 
morrowe for his next neighbour. 

Rick Cahinet furnished with Var'ietie of Excellent 
DtMrsf/ioMf. 1610. 
Ko tiroes oUsvrv'd nor charitable Inwes, 
The poore receive their answer fruui the dawes, 
Who in their caying language cidl it plaiiie 
Mockbegger manour, forthev came in vanie. 

Tatihr's ff'orkes, 1630. 

ItfOCK-WATER, «. A jocular term of 
reproach used by the Host, in the 
Merry Wives of Windsor, to the 
French Dr. Caius. Considering the 

profession of the {Niyctor, and the 
coarseness of the Host, there can be 
no doubt, I think, that he means to 
allude to the mockery of judging of 
di:fteases by the water, or urine, which 
was the practice of all doctors, regular 
and irregular, at that time, and the 
subject of much, not ill-placed, jocu- 
larity. Mock-wafer must mean, there- 
fore, "you pretending water-doctor !" 
A very few speeches before, the same 
speaker calls Dr. Caius King Urinai, 
and, twice in the following scene 
(act iii, sc. 1), sir Hugh threatens 
to knock his urinals about his cos- 
tard,** or head. Can anything be 
more clear? This is, in substance. 
Dr. Johnson*8 interpretation. 

A vord, monsieur mock-tcater. 

Mer. fr. r..ii,S. 

Mr. Steevens*s interpretation, relating 
to the water oi a jewel, would be good, 
if anything had led to the mention of 
a jewel, or the alluding to it. 
MOCKADO, s. A stuff made in imitation 
of velvet, and sometimes called mock- 

Who would not thinke it a ridiculous thing, to see a 
lady in her milke-house with a velvet gowne, and at 
her bridall in her cassock of MockaJo. 

Futtenkam. p. i238. 
Hee weares his apparell much after the fashion ; his 
means will not suffer hioi to cuuie too ni^ch ; they 
afford him moek-welwet, or satini^oo. 

Orrrbury, Char., M 6 b. 

Sherwood has moccado, which he 
renders in French by mocayart, mon- 
carde. There was also a silk mockado, 
which is probably meant here : 

Imagine first our rich tnockudt) doublet 
With our cut cJoth of gold bh>cves. 

tWd, Lady't Trial, ii, 1. 

MODERN, adj. In a sense now disused ; 
common, trivial, worthless. I remem- 
ber a very old lady, after whose death, 
a miscellaneous paper of trifles was 
found among her property, inscribed 
by herself, ** odd and modern things.** 

Full of wise sawB, and modern iustances. 

As you 1. it, ii, 7. 
Betray themselves to every modrm censure, worse 
tlmn drunkards. Ibid., iv. 1, 

Where sighs, and groans, and shrieks that runt th ^ 

Are made, not mark'd ; where violent sorrow seems 
A modern ccstacy. Macb., iv. .1 

The instances in Shakespeare are very 
numerous. See Johnson. The fol 
lowing is perhaps in ridicule of that 
usage : 




Alas! that were no mod<m consequence, 
To have cotbumal boskius frighted lience. 

B.Jon*. Poetaat., act v. 

fMODICUM. A smaU repast ? 

One aurfettiug on tin, in morning pleasorea, noone 
banaueiB, after riots, night moriscoes, midnights 
modteomt, and abundance of trash trickt up to all 
turbulent revellings. Jrmin, Nest ofNinniea, 1608. 
There was no boote to bid runne for drams to drive 
down tliis undigested mcddicombe. Ibid. 

MOE, or MOWE, a. A distortion of the 
face, made in ridicule. It lias been 
doubted whether mop9 and mowes, 
which are usually joined together, be 
not a colloquial corruption of mocks 
and mouths ; and Spenser has actually 
written mocks and mowes, which seems 
to give his authority for it. Mr. Todd 
says (J. Diet.) that Spenser has also 
mop and mowe ; but that, I believe, 
was an error in copying from his own 
note upon the following lines ; for I 
have not found such a passage : 

And otherwhiles with bitter moekes and mowes 

He would him scome. F. Q., VI, vii, 49. 

Abraham Fleming also, in his Voca- 
bulary (1585), has the phrase thus : 

Such a one as wryeth his mouth and maketh mocks 
an'i moves like an autike. V. Sanniones, p. 530. 

But mop has been derived from the 
Gothic, mopa, to ridicule, and so fre- 
quently occurs, that it can hardly be 
an error. See Mop. 

Apes and monkies 
Twizt two nich shes, would chatter this way, and 
Contemn with mows the other. Cymb., i, 7. 

Enter the ahapet again, and dance with mops and 
mowes. Temp., Stage direction, iii, 8. 

Found nobody at home but an ape^ that sat in the 
p<nch, and made mops and wums at him. 

Nash's Jpol. of Pierce Pen.,'1 563. 
Tea, the rm al^ecta came together against me 
imawaies, makiiig tmtwes at me, and ceas^ not. 

P«. XXXV, 16, old edition. 

Whether to make mouths be an original 
expression also, or was at first a cor- 
ruption of making mowes, may not be 
easily determined. They certainly 
existed together. 
To MOE, V,, from the preceding. To 
make mowes; or, in modern phrase, 
to make/acM at any one. 

Sometimea like Kpet that mo* and chatter at me. 

TIemp.f ii, 2. 
And make them to lye and bmnm like an ape. 

Old Mystny ^(kmdlemas Day, 1512. 

Hence Flibbertigibbet is called the 
daemon of mopping and mowing. 
K, Lear. Making mops and mows is 
particularly attributed to apes. See 
fMOIDBRED. Confused; bothered. 

Shep. I've been strangely moydsr^d e*re ain "be 
same news oth* French king. I con no beli< 
true. Wit of a Woman 

MOILE, s, A mule. Probably oi 
corruption of mule. 

In worse case seeme than Pallas old jnrowne m 
Th' Athenian's foster'd at their publ&e cost. 

DanieCs Pkilo 
Ajgrippa denres you to forbear him till the next 
his moils are not yet come up. Beu. Jons. Pot 

This is right, 
Th' old emblem of the movie cropping of thistli 

B. fn. Scornf. i 

Lawyers of the first eminence 
judges and sergeants, rode to V 
minster hall on mules; whence 
said of a young man studying 

Well, make much of him ; I see he was never 1 
ride upon a moyle. Ibid., Evtry M. out ofh 

That is, he will never be eminei 
his profession. 

\Phulas. trot behind me softly, 

As it becomes a imH of ancient carriage. 

The Broken Heart, Fon 
\Spadone. 'Twould wind-break a moil, or a 
mare, to vie burthens with her. 

The Fancies Chaste and Noble, For 

[Mules are still called moiles in 


f Whom he did tume into a fower lesg'd asse. 
Who nowe with wiayUs and jades dotn feede on 
The News Metamorphosis, MS. temp. 

2. There was also a kind of high 
called a moyle, or moile. See Th 
sius, and Fleming*s Nomenclatc 
Mulleus, Also Phillips's Worl 
Words. Probably from carrying 
wearer, like a mule. 

Thou wear'st (to weare thy wit and thrift toget 
Moyles of velvet to save thr shoes of leather. 

/. Beywoo^s Works and 

MOILE, V. To toil and labour ; 
bably from moile, a mule, bein 
animal very useful for labour. 

In th' earth we moils with hunger, care, and p 

Mirr.for Mof., p. 76, ec 
And ino'tleth for no more than for hia needful b 

This verb, in the old and newer 
of spelling, formed two anagr 
recorded by Howell ; one on Wi 
Nog, attorney-general, who was a 
plodding lawyer, but very learn 
moyle in law ; the other on a ji 
of whom he says, " If an « be ac 
it may be applied to my country: 
Judge Jones, an excellent lawyer 
and a far more genteel man, / 1 
in laws.''* HowelVs Letters, f 
§ 1, 1. 17. The late sir W. J 
was too much a genius for it to 




le mtoUed, indeed, but he did 
aore by menUl energj. 

thorn art a Baiter, tbo« akalt he ahniea a 

mofSwf fcr a Bite, and vatdiiBC to aare a 

Mmm im tJuArne, 1«W. 

iRP, «. A mole. SaxoD. 
uming the moold. Sometiines 

Soaedaei he aagcn ne 
lug lae of the aMMiMyp and tlw aat. 

1 HtM. IF, m, 1. 
a mol^gmrpe, make him looe hia eyea. 

Harr. Aru>tto, yrriii, 16. 
hjaelf vith other BMn'a ausfortanea — aa the 
rp« in iBaope toU the fox compliuninc for 
a tail — ^yoa eompbine of toiea, bat I am 
quiet. Bmri, Jmmt. MtL, p. SIO. 

9 Johnson's aathorities, under 


LJTPURSE. See Frith, Mary. 
ND. High ground. 

re ia no diiBcnltie in it : for moUmmd ia op- 
hi^ ptmnd, and the eontrarj ii fenhmd, 
nd, a matter ordinary, where Uiey use to 
ih betweene these two kinde«. 

Norden'i Surteiort Dialoffue, 1610. 

A plant known chiefly to the 

who ascribed to it fabulous 

It is known to general 

by the allusion to it in the 
of Milton. 

lie hearbe au>/¥ hath a flower aa white as 
1 a roote aa Uacke as inke, so age hath a 
ad, shewing pittie, but a blacke heart, 
riUi miaehiefe. 

LyUe'i Eitphuct and Us England. 

A blockhead; sometimes a 

dt-hone, capon, coxcomb, idiot, patch. 

C(OiR. q^^rr., iii, 1. 

* note. 

Famaasns is not dome 
By every snch mome. 

Drayton, Skeltoniad, p. 1373. 
bold awhile to play the mwne, 
f sacke some other faults to lease. 

Mirr.for Mag., 466. 
ill in swarms be bazzins about thee. 

Decker, OuVt Homb., Proam. 

privation given by Johnson in 
itionary, after Hanmer, from 

is very improbable, as taken 

French custom little known 
land. It is more likely to be 

from Momus, The third 
e, it may be observed, suits 
privation. How it took the 
tense, may be doubted ; pro- 
rom the contempt attached to 
iracter of a bufibon, and con- 
ig it with the fool of those 
Cotgrave has mome, as a 

word for a buffoon. There 
momer, to go in disguise, &c.. 

whence our mwmmeiy. See Roqiie> 
fMOMENTALLY, adr. For a moment, 
at any moment. 

Why hot a maa mast •eceuanlr e«te and driacke* 
witlMMt thcae tano office*, neither sound or 
can continwe : for the bodies of In ins cmt^ires 
lyninz in a daily ebbin|: and flowing. ».> that 
mm memtallf the corfMrall spunta are disai»«A^ and 
eoBsaimed, as also ia like manner, the hnnRonTS, anU 
aobde parta. Pattfmftr iffBau«nmt^\ 1612. 

MOMENTANY, adj. Lasting for a 
moment. It seems to have been in 

very common use. 

Making it atoaiea/aajr as a aound. 
Swift aa a shadow, short as auv dream. 



Johnson quotes Hooker, Bacon, and 
Crashaw, for this word. 
MONARCHO. A fantastical English* 
man, aflfecting the airs of an Italiais 
possibly King by name. 

But now he was an msultiiig monarch, abo\e .l/> 
narcko, the Italian, that ware cmwmos in his shoes 
and quite renounced his natural Knclish accents nuvl 
gestures, and wrested himself wholly to the Italiwi 
punctilios. Ice. Nash*3 llurr tcitk yon, Jt 

He is probably alluded to in 

A phantom, a Monareho, and one that makes sport. 

Lotf'a L. L . iv, 1. 
Neither do they gape after any other lliinsr hut vuine 
uraiae and giorie; as in our arc Peter Shake! lye ol 
Paules, and JfoMorcAo that lived about the court*. 

Meres, cited by Dr. Farmei. 

MONCHATO, s. I suppose, tor mous 

The ranter breathes not 
Who with his pcek'd monchatos may not brare him, 
Baflle, nay baate him out of his possossions. 

Laay Alimony, sign. I) i 

Perhaps only a mis-print, for mou- 
fMONETH. The older form of montli. 

1 spent diverse monsths in this manner, during which 
time tie saw me every day, and tormented me \wX' 
petually. Uymen*s Prtrlndia, 1658, p. (id 

fMONGING. Mixing. 

Repent you, marchante8,yourstrannge marchandiirt 
Of personages, prebends, avowsons, uf benetices, 
Of landes, of leases, of office, of fees. 
Your mouging of vitayles. come, butter, and cheese. 
The PuneraUes of King Edward the Sizt, 150(* 

fMONIFFED. Appears to signify mo- 
neyed, in the following passage. 

Nature did well in ^viug poor men wit, 
That fools well num\ffed may pay for it. 

jntts llf creations, lOfjt. 

7oMONISH. To admonish. A word 
very common in earlier times. Sec 

I write not to hurt any, but to proflt some ; to accuse 
none, but to monish such. Asek. Scholem., p. 40. 

fMONNETS. Small deformed ears. 

Little ears denote a good understanding, but they 
roust not be of those ears which being little, aro 
withall deformed, which happrns Ui men ns well n« 
catt el, which tor this reason tliey rnll mnnnftt , for 
such ears signifle nothing but miscUict Mvsi \cvv\<vt«. 


• • 



fMONOMACHY. A single combat; 
a duel. 

This mommacky lasttd not, for yonder 
Coirvss SatuTDc on the part of Ganimed. 

HeytDOOiPi Troia Britaniea, 1809. 

tMONOPOLITAN. A monopolist; one 
who speculated on obtaining patents. 

Hee wai no diving politician, 
Or project-seeking monopolitan. 

Taylor's Workes, 16S0. 

MONOPOLY. See Patent. 

MONSIEUR'S DAYS. The time when 
the duke of Anjou, whose title was 
Monsieur, resided in England, to 
court queen Elizabeth, t. e., about 

It was suspected much in Monsieur's days. 

Mad W., 6. PI., V, 371. 
Tliat old reveller velvet, in the days of Monsieur. 

Blacks Booke, 160-i. 

Cited on the ahove passage. 
^'.ONTANTO, s. An old fencing term. 

Your punto, jour reverso, your stoccata, your imbro- 
cata, your passada, your montanto, Ix. 

B. JonMm Rs. Man m Ins E., i, 1. 

Shortened into montgnt: 

Thy reverse, thy distance, thy montaiU. 

Hence Beatrice jocularly calls Bene- 
dict signor ^MontantOy meaning to 
imply that he was a great fencer. 
Much AdOy i, 1 . 
fMONTEITH. A vessel used for cool- 
ing wine-glasses. 

When the table was clear'd and rcHdorn'd with fresh 
bottles, silver monteitks, and christal glasses. 

The Pagan Prince, 1690. 

MONTEFO, *. A kind of huntsman's 
cap ; montera, Spanish. See Min- 
shew's Spanish Dictionary. 

He had (for a montera) on his crown. 
The shell of a red lobster overgrown. 

Fansh. Lus., vi, 17. 

Sterne introduces the montero cap 
into his Tristram Shandy, so that it 
cannot be esteemed quite obsolete ; 
\et it is little known. See Johnson. 
MONTirS-MIND, «. A celebration in 
remembrance of dead persons, a 
month after their decease. See 
Blount's Glossogr., voc. Minning- 

Is busied now with tri'iit:ill obsequies, 

Masse, nnd monilt's-ittliidf, dirge, and I know not 

To ease their sowlcs in painful purgatorv. 

Old Play of King John, Part I, sign. P 1. 
Keeping his manth's-mtnde, and his obsequies. 
With solemn intercession for his soule. 

Ibid., Part U, sign. A 4. 

"Persons in theirwills often directed," 
says Mr. Douce, ** that in a month, 
or any other specific time from the 


day of their decease, some c 
office for the repose of their bo\ 
a mass or dirge, should be perl 
in the parish church, with a si 
charity or benevolence on the 
sion." Illustr, of Shakesp,, 
p. 38. 

On this occasion also it was co 
to have what is now called the f 
sermon preached ; the more 
honour to the memory of tl 
ceased. This was done for thai 
benefactress to learning M« 
countess of Richmond, &c. 
title of the sermon, as first p 
by Wynkyn de Worde, and rep 
in 1708, byT. Baker, the Cam 
antiquary, is this : 

Hereafter followeth a momynge re membra 
at the moneth minde of the noble pryuces M 
countesse of Richmonde, and Darbye, mm 
king Henry the Seventh, and j^ndame 
sovereign lorde that now is. Lpon wli 
Almightie God have mercy. Compyled by ' 
rend fader in God, Johan Fisher, by shop of B 

The month* s mind was also a fe 

In the church-warden's accompts of St. B 
Abingdon, Berkshire, these month's minds, 
expences attending them, are frequently mei 

Steetens on Tipo Gent. 

We find also in the quotation 
Strype by Dr. Grey, that the m 
mind of sir W. Laxton was o 
day, and the mass and sermo 
day after. Ibid. In Flemin; 
Higins's Nonienclator (1585, 
we have, under ** Inferias annii 
gione alicui instituere," this ex 
tion : " Anniversaries : yearly 
and ceremonies used in rememl 
of the dead : a twelve moneth* s t 
P. 312. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine, S 
1765, is an extract from the ^ 
Thomas Windsor, Ksq., 1475, 
orders for his moneth* s minde 
Selections from that work, y 
p. 244. 

One of Nash's Pamphlets is ec 
"Martin's month's minde, tha 
certaine report and true desci 
of the death and funerall of old ] 
Marprelate, the great make-b 
England." See Longman's d 
1816, No. 5544. 
From Brady's Clavis Calendar 




too that mamtli x-mind* are still f 
rated, as of old, among the- 
)t8 of Ireland ; aod that sums 
been left bj will, for that par- 
within a Tery short period. 
ii. p. 197, 2d ed. 
nontk^s-mimd is much more com- 
y used, and is not yet quite dis- 
in the sense of* an eager desire, 
onging." Between these two 
fications there is no im^oinable 
ectioii ; for e?en granting that 
uneral feast might be an object 
ger desire, to those who were to 
d the celebration, yet no use of 
inge would lead persons to say, 
they had a montk*s mind, when 
only meant to say, that they 
desirous to hare it, or to be at 
a ceremony. Some other expla- 
n of the phrase, in the latter 
», must therefore be reqtiired; 
it seems to have been we'l sup- 
by the ingenious conjecture of 
itleman, who published a few 
;hed remarks on Shakespeare, 
Croft, Esq., of York. He ex- 
18 it to allude to "a woman's 
n^; which," he says, "usually 
» place (or commences, at least) 
le first month of pregnancy." 
., p. 2. Unfortunately he gives 
jthority for it, and I have en- 
sured in vain to find it, in that 
i of application. Yet it accords 
^rfectly with this second sense, 
I have no doubt of its being the 
explanation. It is in this latter 
.' it is used by Shakespeare in the 
Gentlemen of Verona : 

you have a monlh's mind to iheni. Act i, so. 2. 

the commentators refer to the 
" kind of month' s-mind, to ill us - 
the passage. 
Iso in Hall : 

eta a mcntk*$ mind upon smiling May. 

Satires, B. iv, a. 4. 

IT also has it : 

dng ['lenry VII] had more than a monetk's 
(keeping 7 yearcs in that humour) to procure 
ipe to canonize Henrv VI for a saint. 

Church Hut., B. iv, ( 23. 

Hudibras : 

or if a tnunpet sound, or drum beat, 
t'lio hath not a month's nttHifto combat. 

P. 1, Cant.ii, V. 111. 

Now what possible connection can any 
of these have with the celebration of 
the dead? Togivealu:iicrotts^Qse to 
a combination common on more so* 
lemn occasions, might have been iine 
indneement to adopt the latter phrase ; 
but it must have been founded on 
something, that inide it proper in the 
lighter sense, and something; aUv) 
that authorised the speaker to say 
you have such a mind, .^nd what 
more probable origin can be imagiiieJ, 
than the longing of a woman iu the 
first month of pregnancy, a subject 
of such common remark .' '* You 
long for it like a woman with child.*^ 
MONTURE, 8, Any beast employed to 
ride upon. A French word, never 
naturalised among us. 

And fwwd sparred his MOtUure fiet«v withalL 
Within hit arms lon^uv; his f'le to strata 

Fuirt. T'lss ». v:i. 06. 
An elephant this farious jpant bore. 
He fierce aa ftn* , iiis otoutHn: swift hs wind. 

Ihid., xvii, JS. 

Spelt moMn/ure iu the first edition. 
MOOLES. Perhaps for mules. I con- 
fess I do not understand the line in 
which this word occurs. [It clearly 
means moles ; mads is still a common 
word in different dialects for earth- 

Content the [thee], Daphles, mooUs tnke mads, but 
men know mooUs to catch. 

Ifanur's Jib. £•',', B. ii, p. U. 

Perhaps, ** Mules take mad tits, but 
yet men know how to catch them.** 
MOON, phr. To strain bet/ond the, 
to make an extravagant rhapsody. 

Whither art thou rapt 
Beifondthe moon, thut strivest tlius to strain .' 

Drayt. Bet., I. 

Thus to cast beyond the moony was to 
make an extravagant conjecture, or to 
calculate very deeply : 

Why, master Gripe, he casts hryond /'• • „iooi%, and 
Churms is the, only rami he puts in truu wuh his 
daughter. fVil;i' Hn/itil.'d. Uhr. Kim. Dr.. iii, 3i9. 

See to Cast bkyond the Moon. 
MOONCALF, 5. An old name for a 
false conception ; mola carneu, or 
fcetus imperfectly formed. Part^M 
lunaris (Cole^), heing supposed to 
be occasioned by the influence of the 
moon. See Ah. Flera. in Mola, 
p. 436, b. 

A false couccptinn. rillcil „i»Ui.i.c. a v^>) ■mlfe, 
that is to say, a lump ut rlo^h without ^hape. without 




And then democracy's production shall 
A moon-calf be, wliicli some a mole do call ; 
A false conception, of imperfect nature. 
And of a shapeless and a brutish feature. 

State Po€vUt TOl. ii, p. 106. 

Trinculo supposeB Caliban to be a 


I hid nic under the dead mooHcalfs gaberdine. 

Temp.f ii, 3. 

Sometimes used as a term of reproach, 
to signify a living monster, lumpish, 
stupid, and lieavy. Drayton's Moon- 
calf, in his poem so called, is there 
supposed to have been produced by 
the world herself in labour, and en- 
gendered by an incubus. It is in- 
tended as a satirical representation 
of the fashionable man of his time. 

fMOONED. Crescent-shaped 1 

Goe, cut the salt fomu with your mooned keeles, 
And let oar galeons teele even child-birth panges. 

Dfcker's Whore of Ballon, 1607. 

tMOONFLAW. To have a moonflaw in 
the brain, to be a lunatic. 

L tear she has a mooiijlfitr in her brains ; 
She chides and fi^ts tliut none can look upon hw. 
drome's (^teen and Couewiiu, 1669. 

M00NLIN6, s. Probably the same as 

1 have a husband, and a two-legged one. 
But such a moonling, as no wit of man. 
Or ruses, can redeem from being an ass. 

B. Jona. Dev. an Au^ i, S. 

Mr. Gifibrd says, that it is '* a pretty 
expression for a fool or lunatic, which 
should not have been suffered to grow 

MOONSHINE, joAr. A sop o the moon- 
shine. Probably alluding to some 
dish so called. There was a way of 
dressing eggs, called ''eggs in moon- 
shine ;" for which the following is 
the receipt : 

Break them in a dish upon some butter and oyl, 
melted or cold, strew on them a UtUe salt, and set 
theni on a chahng-dish of coals, make not the yolks 
too hui J, and in the doing cover them, and make a 
sauce I'ur them of an onion cut into round slices, and 
fried in sweet oyl or butter, then put to them veijuyce, 
grated nutmeg, a httle salt, and so serve them. 

May'e Jccompl Cook^ p. 487. 

Three other methods are subjoined. 
To this dish there is evident allusion 
in the following verses : 

Could I those wmtelv stars go nigh, 
Wliich make the millcy way i' th' skie, 
I'd poach them, and as moonekine dreaa. 
To make mv Delia a curious mess. 

EoweWs Letters, B. ii, Lett. 22. 

To sir Thomas Haw (probably Hawk, 
as in Letter \3,Ibid.) Some editions 
have '*at moonshine;" which is clearly 

So Rent says to the Steward, in 

Draw, you rogue ; for thoueh it be night tl 
shines ; I'll make a sop o* In' moonshine of vo 


A sop in the moonshine must 
been a sippet in the above di 
tMOONWORT. A plant whicl 
supposed to have the quality of • 
ing the shoes from the feet of hi 

And horse that, feeding on the grassy hills. 

Tread upon moon-Koort with their hollow hee 

Though lately shod, at night goe bare-foot ho 

Their maister musing where their shooes beet 

moon-woort! tell us where thou hid'st the t 

Hammer, and pincers, thou unshoo'st them « 

Alas I what lock or iron engine is't 

That can thy subtile secret strength reaist, 

Sith the best farrier cannot set a shoo 

So sure, bat thou (so shortly) canst undoo ? 

MOOR-DITCH. A large ditch in : 
fields, through which the wat€ 
that once fenny situation were dn 
It was very near Moorgate, in \ 
situation it is not extraordinary 
after a time, it became much ch 
with filth of the worst kinds, 
this Decker alludes : 

Though to purge it will be a sorer laboor t 
cleansing of Augeas' stable, or the scouring c 
^Uh. GhFs Homl 

Twill be at Moorgate, beldam ; where I shall i 
in the ditch, dancing in a cucking-stool. 

W. Rowley's New Wonder, act li, Anc. Dr. 

MOORFIELDS. Used as a pla 
resort, or public walk in 8umm( 
St. Paul's in winter. 

Faules is his [a corraitto-coiners] walkc in 
Moorfields in summer. Clitus's Whimzie 

The flourishing citie-walkes of Moorfields, 
deUghtfull, yet not so pretious or beautifull « 
metall-man, t. e. an alcbymist] will make then 


[Moorfields was a similar pla 
resort for recreation and amuse 
as Greenwich park, with the a 
tage of being nearer London.] 

f Now Whitsun-holidays come on, and as it 1 
in the summer time, abundance of people wU 
ride, some in their coach or chaise, or tney tb 
neither, ride out on horseback ; and again, tl 
have neither chaise nor horse walk out on fw 
they must ride, may eo to the wooden mad 
Moorfields, and ride there uitli this advanta 
it they stay late in the evening they have n« 
further home for all their riding ; and some tl 
been troubled with itching lingers, and cry* 
when they should have said go, will take a 
Tyburn, and ride so long there that they wi 
tee the way back again. Poor ttoii 

To MOOT. To discuss a point of 
as was formerly practised on e 
days, in the inns of court. 

When he should be mooting in the hall, he is 
mounting in the chamber, as if his father ha 
sent him to cut capers. 

Lenton's Charactetiswu, C 




8 Interp. 

ea as fiercely as if he had mooted seven 

18 of court. 

ys Microcosm., ^ S6, p. 106, ed. Bliss. 

expression still used of a 
that is, a disputable ques- 

Tnce between Mooting and pleading, 
^ and tigkting. 

B. Jons. Disc, voL vii. Si. 

r. A disputation in the 

t he [an inns-of-coort-man] hath heard 
1 seene two playes, he thinks as basely 
je, as a young Sophister doth of the 
le. Ottrkun's CkameUrs, K 4. 

' night brings whoisome smiles, 
t an Okes, and John a Stiles, 
ize the lawTcrs satin. 

Cartwrigkt*s Ordinary, 1651. 

I. To Steal? 

mindfull of prey than honour, did one 
D tUe thunder which Uiiie Vulcan had 
id as himself, (or almighty Jupiter. 

History of Francion, 1656. 

Moulture, the fee taken for 


n, farwell, commend me to my old 
udinston. Oh the mooter dish, the 
\ and themaide behinde the hopper. 
•er, or the Fayre Maid qf Clifton, 16S6. 

3PPE, «. A grimace, a 

ed in derision and ridicule ; 

Gorhie, to deride. Usually 

mowe. See the examples 


id mowes it makes! heigh, how it 

? or some small hob-goblin ? 

B. and Fl. FUgrim, vi, S. 

;er*8 Bondman, the stage 
says, " Assotus makes 
mitating an ape ; iii, 3. 

mayor, there is witnesse enough with* 
en him make mops and mowes at her, 
tot worth V tu wipe his xhooes. 
J. Taylor's Wit and Mirth, Tale 101. 

iO mops and motions : 

hute these travellers. 

cs, made of mops and motions. 

B. and FL Wildgooss Ck., iii, 1. 

To make grimaces ; from 

ath robd a jackanapes of hisjestnre: 
countenance, see now he mops, and 
and how he straines his lookes. 
. iUeh, Faults and nothing but F., p. 7. 
to see how th' rest did grin, 
low, und flout and fleere at him. 

Bratkte. Hon. Ghost, p. 118. 

D. Short-sighted. 

)n an old Batchelour. 

1 am. as some have said, 

ve hv'd so long a maid ; 

that 1 should married be, 

ne jot the better see? 

Id thiok that marriage might 

n mend me, blind me quite. 

Witts Rtcreatums, I6Mw 

MOPPE, «. A diminutive, distinguish- 
ing some young creatures from the 
full grown of the same species. See 
Whiting-mops. Often used to girl» 
also, by way of endearment. It is fully 
explained in the following pa.s8a<re : 

As in onr thnmphals, calling familiarly ti'- >ti our inuae, 
I called her moppe. 

But will you weet. 
If y little muse, my prettie mof,yc, 
If we shall algates change our s*. ippe. 
Chose me a sweet. 
Understanding by this word mopp^ a little prety lad v. 
or tender young thing. Fur so we call little' fUhto 
that be not come to their full growth noppes, as 
whiting-wtoppes, fumard-moppes. 

Futtenh. Arteof Eihil. J*j<s.. p. Ibl. 

Hence came, as a further diminutive, 
MOPPET. Used in the same way as 
Moppe, and hardly yet obsolete. 

Moppet, you shall along too. [To Mirti;i.H.l 

Mass. Guard., iv, 2. 

From the same is made mopsey. 
•fMOPSY. A familiar term tor a woman. 

These mix'd with brewers, and their mupsies. 
Half dead with timpanies and dmp^ies. 

Hudibras Rtdititus. Part x, 1706. 
Leon. Ah woman I foolish, foohsii » omau I 
SoM. Very foolish indeed. 
Joan. But don't expect I'll follow her example. 
Sem, Yon would, w»opsie, if I'd let voa. 

The Mistake, a Comedy, 1706. 

MORAL, s., in the sense of meaning. 
Probably from the custom of sub- 
joining a moral by way of explanation 
to a fable. 

Why, Benedictus, jon have some moral in this. Bene- 
dictus. Much Ado, iii. 4. 

ISLt has left me here behind to expandc the meaning, 
or aumU, of his signs and tukcns. Tam. Skr., iv, \. 

The moral of my wit 
Is plain and true, there's all the reach of it. 

Troil. aitd Cress., iv, 4. 

Moral VTM also sometimes confounded 
with model, and used for it; and f 
believe still is, by the ignorant : 

Fooles be they that inveigh 'gainst Mahomet, 
Who's but a morral of love's nionarchie. 

H. i oust. Deead. 4, Soun. 4. 

MORE, in the sense of greater. 

To make a more requital to your love. K. John, ii, 1. 
How, that's a more portent. Can he endure no noise, 
and will venture on a wife ? B. Jons. Epic, i, 2. 

Might be dispos'd of to a more advantage. 

Nabbes, Han. and Scip., E S. 

Hence more and less seems to stand 
for great and small : 

Now when the lords and barrens of the realm 
Perceiv'd Northumberhuid did lean to him. 
The more and less came in u ith cap and knee. 

1 Hen. IV, IV, 3. 
And more and less do flock to follow hiui. 

2 Hen. IF, i, 1. 

More, as redundant, witli an adjec- 
tive in the comparative degree, lins 
been already exemplified under Co M- 
PABATIVE. We may add the following: 

These kind of knaves 1 knuw , w\\\v:\\ , \u\\v\% \>V»xa3QX».%> 
Harboor more crdfl, aud mors o^^-ruvUr «xA%« 




Than twenty silly, dnddng obscrvanti. 

That stretch their duties nicely. Uwr^ ii, S. 

Away, he grows more M>€Aker still. I'll do it, 

Or heaven forget me ever. B. and Fl. Mad Lover, It, 4. 

fMORE-CLACKE. A common corrup- 
tion of the name of Mortlake, in 


Bi'Mtles all these, 'tit always meant, 

Tu lurnish rooms to her content; 

TV'ith Mvreclaek tapstry, damask bed. 

Or velvet richly embroidered. 

The London Ladirs Dressing Boom, 1706. 
Brhiiid n haniring in a spacioiis room, 
The rirhe&t work of JUortclatrs noble loom. 
They wait awhile their wearied limbs to rest, 
Till silence should invite them to their feast. 

Covcley't Setfral Discourses, ed. 1680, p. 110. 

MOREL, or MORRELL. A name for 
the Solanum dulcamara, or wood 
nightshade ; morelle, French. 

Thuu secst no wheat helleborus can bring, 
^or barley from the madding morrell spring. 

Sylcester [,Du Bartas}. 

The madding nightshade, or morell, 
is described in Lyte*s Dodoens, Book 
iii, ch. 92. Also in Gerard. 
fMORFOND. A disease to whicli horses 
mid sheep were subject. 

1 1.1 trfouile as a horse dotlie that wexeth stvffe by 
takiii}f of u sodayne colde, je nte mcrfons. Paharate. 

(tf thf Sturdy, Tuming-etHl, or Uore-fomna. 
Thcsi' (Iii»<>nse8 proceed frc.m ranckenesse of bloud, 
uii ill ofldideth the brayne and other inward parts. 
T)ir cure then is to let the slieepe bloud in the eye 
Vfint'A. temple veiiies, and througn the uoethrilB,theu 
to nibbe the places with young nettles bruised. 

Treatise on Diseases of Cattle. 

MORGLAY. The sword of sir Bevis, of 
Southampton ; so famous that it be- 
came a general name for a sword. 

Talk with the girdler or the mill'iier [milliner] 
lie can inform vou of a kind of men, 
That fir>t undid the profit of those trades 
B\ briiidiif; up the form of carrying 
Tfieir i.K'rf/liitfs in their hands. 

B. and Fl. Honest M. Fort., i, 1. 
Had I been accompanied with my toledo or mtnylajf. 
Every Woman in her Hum., sign. D 4. 
And Bevis with a bold Itarte 
With morglay assavled Ascapart. 

Ouy qf War., bL 1., k 2. 

It meant the sword of death, glaive 
lip la mort, Mordure was the sword 
oi king Arthur, tizona of Ruy Dias, 

111;. VI- you not heard the abominable sport 
A l.Jinc'astfr grand jury will report? 
Vii> Bouldicrwith his tNor^2<ty watcht the raiU, 
TIk cut« they came to feast, when lusty Will 
\M lips off great pusses leg, which by some charm 
i'ldves the next day such an old womans arm. 

CleaveltMd's Poems, 1661 . 

^MOKION, French. A plain steel cap 
or helmet, without a beaver. Shelton 
wrueK it tnorrion, but he explains the 

Foi I'xv wanted a helmet, and had only a plain 
inoiiu/' ' l)ut lie by his industry supplied that want 
and tr.ii.a-d with certain papers pasted together, a 
bcii.i.r l«r his morrion. 

Transl. of Don Qu., Fart I, ch. 1. 

Drvden used it for an ornamc 
helmet. See Johnson. [See I 


MOR I SCO, «. A dancer in a m( 
dance, originaliy meant to imit 
Moorii^h dance, and thence na 
The bells sufticientlv indicate tha 
English morris-dancer is intende 

[ have seen him 
Caper upright, like tx} a wild Moriseo. 
Shaking the blooilv darts, as he his bells. 

2 Hen. ¥i 

Also the dance itself: 

Your wit skips a moriseo. 

Marston's What y> 

Written also moriak : 

For the night before the day of wedding — wei 
moriskes, comedies, daunces, interludes, Sec. 

Guy of Wane. Kn. of Siea 

Blount says that in a moriseo, 
were usually "five men, and a 
dressed in a girl's habit whom 
call the maid Marriott** Glost 
in voc. But this particularly ref 
to the morris-dance of May-day. 
Maid Mabian. 
or other wild [or tame] beast 
dies by mischance, or sickne 
Kersey. "Animal infortunio 
morbo emortuum.'* Coles. 

Could he not sacrifice 
Sunie sorry morkin that unbidden dies ? 

Hall's Sai 

Minshew cites the statute 3 Ji 
cap. 8, for the word, but suppo 
corrupted from mortling, and 
from mort. Mr. Todd refers 
the Swedish murken, rotten. 
sore ; probably for mort-mal, a d 

And the old mort-mal on his shin. 

Ben Jons. Sad Shff 
A quantity of the quintessence sliall serve him 
kibes, or the morm'al o' the shin. 

Ibid., ifasque of I 

The word occurs in Cbaucer, 
Tales, V. 38n, and there also ref 
a complaint on the shin : 

That on his shyune a mormal had he. 

of Banks' wonderful horse, celet 
by all the writers of his day. 
was the subject of a curious tra 
about 26 pages, published in 
and entitled, ** Maroccius Ext a 
or Bankes's Bay Horse in a Ti 


A Discourse set down in a merr> 




: between Bankes and bis Beast ; 
)mizing some of the Abuses and 
ces of this Age, &c." Of this 
' specimens are given in the Poe- 
Decameron of Mr. J. P. Collier, 
i, p. 163. See Banks* Hobse. 
SOPH, s. A philosophical or 
led fool ; from fiwpos and a*i^6s. 
•Id corapoand both in Greek and 

ly jovL may peroeive liow much I do attribute 
wise foolery uf our morasoph, Triboulet. 

Bahelaii, Ozell, B. iii, ch. 46. 
niqne morosopk, whom I formerly termed the 
c Tribonlet. Ihid., ch. 47. 

k'd where'er the morotopk nppear'd 
nouds sorroujided, and by all rf ver'd), 
foong and old, virgini and matrons, kisa*d 
lotateps of the blest gvnmosophist. 

(hwtbridgtrs SeribUriad, B 1, tub ftn. 

word has some how escaped the 
iplary diligenpe of my friend 
I. It may be added, that Dr. 
08ophosy of the same family, 
es both in the Memoirs of 
ilerus, and in the Pursuits of 
ature. See Mem., chap. 1, and 
uits Dial., iv. By a little further 
ce, the latter author speaks of 
\Iorosophists of a certain learned 
ty ; not as constituting the so- 
, but as being some of them in 

HEW, s, A leprous eruption; 
tort-feu ? 

orpkew quite discobured the place, 

I had the pow'r t' attract the eyes of men. 

Drayt, Eel. 3d. 

le Bath waters, Higins says : 

itlies to soften sinews vertue Iiave, 
Iso for to cleanse and skowre the skin 
morphewes white und black. 

Mirror for Magist., p. 55, ed. 1610. 

;ham's Garden of Health, recom- 
is nearly thirty dififerent herbs to 
the morphew. See under Barley , 
32, &c. Quarles speaks of it as 
ult to cure : 

Tis the work of weeks 
rge the morpMew from so foul a face. 

Skeph. Orach, p. 31. 

18 used also as a verb. See Todd. 
[ON. An insect, of the louse 
; enumerated by Butler among 
;alismans of Siarophel, in mere 
jmpt. The word is mere French. 
'as commonly known in English 

And stole his tnlismanic louse, &c. 
His flea, his morpiou, and punese. 


Punese is equally a French word, 
punaise. Anglicised. 
MORRIS-DANCE, t. e., Moorish dance, 
called also Morisco, q. v. The>e 
dances were used on festival occa- 
sions, and particularly on May-dny, 
at which time they are not even now 
entirely disused in some parts of 

As fit as ten groats for the hand of an attorney, us 

or a morris for May •day. 

JlTs WeU, ii 2. 

It appears tha^ a certain set of per- 
sonages were usually represented \\\ 
the May-day morris-dance, who have 
been thus enumerated. 1. The 
Bavian, or fool. 2. Maid Marian, or 
the queen of May, the celebrated 
mistress of Robin Hood. 3. The 
friar, that is friar Tuck, chapl.'iiu 
to the same personage. 4. Her 
gentleman - usher, or paramour. 
5. The hobby-horse. 6. The clown. 
7. A gentleman. 8. The May pole. 
9. Tom Piper. 10, 11. Foreigners, 
perhaps Moriscos. 12. The domestic 
fool, or jester. See these illustrated 
in Mr. Toilet's account of a painted 
window in his possession ; subjoined 
to the first part of Henry IV, in 
Steevens's edition 1778. It is not to 
be supposed that all these personages 
were always there, but allusions to 
all, or most of them, are found in 
various places. It is difficult to trace 
any part of these dances clearly to 
Moorish origin, and the presumption 
is chiefly founded upon the names, 
■ Morris and Morisco, 
Stowe speaks of each sheriff having 
his morris-dance, in the Midsummer 
Watches in London, p. 76. 

How like an everlasting morris-dance it looks. 
Nothing hut hobby-horse and maid-niarrian. 

Mass. Very Woman, iii, 2. 

Maid Marian was very frequently 
personated by a man. In Randolph's 
Amyntas, act v, the stage direction 
is, ^'Jocastus with a morrice, him- 
selfe Maid-marrion." 
MORRIS-PIKE, *. A formidable wea- 
pon, used often by the English mari- 
ners, and sometimes by soldiers. 
Supposed to be also of Moorish 
origin. WatbutVoti ^w^ ^ci\v\\%v>\\ ^x^ 




both mistaken in their notes on the 
following passage : 

To do more exploits with his mace thnntL morris pike. 

Com. of Err., \v, 3. 
The EnElish mariners laid about them with brown 
bills, halberts, Hnd morrice-pikes 

Reynard's Deliv.^ &c., quoted by Dr. Farmer. 
They entered the gallies again with woriS'fxke* and 
fought. ffoUiuked. 

Of the French were beaten down morris-pikes and 
bowmen. Heytt. K. E. IF, quoted by Steevens. 

MORT. In the old cant language of 
gipsies and beggars, a female. 

Male gipsies all, not a mort among them. 

Ben Jons. Masque qf Gipsies. 
And enjoy 
His own dear dell, doxy, or mort at night. 

B. ^' Fl. Beggar's Busk, ii, 1. 
Marry, this, my lord, says he : Ben mort (good wench), 
shall you and I heave a bough, &c. 

• Roaring Girl, 0. PI., vi, p. 110. 

See also the Jovial Beggars, 0. PL, 
X, 367, &c. All the cant terms are 
explained in Decker's Belman. I 
have not noticed these terms in 
general, but this is of most frequent 
fMORT A great number. 

Then they had a mort o' prisoners, with boys and 
girls, some two, some three, uud others five a niece. 

Flantus made Englisn, 1694. 

MORT OF THE- DEER, i. c, death of 
the deer. A certain set of notes 
usually blown by huntsmen on that 

And then to sigh, as 'twere 
Tlie mort o' the deer. Wini. Tale, i, 2. 

He that bloweth the mort before the death of the 
buck, may verv well miss of his fees. 

Greene's Card of Fancy, 1608, quoted by St. 
Directions at the death of a buck or hart. — The first 
ceremony when the huntsman come in at the death 
of a deer is to cry Ware haunch, &c. — then having 
blown the mort, Hnd all the company come in, the 
best person thiit haih nut taken suy before is to take 
up the knife. 

Gentl. Recreat., Hart. Hunt.. 3, p. 76, 8vo. 

Some of the books give the notes 
that are to be sounded on this occa- 
ing of tapestry was introduced into 
England about the end of the reign 
of Henry VIII, by William Shelton, 
esq. (Duffd, Warw., .584). But the 
manufactory set up at MortlakCf in 
the reign of James I, obtained the 
greatest celebrity. 

Why, lady, do you think mc 
Wrougltt in a' Xwrnx, some Dutch piece wcav'd at 
Morllnke. City Match, 0. PI., Lx, 300. 

It was famous to the time of Oldham : 

■IIh'h.' a lich suit of Mortluck tapestry, 
A bed ol ilaiiiaisk <ir enibntdery 

Iinit. of lid Sat. ofJutenal. 

This njanufacture was ruined by the 
,. e/y}} wars. 

M0RTLIN6, s, A sheep or otber 
animal dead by disease. 

A wretched wither'd moriliatg, and a piece 
Of canion, wrapt up in a golden fleece. 

Fasciculus Florum,p. 35. 

Coles, and other dictionary-makers, 
define it a lock of wool pulled from a 
fleece, " Lana melota evulsa ;" but I 
have not seen it used in that sense. 
In the above passage it seems quite 
synonymous with morkin, 

But when the active pleasures of their love 
Which fiU'd her womo, had taught the babe to move 
Within the mory mount, precednig miins. 

Ckanuterlayne's FkarouiUdA, 1659. 

MOSE, V. To mote in the chine^ a 
disorder in horses, by some called 
mourning in the chine. 

Fossess'd with the glanders, like to mose in the chine. 


Ger. Markham has a chapter en- 
titled, "Of the running Glaunders, or 
Mourning in the Chine,^* by which it 
seems to be considered as the same 
disorder. Tf'^ai/ to get Wealthy B. i, 
ch. 14. 
MOSSE AND HIS MARE. prov. '* To 
take one napping, as Mosse took his 
mare." Who Mosse was, historiaus 
have not recorded, but it is plaiu 
enough, from the drift of the saying, 
that he took his mare when asleep, 
because she was too cunning or too 
nimble for him when awake. 

Say on a tree she may see her Tom rid from all rare. 
Where she may take him napping, as Mosse took his 
Ballet of Shepherd Tom, Wit Rest., p. 207. repr. 

The English translator has helped 
Rabelais to this burlesque simile: 

The merry lifcs and drums, trumpets and dahons, 
hoping to catch us as Moss caught his mare. 

B. iv, ch. 3d. 

We have one authority for its being a 
gray mare : 

Till daye come catch him a.. Mosse kis ^ruy aMM, 
napping. Christmas Pnttee, p. 40. 

•f MOSSY. In the sense of covered 
with down or hair. 

A stripling, that having passed 14 yeares, beginattb 
to have a mossie beard. Homenclator. 

Stud. Woe is the suhject. Phil. Earth the loathed 

Whereon we act this fained personage. 
Mossy barharians the spectators be. 
That sit and laugh at uur calamity. 

Retnmefrom Pemassus, 1606. 

MOST, adv. of comparison, denoting 
the superlative degree. It is well 
known that this was often redun- 
dantly used by our old authors, with 




the superlative form of the adjective 
itself; in the same manner as more 
with the comparative. See More. 

To take the iMsett and wuat poorest shape. 

K. Lear, ii, 8. 
But that I lore thee beat, O mosI besi, believe it. 

Hmml, ii. 8. 

This was not at all peculiar to Shake- 

Oh 'tis the Muut wieMPst whore, and the most trea- 
cberoas. B. ^ Ft. Woman PUtu'd, iii, 4. 

So in Acolastus, a comedy, cited by 
Steevens : 

That same wtost hett redress or reformer, is God. 

See Superlative, double. 
HOST, a. Greatest. 

But always reaohite in wuut extremes. 

1 Hen. VI, iv, 1. 
And daring this their mo$t obscurities 
Their beams shall ofte break forth. 

Spent. F. Q., Ill, iii, 44. 
1 do possess the world's uiott reieiment. 

Spens. Mutab., vii, 17. 
And now the wtott wretch of all. 
With one stroke doth make nie fall. 

Bnis <^ South., dted by Todd. 

Hence the phrase most and least, 
meaning highest and lowest, or the 
like. See Least and Most. 

^Gainst aU, both good and bad, both ntott and least. 

Spens. F. O., VI, vi, 12. 
Enrenoming the hearts of most and least. 

Fairf. Tasso. viii, 73. 

Mast an end, a phrase that seems to 
imply continuation : 

Sure no harm at all. 
For she sleeps most an end. 

Mass. Very Worn., iii, 1. 

Mr. Gifford found the expression in 
Warburton : 

He runs on in a Strang jumbled character, bat has 
wMst an end a strong disposition to make a farce of it. 

Dedie. to Div. Legat. 

Here it seems to mean generally* 
MOST-WHAT, adv. For the most 
part. Dr. Johnson exemplifies it 
from Hammond : 

Thoee promises being but seldom absolute, tnost-tckat 
CMiditionaL Hammond. 

I have not noted other examples, 

though doubtless many maybe found. 
MOT. See Mott. 
MOTE, r., for might ; properly belongs 

to a more ancient time tlian that to 

which this work refers. 

Now niote ye unUerstand. 

Spens. F. Q., VI. viii, 46. and fossim. 

Moth, the antiquary, uses it in the 

play of the Ordinary. 0. PI., x, 235. 

And it is common in the Ancient 


Fairfax has mought, which is still 

provincial : 

Yet would with death them chastise tlioush be mought. 

F. Tasso, xiii, 70. 

fMOTE. An assembly; a meeting. 

The monke was going to London ward, 
There to holde greie nwte. Bobin Hood, i, 46. 

MOTH, *. A mote, or atom, any very 
small object ; clearly a corruption of 
mote, which is so spelt in some of 
these examples. 

A moth it is to trouble the mind's eye. 

HamUt, i, 1 

So it stands in the quarto of 1611. 
So in King John, the folio of 1623, 
where mote was evidently meant, haa 
in this beautiful passage : 

heaven ! that there were but a moth in yours, 

A gruin, a dust, a gnat, a wandering haire. 

Any annoyance to that precious sense. Act iv, sc. 1. 

The same also is clearly intended in 
another exquisite thought : 

Therefore should every souldier in the warres doe as 
every sicke man in his bed, wash every moth [mote] 
out of his conscience ; and dying so, death is to liim 
advantage ; or not dying the time was blessedJj loat, 
wherein such preparation was gayned. Henry V, iv, 1 
They are in the aire, like atoms iu the sole, mothes in 
the sun. Lodgers Inc. Dev. Pre/, 

*'Festucco, a moth, a little beam.*' 
Florio, Ital. Diet. 
MOTHERING,*. A rural ceremony, 
practised on Midlent Sunday. 

I'll to thee a simnel briii$r, 
'Gainst thou goest a mothering. 

Herrick, p. 278. 

Said there to be "a ceremony iu 
Gloucester." It is supposed to have 
been originally a visiting of the 
mother church, to make offerings at 
the high altar. See Cowel. But 
it ended in being a friendly visit 
to a parent, carrying her furmety, 
and other rural delicacies. See 
Brand's Popular Antiq., 4to, I, p. 92. 
tMOTION. A proposal; an offer. 

She blush'd at the motion ; yet after a pause. 

Said, yes, sir, and witii all my heart. 
Theu let us send for a priest, said Robin Hood, 

And be married befure we do part. 

Ballad ofSobin Hood and Clorinda. 

An impulse. 

So over-joyd he was. that a marquis who had so 
honourable a train, did call him cosiu of his own 
motion, hoping it would be sufllcient to prove his 
nobility against all contradiction. 

History ofFrancion, 1655. 

MOTION, s. A puppet-show. The 
chief part of the fifth act of Ben 
Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, relates 
to a motion, or puppet-show. 

Then he compassed a motion of the pnHligal son, Hiid 
married a tiuker's wife. Ifiul. Tale, iv, 2. 

She'd get more gold 
Thau all the baboons, calves with two Uiiis, 
Or motions whatsoever. Ram Alley, O. PI., v, 418. 
D. Where's the dunibe shew you ^covwvVvl vwt^ 
L, Even ready, m>( \otOl •» W\. uwj \it odJJit,^ %.m»V,\wa\ 




for rappits will speak bnt inch oornipt bngiuge 
you'll never undentaod. 

Kiuue in Qraintt 1640, tign. L 4. 
The motion layt. you lie, he is called Dionysius. 

B. Jon$. Burt. Faif, r, 5. 

fMOTIONER. One wlio moves a pro- 
posal ; a mover, as we should now say. 

After this, when manv words had passed to and uo, 
and the woman pitifully bewailing the horrible hard 
fortune of her husband, these motionert, as hot as 
they were for the betraying and yeelding up of the 
towne. inclined to mercie, and changed their minds. 
HoUani'i JmrniaMns Miurcellinut, 1609. 

fMOTIST. One who produces effect in 

Howbeit a man is much more mooved by seeing, then 
bv lieitring: whence 1 holde it most convenient for 
that {Miinter, which would prouve a cunning motift, 
to be curinusiie precise in diligent observing of the 
above named rules. Lomattus on Painting, 1598. 

MOTLADO, 9, A kind of mottled stuff. 

Their will motlado is, 
Of durance is their hate. 


In a song which compares women to 
various kinds of stuff. 
MOTLEY, 9. A habit composed of 
various colours, the customary dress 
of a domestic fool. 

Invest me in mv motlry -, give me leave to speak my 
mind, and I will through and through. 

A$ you I, it, ii, 7. 
For, but thyself, where, out of motly's, he 
Could save that line to dedicate to thee. 

Ben Jons., Bfigr. 53d. 

That is, " Where is he, not being a 
downright fool, who could,*' &c. 
Foolishly interpreted by Whalley, 
who talks of the pointing, though it 
is the same in the first edition as he 
has given it. 
Men of motley is equivalent to fools : 

Ne\ er hope 
After I cast you oflF, \ i mm of motley. 
You most undone tliin^'d. below pity, any 
That has a soul und sixpence dares relieve you. 

B. Jh Ft. Wit without Money, lii, 4. 

Motley occurs, in this kind of use, so 
frequently in all our old dramatists, 
that it is perfectly superfluous to 
multiply examples. 
MOTT, for motto; written also Mot. 
From the French, mot. 

Non nuerena morior, for the mott, Inrhased was beside. 

W«r;i<rr, Alb EnuL. 11. 9. p. 43. 
With his big title, and Italian tnot. Hall, Sat., V, ii. 
I cannot quote a tnotte lt.ilianatr. 
Or brand my satyrcs with »on>f S|iani5h tcrme. 

Marsl. Sat., PnxrtniMM to B. 2. 
The word, or mot, was this, unlitl he cometh. 

Uarr. Arioit., xli, 30. 
Nor care I much w hats'ever the world deeme. 
This is my mott: " I am not wliat 1 seeme." 

ffon. Ghost, p. 239. 

Also a raying, or apophthegm : 

The mot of the Athenians to Ponipey the Great, 
**Tliou art so much a gud, ns thou acknowledgest 
thyself to be ajuun," was no ill saving. 


Bruithw. Engl. GtntUw.,^. 383, fol. 2d. 

tMOVALL. The act of moving. 

Whereat he by and by 
Put forth his strength, and rous'd it from the root, 
And it remov'd ; whose wunull with loud shout 
Did flU the echoinir aire. Virgil, hy Vicars, 16S?. 

MOUCHATO, for moustachio. A lock 
of hair on the upper lip. 

Erecting his distended tnou€hatoi, proceeded in this 
answere. Mom. Okost, p. 16. 

tMOUGHT. Might. 

S. poore wretch, is this it I pray thee then hart 
enquired after? so movght thou lire after me and my 
husband Chremes, as thou art his and mine. 

Terence in BngUak, 16U. 
After I had gathered togither this simple worke 
(which lay far abroad), and had so finished this 
treatise, l' mused with my selfe unto what patron I 
mought best direct the came. 

Xorthbrooke against Dicing, 1677. 
There was no cave-begotten damp that mongki. 
Abuse her beams. Qnartt^s EwMnu. 

MOULDIWARP. See Mold-wabp. 

MOUNT-SAINT, or -CENT. A game 
at cards ; also called cent. This 
dialogue takes place upon it in the 
Dumh Knight. See Cent. Thought 

" to he piquet. 

Q. Come, my lord, take your place, here are earis^ 
and hi re are my crowns. P. And here are mine; 
at what game will your miyesty play ? Q. At nuna^ 

Soon after it is said, 

It is not saint, but cent, tHken from hundreds.' 

O. PI , IV, 48S. 

Four kings are afterwards mentioned 
as of value in the same. 

Were it mount-cent, primero, or at chesse, 

It want with most, and lost still with the lasse. 

mts. O. PI , viii. 419 

In Spanish called cientos, or a hun- 
dred, the number of points that win 
the jrame. Strutt*9 Sport9, p. 293. 
MOUNTAINEER. Robbers and outlaws 
often iiaving their haunts in moun- 
tainous countries, this word seems to 
have been almost a synonymous term. 

Who called me traitor, wwuntainsar. Cymk., it, i. 

No savage fierce, bandite, or mountainttr. 

Will dare to soil her virgin purity. Cowtus, 426. 

Mr. Todd cites also Blount's Voyage 
for it. 
MOUNTANT. Rising up, a real, or 
mock, term of heraldry; montant, 
French. Still an heraldic term m 
that language. 

Hold up, ye sluts. 
Your aprons mountant, yon'r not oathable. 
Although I know you'll 'swear. T^mon, ir, S. 

The value, height, length, or distance 
of any object. From the old French 
montance, of the same meaning: a 
word belonging to the age of Chaucer,. 




Gower, &c.» bnt retained by Spenier. 

Thit said, they both a furlong's moutUeuamet 
Bcur'i their steedii to run in even race. 

F. Q.,m,Tiii,l& 

So also " the mauntenance of a shot " 
Id III, xi, 20 ; and " the mountenance 
of a flight," that is, of a flight-arrow, 
or flight-shot, in V, vi, 36. Chaucer 
has ased both mountenance and 
fMOUNTERE. A sort of cap. See 


Tlitre ftngaJly ireare out your summer suite. 
And iu trite ji:rkiu after beagles toote, 
Or in mouMtere caps at tie id tar shoot. 

Cotent Garden IhoUnf, 1672, p. 14. 

MOUNTIE. In hawking, the act of 
rising up to the prey, that was 
ahready in the air ; montSe, French. 

But the sport which for that day Baailins would 
principally shew to Zelmane, was the mouHtie at a 
neame, which getting up on his wasliue wings witli 
paine, fcc. Pernor. Arcad., p. 108. 

Also a military man. 
MOUNTURE. See Monture. 
MOURNE of a lance. Morne, French. 

The part where the head unites with 

the wood. 

Yet so were they coulour'd, with hookea near the 
morniu, that they prettily represented sheep-liookcs. 

Pemlrr. Arcad., p. 179. 

MOURNIYAL. A term at the game of 
gieek, meaning four cards of a sort, 
as four aces, &c. Perhaps from 
momiJUy French, a trick at cards, 
according to Cotgrave ; but which 
DOW means only a slap on the face. 

A wummifl is either nil the aces, the four kines, 

sleek is three of any of the 
aforesaid. Ompleat Gamester, 13mo, 1680, p 68. 

queens, or knaves, and a sleek is three of any 

In Poolers English Parnassus, the 
elements, from being four, are called : 

The roesse of simple bodies ; 
Nature's first wummival,- 

The diatessaron of nature's harmony. 

Nature's great tetrarchs. Yoc. Elements. 

See Mess. 

A moumiuil of protests, or n glerk at least. 

B. Jons. Staple of Neics, 4th intermean. 
Gire me a wtourMival of ares, and a gleek of queens. 

Greene's Tu Quoq., O. PL, vii, 44. 

See Murnivql, in Keri»ey*8 Dictionary. 
As a moumival and a ffleek make up 
aeven, a singularly quaint writer, ap- 
plying the terms of card-playing to 
religious use, has advised that we 

Even every common day 
So gratiously dispose, that all our weeks 
Be full of sacred mumirab and gleeks. 

G. Tooke, Jnna Dieata, p. 103. 
fWluit may wise men conceive, when they shal note. 
That fire unarm'd men, in a wherry boate, 
Kosght to defend, or to offend with §lripe». 

Bnt one old sword, and two tobacco-pipet t 
And that of constables a mumituH. 
Men, women, rhildren. all u» geuerall. 
And that they all should be so valiant, wise, 
To leare we would a market towne surprise. 

Tai/lor's Workes, 1680-. 
iJJumival of knaves, or Whig^sm plainly displayed, 
a satirical poem, 1683. 
fit can be no treason to drink or to sing 
A mouruijal of healths to our tnit* crowned king. 

The Loyal Garland, 1686. 

MOUSE. Used as a familiar term of 
endearment, from either sex to the 

Whai's your dark meaning, moMse, of this light word f 

L. Lab. L.. V, 9. 
Pinch wanton on your cheek, call yon his m ■»>%<. 

Hahil., m, 4. 
Come, mouse, will you walk ? 

Julia to Laznnilu. in B. J- Fl. Woman Hater, v. 9. 
Shall I tell thee, sweei mouse ? I never louke upon 
thee hut 1 uui quite out of luve with my wife. 

Menceehmus, 6 pi., i, 118. 
God bless thee, mouse, the bridegroom said, and 
smakt her on the lips. Vomer's Jib. Eng., p. VJ. 
And who had mark'U the pretty looks that past, 
From privy frieiul unto his pretty mouse. 

iY. Breton, in Ellis, Specim., li, p. 248. 

Mouse piece of bee/, a particular 
joint so called to this day. It is the 
piece below the round, as appears by 
that learned work, the Domestic 

But come among U5. and you shall see us once in a 
mornin}e have a m</;(4c at a bay. if. A mouse.' un- 

{ronerly spoken. Cr. Aptlv understoode, a mouse of 
eef. Lyly's Sapko Jjr Phaon, i, 8. 

iMouspece of an oxe. mousle. Palsgrave. 

iThereis a certain pifc<.> in the beef, called Wx^mous'.' 
piece, which i^iven t*i the child, or party so affected, 
to eat, doth certainly cure the thruHh. 

Auhiry's Miscellanies, p. 144. 

MOUSE-HUNT, s. A hunter of mice ^ 
but evidently said by lady Capulei 
with allusion to a diflerent object of 
pursuit ; such as is called mouse only 
in playful endeaniseiit : 

Aye, you have been a mouse-hunt in your time. 
But Twill watch you front such v.aiching now. 

Horn. Ji'Jul.,'\r,^. 

On which Capulet exclaims, *^ A 
jealous hood 1 " The commentators 
say that in some counties a weasel is 
called a mouse-hunt. It may be so ; 
but it is little to the purpose of that 

tMOUSE-PlECE. See Mouse. 

MOWE, s, A grimace. See MoE. 

MO WE, V, To make faces like a mon- 
key. See Mop, and Mo£. 

idiot times, 
When nudy monkeys mowe ore apri8:htly rhinus! 

Marston, Sc. of nil., Sat. 9: 
Ape great thing gave, though he did movcing stund. 

Peinbr. Arc, p. 399. 

MOY, s, A piece of money ; probably 
a conlracUou o^ moidore, ot motdw^v 




a Portuguese piece of gold, value one 
pound seven Hhiiliiigs. 

Mvy shall not serve, I will liuvc forty moyt. 

Sen. F, iv, 4. 

And in the same scene : 

Fr. O pardounez moy. 

Plst. Say'Bt thou lue so? it that a ton of moyi? 

I iiave not seen it elsewhere, as a se- 
pnrate word. 

MOYLE. See Moile. 

for any causeless depression of 
spirits. An undefined disorder simi- 
lar perhaps to ihat described by the 
more modern terms mulliffrubs, or 
rather blue devils, 

Melnncholy is the creast of courtiers armes, «nd now 
every base companion, being in his mubUfubUs, tayi 
he IS melancholy. Lyly'sMvdas.r, 3. 

Whether Jupiter was not jovial), nor Sol in his 
Mubble/ubbles, that is long clouded, or in a total 
eclipse. GayCon's Festit. NoUi, p. 46. 

Our Mary Outierez, when she whs in the mubble- 
fubUs, do yoa think I was mad fur it? Ibid., p. 145. 

A remedy for this disorder is pre- 
scribed by the same author : 

He that hath read Seneca oud fioethius is very well 

Erovided against nn ordinary mishap, but to have by 
eart ArgaJus or Parthenia. or the dolorous madrigals 
of old Flangus in the .\rcadia, or the unfortunate 
lover, or Pyramus and Thisbc. shall be sure never to 
die of the mubblefubles. Ibid., p. 16. 

One authority gives mumble-fubbles : 

And when your brayne feelesany payne, 

With cares of state and troubles, 
We'el come in kindnesse to put your highnesse 

Out of your mumbU-fubbUs. 

Misc. Jutiq. Angl. in X. Prince, p. 55. 

fMUCE. See Muse. 

>'or haviug gotten licence to nominate whom he 
would, without respect of culling and degree, as 
tainted with uulawfull and forbidden arts, hice to an 
hunter skilful! in marking the secret tracts and 
mucea of wild beasts, enclosed many a man nitliin his 
lamentable net and toyle. 

Jmmianu3 Marcellinus, 1609. 

of the companions or attendants of 
Robin Hood. In Jonson's Sad 
Shepherd he is called, ''Robin 
Hood's bailifif or acater." In the 
ballads of Robin Hood he is called 

,\s I am Much, the miller's son, 
That left my imil to ^o with thee. 

Gcurge a Greene, 0. PI., iii, 41. 

MUCH, adv. A sort of contemptuous 
interjection of denial. 

W^hat with two points on your shoulder ? much ! 

2 Hen. IV, u. 4. 

That is, far from it, by no means. 

To charge me bring my grain unto the markets, 
iVye, Mttch ! when I have neither bam nor garner. 

li.Joni. Every ManuutofH., i, 3. 

See other passages quoted by Stee- 

Hence also the adjective much is simi- 
larly used : 

How say you now ? Is it not past two o'clock? 
And here's muck Orlando 1 As you I. it, ir, S. 

That is, here is no such person ! So, 

Much wench ! or much ion I 

B,Jons. Bvfry Man in H., ir, 4. 
And to solicit his remembrance still 
In his enforced absence. Much, 'i faith ! 
True to my friend in cases of affection. 
Id women's cases, what a jest it is. 

Ibid., Case is Altered, iii, 1. 

tiSo-MUCH. Enough; sufficient. 

But I had so muck wit to keepe my thoughts 
Up in their built houses. 

Tourtuur's Revengers Tragetdie, 1608. 

MUCH-WHAT, adv. For the most 
part, or almost; very much. Like 


This shews man's power, and its wav of operation to 
be muck-fohat the same in the material and intellectual 
world. Locke, II, xii. S ^• 

See the examples in Johnson. 
MUCHELL, a. The same as mickle, 
or tnuckle ; from the Saxon moehelt 
much or great . Much is onlv an 
abbreviation of it. 

I learnt thai little sweet 
Oft tempered is, quoth she, with muekell smart. 

Spens. F. Q., I, iv, 46. 
Full many wounds in his corrupted flesh 
He did engrave, and muchell blood did spend. 


The second and third folios, we are 
told, change this into, *' much ill 
fMUCK. A jocular term for money. 

Not one in all Ravenna might compare 

With him for wealth, or matcht him (or his muck. 

Turbertille's Tragicall Tales, 1587- 
He married her for mueke,is\it him for lust} 
The motives fowle, then fowly live they most. 

Davies. Scourge o/FoUy, 1611. 

MUCKINDER, s. A jocular term for 
a handkerchief ; horn muckt dirt. 

Be of good comfort, take my muckinder. 
And dry thine eyes. B. Jons. Tale ofT, iii, 1. 

We'll have a bib, for spoiling of thy doublet, 
And a fringed muckerCier]xa3\g at thv girdle^ 

B. .> Fl. Capt., iii, 8. 
f They will bring me my cradle, my muckinder, and 
my hobbyhorse garnished with pretious stones, which 
will add faith to the nobility of my race. 

History ofFreuicion, 1654. 

MUCKITER, *. Seems to be a cor- 
ruption of the same word. 

Onely upon his muckiter and band he had an F, 
By which I did suppose his name was Ferdinand. 

Weakest goes to Wall, sign. 1 S b. 
Mucketer, wiping thing. 

Wilkins, Ileal Char. Alpk. Diet. 

In Baret's Alvearie, mucketter is re- 
ferred to bib ; but Cotgrave says, a 
<* inuckender is a bavarette, or muck- 

Or like a carpe that is lost in mitdding, 
May mure, Uke to a black-puddiug. 

ruthe pudding 

. A fool. 

Academy of Ctxuflimt 

.(c tUni on the Iwcc-bonic »#>. mid him u 
I sbil;. Wamlr-i Aliio^l Etglmiul. 

ER, *. A sort of veil, orwrap- 
rorn by ladies in Shakespeare's 
chiefly core ring the chia and 

^ pu on n , « M ir. M^^^ ^ ^^ ,^ ^ 

. Tliomas, in the comedy of that 
disguising himaelf as a female, 

lich Ins sister Bays, 

•rg of several kinds are deliue- 
iD Mr. Douce's Illustrations of 
iBpeare, some of which show 
he eyes. See vol. i, p. "5, 
iOUSES. Pot-houseB. The 
louaes of London were very 
ated in the political agitation of 
rlier part of the last ceiitnrv. 

su^c hriteror tlic ftiendt 'o Ihi ^TDUilanl 

<k«r Ml--, rbii induced n Kt of fnUciiicn 

It;, liir wdl iffHtnl tndisinieB to meel uiid 
I llicHirit or kijMj to the PnteMnnt luccci- 
id 10 1m mdjr opoB ill tuninlu to Join Uwir 
IT (he nnprcuimi of Iho Torj niobi. Mnni u 
let thtgr lisd. uid minj wire the rioti, lifl xt 

Uiu dl*->trifi, uliich hudlbii ««id rtli^a, 
am Ihe pullioE donii of the muffg-Aoiaf mi 

Jimmiy Urmyk Bitglaiii, IJU. 

LE. The following is a »ery 
IS description of tiie drinking 
ces at the beginning of the 
eenth century. 

fc JiATo Bceix ud (to my fricf of conedence] 
m uy hive in pTceence, yen ind aminiicil 
bern AH nelof in the btumeiH, wbcn upon 

Ikd the Ant bcpnueth nnine end tnliclb 
nd in tbin muna they dridu tluicc n pcccc 

inke mMI sluHf for the HUHfe. 
lien the" ftnl t "■ 

MULCT, (. In the seme of bleinieh or 

' .V«u.'3/mJofBah..i.S. 

f MULE. Ta tkot one'* mule, to lielp 
oneself out of the funds truBied to 

fMULL. A popular 

To tlie great dniuage ol ray lord niijors fimls. 

Siili/r ajaintl ifjfocri(«,18S>. 

MULLED. Softened, like mu/W wine. 

?e«t ia I <cr> npopleir, lelhui; ; •uilfd, dEif, ilieuy , 
inieuible. Cwwl.iv. S, 

tMULTILOQUY. Talkativeness. Lat. 

Mmlliloqiy Ibex ignoniict; t.b>I ucdl 
Saiiian;irordt vliin tlioudoitieelhedeedi! 

OnKm'l Efifrmml, IGTT. 

fMUM. A Biirt of stmng liter, iiiTni- 
duced from Ijnniswick, and henee- 
ofteii called Bruxguiick mum. 

fMUMBLE-FUBBLB. Low spirits. 


tMUMBLEMI::NT. Muttering and 
grudging ? 

iKutwibk diicMiii'i?r~i<h' hrri">'K-.i"<liHt«. 

C-iri'y'j »■•!•. FUl, mU A^riri. IflU. 

MUM-BUDGET. A rant word, iiuulyiug 
ailence. It is the wntcli-word pro- 
posed by Slender in the Merry Wives 
of Windsor : 

ini§il, and by that ue knov one MuDi'lirr. 

Bat ■imiioir^M for C»rito|ilim.I eiiuie. 

i«i»,i.«»Jft/I..O. PL. 1,191. 

For Ihy dur Mke : rjuolh the, ai.'n b<,igil. 

HhM.. 1, ill, >. 307. 

MUM-CHANCE. A sort of game, 
played with cards or dice. 

ilai:kiatrlh llasg.. 1617, il([n. B. 

Silence seems to have been essential 
at it 1 whence its name: 

And for •HKCtiiicF, lioB.'Vr tlie eh.nee do fill, 
Ion ninil be -urn for Iw .A momni HI. 

J1:J., dtedinO. PL, lii, 423. 
I hn' knoirn him rry. when he bu loot bUL tbr^e 
(hillinp nt ■■■■uAsncc. Jmial Croc, O. Fl., i, im. 

gun'""' ''"" "'D^L,''7B,nma^im.i'T 

Used, in later timeg, as a kind of pro- 
verbial teem iax bnc^nYnvX.. 




fWhofo Uiteth not to pnt mucli in hazard playeth at 
mmw^-chaHce for bit cro^n witii some one or otner. 

h'orthbrooke against hieing ^ \hn' 
f I am so lame, every foot that 1 set to the ground 
went to niT heart ; I thought I had been at mmr- 
chance, my Dones rattled so wlthJauntinfE. 


[At a later period the word was used 
to signify a person w ho stood dumb, 
and had not a word to sav for him- 

+Wliy stand ye like a mum-chanee? What •re ye 
tongue-t y 'd ? Flu v t us made English , 1 6v4. 

iMttt. (h'olds up his stick) Snrrali. you will not leave 
your unitiug till I set old crabiree about your 

Chat. What, would jou have a body stand like mum- 
chance, HZ if 1 didn't know better than ytmr old 
mouldy chops how to car mv zelf tu a gentlewoman. 

' Vnnaltiral Mother, 1698. 

See Johnson. 

MUMMY, s. Egyptian mummy, or 
what passed for it, was formerly a 
regular part of the Materia Medica. 
The late dean of Westminster, in his 
Commerce, &c., of the Ancients, says 
that it was medical, ** not on account 
of the cadaverous, but the aromatic 
substance." Vol. ii, p. 60, n. This 
is true, so far as it can be supposed 
to have real eflScacy, but its virtues 
seem to have been chiefly imaginary, 
and even the traffic fraudulent. 
Chambers thus speaks of it in his 
Encyclopaedia : 

Mummy is said to bnve been first broueht into use in 
medicine by the malice uf u Jewish pIiNsiaan; wlio 
wrote, that flesh thus en)baliued was good for the 
cure of divers disease*, and particularly bruises, to 

Erevfut the blood'» gatlieriii;; and coagulating. It is, 
owever. believed thui no use whatever can be derived 
from it in medicine; and that all which is sold in the 
shop*, whether brought from Venice or Lyons, or even 
directly Horn the Levant by .Alexandria, is factitious, 
the wcrk ol certain Jews, who counterfeit it bydrjing 
carcasses in ovens, after ha\iiig prepared them with 
powder of myrrh, caballui aloes, Jewish pitch, and 
other coarse or unwh(»le«>onie drugs. 

See also the excellent account, taken 
from Dr. Hill's Materia Medica, in 
Johnson's Dictionarv. 
Hence the current idea that bodies 
might be rendered valuable, by con- 
verting them into mummy. Shake- 
speare speaks of a kind of magical 
preparation under that name : 

And it was dy*d in mummy, which the skilful 
Conserv'd of maiden's hearts. Othello, iii, 4. 

Make mummy of my flesh, and sell me to the apothe- 
caries. Bird in a Cage, 0. PI., viii, 214. 
And all this that my precious tomb may furnish 
The l:in<l with mummy. Muse's L. Gl.,'0. VI, ix,214. 

f 2b MUMP. To be sulky. 

Tiler's nothing of him that doth bangine dap. 

Except hit eares, his netlier teeth, and !u^; 

And when he's crost or saUen any way. 

He mumps, and lowres, and hangs the lip, they say. 

That I a u ise roans sayings most approve. 

If an is a tree, whose root doth now above. 

Ttfiflor** tTorkes, 16S0L 

To beg. 

Here WKarton wheels about, till mumoisif lidj. 
Like the full moon, hath made his loroship giddy. 

Clca»€Uufa /oeau, 1651. 

fMUMPER. A beggar. A cant term. 

Since the kinf; of beggars was married to theqaeea 
of sluts, at lx>wzY-hiil, near Begi^rs-bush, bang 
most splendidly attended on by a rained reriment ot 
mumpers. Poor JKoltii, 16S^. 

Here, said I, take your mumper's fee, 
Let's see one ; thank vou, sir, said she. 

tiudibra* Btdhivtu, Part 4, 170S. 

MUMPSIMUS, s. An old error, in 
which men obstinately persevere; 
taken from a tale of an ignorant 
monk, who in his breviary had always 
said mumpsimus, instead of sunymMus, 
and being told of his mistake said, it 
might be so for what he knew, but 
mumpsimus was what he was taught, 
and that he should continue to say. 
Often used in controversy. 

Some be so obstinate in their old mumtimiu, that they 
cannot abide the true doctrine of Gk)d. 

Latimer, Serm., foL S26. 

Henry VIII is said to have told the 
above story. 
fMUNDICATIF. A cleansing medicine. 

For a wound in the head a good muudieatifff. — Take 
Imnv of roses, two unces, oyle of roses an uncf, 
meJdIe them together, nnd put it warme into the 
wound Willi liut, and a plaister upon it: it is good a 
mundicatiffe. Pathway of Health, bL 1. 

fMUNDlFY. To make oneself clean 
or adorn oneself. 

Or at least forces him, upon the ungrateful incoo- 
veniency. to steer to the next barber's shop, to new 
rig and mundifie. 

Country Gentleman's Fade-meetim, 169y. 

fMUNDUNGO. A name for tobacco. 

Now steams of garlick whifliug through the nose. 
Stank u orse than Luther's socks, or foot-boys toes. 
With these mundmujo's, and a breath that smells 
Like standing pools in subterranean cells. 

Satyr against EypocriUt, 1689. 

fMUNGY. Damp and cloudy. 

For neitlrer we the li^ht of starres did see, 
No nor the «tarrie poh- discern 'd could be: 
But iiiituyy clouds o lv^}lrL■Jui \\\v skic ujosl black. 
And the (i'lrk nighi ni.iite us nuxm-liiiht to lack. 

Virgtl. by t'tcars, 16S1 
Disperse this plngue^distillin.' cloud, and clear 
My mungy soul into a glorious dav. 

' QuarUs's EmiUmk 

fTo MUNIFY. To fortify. 

But now (it being proper to tyrants to feare) they 
minde nothing but the building of fortresses, to 
munijie cittadells and (gold prevailing above either the 
force of many or the sword ^ to lay up treasures. 

Thf Pnssniger of Bentenuto, 1612. 

MURDERING PIECK, «. A vei7 de- 
atructive kind of ordnance, calculated 




to do mach execution at once, having 
a wide mouth, and discharging large 
stones. In Rahelais, B. ii, ch. 1, 
Canon pevier is translated by sir T. 
\^v(\\x\\tLTtt ** murdering piece.** Now 
pevier, says Du Chat, ** is synonymous 
with perrier, ovpierrier, more modern 
terms ; that is, pieces for discharging 
great stones. The stones would often 
break into many fragments by the 
explosion, and consequently murder 
in many places, as Hamlet says." 
Du Chat adds, that it is the irerpo/3oXov 
of the Greeks. He forgot that they 
had no cannons ; but it shows his 
meaning sufficiently. They had 
engines which threw stones witii 
almost equal force. 

0, my detr Gertrude, thus 
Like to a Murdering piece, in many places 
Gires me superfiaoos death. Roml., iv, S. 

And, like a murderiH^ piece, aims not at onf. 
But all who stand within that dunjc'mui lr\ el. 

B. S" Ft Doublt- Mciridffr. iv, 8. 
There is not such another murderiHg piece 
In all the stock of calumny. 

MiddletoH J- Rotcl. Fair QnArrel, 1622. 

In Middleton's Game of Chess, brass 
guns are called "brass tnurtherers." 
H 2 b. But this is merely a poetical 

Kersey defines murderers, or murder- 
ing pieces, '* Small cannon, chiefly 
used in the fore-castle, half-deck, or 
steering of a ship ;" and there they 
were used, but not exclusively. 

And like some murdering peeee, instead of shot, 
Disperaea shame on more than her alone. 

SnltonHalVs Mayde, p. 4. 

ing a murtMerer in the round house, Kept 

the larbord side eleere, whilst our men with the 

fBut we having a murtkerer in the round house, 

other ordnance and mnsqueta playd upon their ships. 

Taylor e Worket, 1030. 

MURE, «. A wall; anafiected Latinism, 
not very common. 

The incessant care and labour of his mind 
Hnt wrought the mure that should confine it in 
So thin, that life looks through, and irill break out. 

2 Henry IF, iv, 4. 
Gilt with a trq^le mmre of sliining brass. 

Heytcood'a Golden Age, 1611. 
Bat yet, to make it sure. 
He girts it with a triple brazen mure. 

Ibid., Britnine's Troy, iv, 7S. 

To MURE, V, To inclose, or merely 
to abut up. 

He took a muzzle strong 
Of sorest yron, made with many a lincke, 
TherewiUi he mured up his nioutli iiloti};. 

Spens. F. Q., VI, xii. U. 

Mr. Todd found it in tlie English 
Bible, and elsewhere. 

fMURGION. Soil from the bed of the 

Many fetch moore-earth or mnrgion from the river 
betwecne C'ilil)nn)kf. >iii(l Uxliridtse, Hnd carry it to 
their barren jeruuiiub iii Uuckiii*j;h:inishire, Harford- 
shire, Hiid Middlesex, ei^ht or ten niilcs off. And the 
founds whcrupon tins kind at suile is emploied, wil 
indure tilth above a dozm yeeres after. 

Sordrn's Surteiors Dialogue, 1610. 

MURNIVAL. See Mournival. 
MURR, s. A violent cold, similar to 

the pose, but more characterised by 

hoarseness. See Pose. 

The murr, the head>ach. the catarr, the bone-ach, 
Or other brandies of the sharpe salt rhewiie 
Fittiuga gentleman. 

Chapman's Mous. D'Olite, act ii, Anc. Dr., iii, .S83. 

In WoodalTs Surgery, some stanzas 
in praise of sutphur, speak of that 
drug as salutary in the murr : 

Tlie flowres serve 'i^iiist [M'stileiice, 

'Gainst ustlirua aud the murr. P. 323. 

See Kersey, in Mur. In Higins*.<* 
Nomenclator also, Gravedo is thus 
rendered : 

A rheume or humour falling downe into the nose, 
stopping the nostrells, hurtiny: the voice, and causing 
a cough, with a siuging in the eares; the pose, or 
mur. P. 488 k 

<' Disease of hoarseness* through cold 
distillation." Wilkins, Real Ch. 
Alph. Diet. 

f Ueafe eares, blind eyes, the palsie, goute, and mur. 
And cold wuuld kill thee, but fur lire and fur. 

Rowlands, Knaves of Sp. and Di., 1813. 

MURREY, *. A dark reddish brown, 
the colour by heralds called sanguine. 
See Holme's Academy of Armory, 
B. i, p. 18. 

After him followed two pert apple -squires ; the one 
had a murrey cloth gown on. 

Greene's Quip, Jf'c., Harl. Misc., v, 420. 
+The cover of the booke was of murrey colour, with 
strings in the mids and at liotii ends, of the same 
colour. Holland's Ammianns Marcel., 1609. 

fMURRINALL. A corruption of, or a 
misprint for, murnivall. 

My counsell is that you take him and his ape, with 
his man and his dog, and whip the whole meste or 
murrinall of them out of the towne. 

Taylor's Wit and Mirth. IKorkes, 1«30, p. 194. 

MURRION, or MORION. Morion, 
French. A steel cap, or plain, open 

The soldier has his murrion, women have tires, 
Beasts have their head-piecr9, and men have theirs. 

H.jne3t /rA., O. PL,iii,391. 
And next blow cleft his morion, so he flies. 

Fiiinius Troes, 0. Pi., vii, 481. 
And burn 
A little Juniper in my umrrin, the maid made it 
Her chamber-po». B. and Fl. Cupid's Rev., iv, 1. 

Also jocularly, for a night-cap: 

Never agHin repnuich your reverend night-cap, 
And callit by ih« luan'jjy n:ime of murrion. 

Ibid.. Seomf. Lady, iv, I. 
tMorion, bonct de fer. trstiirre. A murrion •. ^%\.«.v\^ 
cap: u 8c.u\ -. *uc\v aW.uX \ tvs \\vA Vkji^ utaX^ ^* 
some sav : souu* laV.c \\. toT >i\\ \\t\«v\i\.. 




[The murrion was not, however, ueces- 
sarilv of steel, hut sometimes of 
leather :] 

tUis helm, touffh and vcell tanned, without a plume or 

And called a murrion. Chapm. 11., x, 337. 

rich sort of wine. Vin de muscat, or 
muscadel, French. "Vinum musca- 
turn, quod moschi odorera referat; 
for the sweetnesse and smell it resem- 
hies muske." Minsk. 

Quaff 'd off the muicadfl, and threw the sops 

All in the sexton's face. Taming of Shrew, in, 2. 

The muscadine stays for the bridt^ at rliurcli. 

The priest and Hymen's ceremonies tend 

To make theoi man and wife. 

Two Maids of Moreclacke, 1609. 

Cited hy Mr. Steevens, who takes 
occasion from it to illustrate the cus- 
tom of having wine and sops at mar- 
riages. Sometimes the wine was 
Hippocras, sometimes other kinds. 
fMUSCAT. A sort of grape. 

That the muscats he did eat were so great, that only 
one grain of them w as enough to make all Ensland 
to be perpetually drunk. Utstory of Fraitnoii, i656. 
He hath also sent each of us some anchovies, olives, 
and museatt, but 1 know not yet what that is, and 
am ashamed to ask. ^^^ Diary, 1663. 

tMUSCOVY GLASS. Isinglass. 

She were an excellent lady, but that her face peclethlike 
Muscovy glass Maleeonteut, Anc. B. Dram., ii, p. 13. 

MUSE, MUSET, or MUSIT, s. The 
opening in a fence or thicket through 
which a hare, or other beast of sport, 
is accustomed to pass. Muset, French. 

*Tis as bard to find a hare without a muse, as a woman 
without a sense. Greene's Thieves falling out, i-c, 

Harl. Misc., vol. viii, p. 387. 
And when thou hast on foot tiie purblind hare, 

Mark the poor wretch to oversnut liis troubles, 
How he out-runs the wind, and with what care 

He cranks and crosses with a thousand doubles. 
The many musits through the which he goes, 
Are like a labyrinth, to amaxe his foes. 

Skakesp. Venus and Adotm, Suppl., i, p. 487. 

Mr. Malone's note on this word is 
erroneous. Muset is by Cotgrave 
rendered in French trouS. Gerv. 
Markham says, 

We terme the place where she [the hare] sitteth, her 
forme, the places through the which she goes to 
releefe, her muset. Gentl. Academic, 1695, p. 89. 

This proverb is in Fuller's collection : 

Find you without excuse. 

And find a hare without a muse. No. 6081. 

In Howeirs it is. 

Take a hare without a muse, 
Ajid a knave without excuse, 
And hang them up. Engl. Prov., p. 13 a. 

Metaphorically, for a pass leading 
into a besieged town : 

So what with these, and wliat with martial art. 
Stopi it each meuse, and guarded is each part. 

Fnuk. Lus., iii, 79. 

At when a crew of gallants watch the wild anue of a 

Their dogs put in after full crie, he mtheUi on before. 

Chapm. Horn. JL, p. 150 [xi. S66]. 
You hear the horns, 
Enter your muse quick, lest this match between 's 
Be crott ere met. B. and Fl. Two NoUt K., iii. 1. 

This is the emendation of Mr. Seward 
and Theobald on the passage, which 
in the folio stands " enter your mu- 
sick." They are undoubtedly right, 
as to the sense. Palamon appears 
" as out of a bush," and Arcite has 
just said to him, 

Be content. 
Again betake you to your kawthoru house 

I only doubt about the word quiek. 
Probably the original was, " Enter 
your musity 

We find even a sheep going throngb 
a muset : 

Who had no sooner escaped out of our English ehcep- 
fold, but straightway he discovert the wuutt thomw 
which he stole, thinldng thereby to decoy the rest of 
the flock into the wilderness. 

ChisenhaU's Cath. Hist, in Cms. Lit., x, S§2. 

To MUSE, V. In the sense of to wonder. 
It is thus used several times in Shake- 
speare, but is sufficiently exemplified 
by Dr. Johnson. In Ayscough't 
Index there are eight instances of it 

MUSHRUMP, s. A mushroom. 

But cannot brook a night-grown muskrump. 
Such a one as my lord of Cornwall is, 
Should bear us down of the nobilitr. 

J»». 27, 0. Pi., ii, SS5. 

fMUSK. This perfume was at one time 
used very extravagantly, and was 
made up into various shapes, some of 
which are indicated in the foUowing 

To make musk-bags to lay amon^ your clofttiia. — TsXt 
the flowers of lavender-cotton •a. ouuoea, storax half 
an ounce, red rose-leaves two ounces. rhodivBi aa 
ounce ; di7 them and beat them to powder, and isy 
them in a bae wherein musk has been, and tker'u 
cast an excellent scent, and preaerre your doadu 
from moths or worms. Ctoset efSmritus, 1701 

Curious musk-balls, to carrv about one, or to lay is 
any place.— Lei the ground-work be fine flower of 
almonds, and Castle-s<»ip, each a like quantity, teare 
the soap thin, and wet them with at much rose-watcf 
as will make them into a paste, with two dropi of 
chymical oil of cinnamon, and two graint of oiaik, 
wmch will be suflicient for six onnoet ofeach «f the 

Eound-work ; then make all up into little baUa. bet 
t them not come near the fire in doing it, leit dw 
essences evaporate, and the balls loote modi of their 
tcent and vertue. 

Accomplished Female lustntetor, ITlt- 
To make musk-cakes.— Tnkt half a pound of red roses. 
bruise them well, and add to them the water o(l»til 
the powder of frankincense, making it an with thoc 
a pound, add four grains of musk ; mix then wdl to 
a thickness, make them into cakes, and dnr thm ia 
the sun. Closet ofUmnHss, 170S- 

We have here a good description of 
some of the secrets of the toilette. 




She (God bless lirr) 's cloy'd with 'em 
ish*d luj tace •!! Mercury water, for 
and u|iwardt; lain tn ovl'd lelovrs still ; 
iiy ponintnnrd atasks <a ui^hf ; ench moniiug 
. trrcry hair in iu due rank and posture; 
id aniOM{;»t the white ; wnt o'r my face, 
t It fiMTth in a most fair edition; 
I ihin tiffenv only o'r my breasts; 
tuat-flmwu in my mouth continually. 

Cartwrigkt's Si^d^e, 1651. 

:-MILIiION. A «oit of gourd 

ig landed, we went up nud duwiie niid could 
othin^rhttt stones, heath and niosse, and wee 
ed uranxea, lintonds. fig/es. muste-miUioiu, and 
rs. Taylor's tTorkes, 16:U). 

5T, *. The male young of the 

ow-Uawk ; moaket, Dutch ; mous^ 

Fr. See Eyas-musket. Isaac 

>n, in his enumeration of hawks, 

us, the " sparhawk and the 
f/," as the old and young hirds 
e same species. P. 12, ed. Haw- 

The word occurs in Dryden. 

ley might trust their common wrongs to wreak, 
u$qM€t and the coystrel were too weak. 

Hind amd Pnntk., p. 8. 

he invention of fire-arms took 
at a time when hawking was in 
fashion, some of the new weapons 
named atlter those birds, proba- 
rem the idea of their fetching 
prey from on high. Musket 
bus become the e»''^Hblished name 
me sort of guo A saker was 
i species of cannon (see Saker), 
before that it u.^ant a hawk. 
7n was another sort of cannon ; 
ice a bftod-gun, which is a small 
on, easily obtained the name of 
uet, or small falcon. See Fal- 

CLE. Used to signify the sinewy 
of the flesh. 

iltts^ Plia. fiSt. Mnsele. A muskU or fleshie 
if tiiebodyeb eonsistaiis of fleshe, reines, sinewes. 
•tenet, tervii^ specially to the motion of some 
of the bodie by meanes of the siuewes in it. 

Nomettciator, 1585. 
djr, or of muscles, hard and stiffe with many 
esof brawncs. 

WWM^ Dieiumarie, ed. 1608. p. 404. 

s. A scramble, when any small 
*ts are thrown down, to be taken 
M>se who can seize them. Cot- 
i has nunuche, French, which 
ably is the reading of some edi- 

of Rabelais. 

Of late, when I crr'd, ho I 
loyB onto a mu$t, kincs would start forth 
ry.yoorwilL 5A. ^m/. aai C^., iii, 11. 

MNuet rattle not, nor are they known, 
Jce a mmss yet 'moug the gamesome suitors. 

B, Jmt. Mtign. iMtijr, ir, 3. 

They'll throw down gold in muuet. 

Span. Gipt. by Middl, 16S5. 
*Twas so well, captain, I would you could make such 
another muu, at all adventures. 

A Mad r., O. PI . y. 360. 

AUo a cant term of endearment, pro- 
bably for mouse : 

What ails you. sweetheart ? Are you not well? Speak, 
good MUSS. B. Jon$. Bttry Man in k. H., ii. 3. 

The musse is one of Gargantua's 
games, B. i, ch. 21, and is mentioned 
again, iii, 40, **a museho inventore." 
The original is mousque^ which may 
also be the origin of the English muss. 
See Ozell's edit., 1740. Dr. Grey 
has quoted it iu his notes on Shake- 
speare. Some particulars of musse 
are also mentioned in Ozell's Rabelais, 
vol. iii, p. 268. 
MUSSERS, s. ptur. Hiding places for 
game; a term used in hunting. From 
the French, musser, to hide. 

Nay n e cnii find 
Your wildest parts, your turuin}j:s and returns. 
Your tnices, squMts,'the muttert, forms, and holes 
You young men use, if once our nay: st wits 
Be set a hunting. Rum Alley, 0. PL, v. 4S3. 

fMUST. New wine. 

Mustum, Plinio. . . . Moust. Mutt or newe wine. 

They are all wines, but eren as men are of a sundry 
and divers nature, so are they likewise of divers sorts : 
for new wine, called muste, is hard to digest. 

Pmuenger of Benrmuto, 1613. 

MUTCHATO, *., for mustncho. The 
part uf the beard growing on the 
upper lip ; the whiskers. 

Of siinie the faces bold and boilies were 
Distained with wood, and Turkish beards they h:id, 
On th' over lips, mutekatoet luiivr uf haire. 

Hiffim's Induct to Mirr. Mag. 

Possibly a misprint. 
To MU TE, r. A term of falconry ; said 
of the hawks when they drop their 
dung. Applied also to other birds. 
[As in the book of Tobit, " The spar- 
rows muted warm dung in mine 

Ufion the oake, the plumb-tree, and the hdme. 
The 8t«>ck-dove and the black-bird should not come, 
Wlio-e mutina on those trees doe make to grow 
Kut-curiug iiyphea and the nii»sel-toe. 

Browne, Brit. Pott., I, p. 17. 
For her dispwt, my lady could procure 
The wretcbed wings of this my mutiug mind, 
Bestlesse to seeke lier emptie fist to find. 

Mirr. Mtu;., p. Sit. 

But though the allusion is to hawk- 
ing, I should conceive that it is here 
used for changing ; from mulo, Latin. 

tFor you, Jacke, I would luive you imploy your time, 
till my comming, in watching what lioure uf the dsT 
my hawke utntet. RetHmefrotn Pemastus, 1606w 

MU TINE, s. A mutinous ot t«V^^Wvc^>ajK 
person ; used tmce V>>j ^\iil^^v^«»x^. 




For tiu!», and the verb to tnutine, see 
Todd. Of the latter he has found 
three examples; of the former only 
those in Shakespeare. Mr. Malone 
found it as an adjective also. 

Suppresseth mutin force nnd practickc fraud. 

Mi^ortMHea cf Arthur, 1587. 

fMUTIVE. Perhaps a misprint for 

"Where wliileon tnytoriea, and mid the mntite windei. 

A Hnringt Tayle, 4lo, 1598. 

MUITON, 9. A loose woman ; from 
what allusion it is not easy to say ; 
unless, as suggested before, from 
being considered as a lost sheep. 
See Laced mutton. 

Tlie duke, I say to thee again, would eat mutUm on 
Fridiiy. Metu.for Metu^ \\\, 2. 

The allusion here is double, both to 
breaking the fast, and to inconti- 
nence ; but the latter notion is more 
particularly pointed out by the rest of 
the speech. 

I am one that loves an inch of raw mutton, better 
than an ell of fViday [or fried] stockfish ; and th« first 
letter of my name begins witli letrhery. 

Doctor FauttM, I6U4, \nc. Dr., i. 88. 
Baa, lamb, there you lie, for 1 nni muttou. 

Brllafront, in IfoHrsl fTh., 0. PI., iii, 365. 
MuttoH*s mutton now. V Why. \vhs it not so ever? 
C. No, madnni, the sinners i' the suburbs \\ni\ almost 
ta'en the nanie quite away Intni ii, 'ihusi so cheap and 
common; but now 'tis ai a swint reckonine; the 
term tinur is the mutton-wongrrxw the whole calendiir. 
JTebstrr's Appina and Vinj., net iii, Anc. Dr., v, 400. 

MUrrON-MONGER, from the above. 
A debauched man. Tiiin cant phrase 
is said, by some writers, to be still in 

Your Khorson bawdy priest ! You old tnii/Zon-moiu^rr. 
Sir J. Oldc., ii, 1. Malone's Snppl.. ii. 294. 
Is 't possible that the lord llipolito, whose face is us 
civil as the outside of a dedicatory book, should be a 
mutton-monger .^ Hon. Wk., O. PL. iii, p. 406. 

** A wut ton-monger, scortator.'* Coles' 
Diction. t in loc. 

As if you were the only noted muttou'wonger in all 
the city. Ckapm.M«y-Dag,w\.\\,^.^. 

MYSTERY. See Misteuy. 


NiBVE. A spot, a fault. A pedantic 
word, arbitrarily derived from ncBvus, 

So many ■pots, like tunet on Venus* soil. 
One Jeweiliet off with so many a foil. 

Drj/d. Verse* oh Lord Hastings. 

Mr. Todd has shown that it was a 
favorite word with Aubrey, a con- 
temporary of Dryden ; but Uiat is no 
grcMt mutbority. See Todd. Phil- 

lips, and of course Kersey, ha 
word in its Latin form. 
fNAGGON. A familiar name 

My verses are made, to ride erery Jade, ha 
forbidden, of jades to be ridden, they sba 
snaffled, nor braved nor baffled, wert tho 
with thy naggon, that fottyhtst with the dr 
were you ^reat Fompey. my Terse shoold 1 
ye, if you. like a javel, against mee dare cai 

Tkglor'9 Wot 

tOn the NAIL. Ready money. 

When they were married, her dad did not it 
For to pay down four hundred pounds on ti 

The Reading Gmri 

To hit the nail on the heady \ 
known proverb. 

Yon kit the naile oh the head, rem tene 
mtkais' Dictionetrie, ed. lA 
Venus tels Vulcan, Mars shall shooe her stc 
For he it is that kits the naile o* the head. 

WiUe Heereati 

S" nails, a corruption of God*8 

Jer. Well, and you were not my father,- 
and I would not draw rather then pat op U 


NAKE, r. To make naked. 

Come, be ready, uakr your swords; thin] 
wrongs. Seeenger's Trag., O. P 

Naked is the regular participh 
this verb : 

Thrise the green fields 
Hath tlie nak*d sythnian barb'd. 

Amiuta, 1628. 4to, 
But seeing one ruiiiie nakt, iit he were woo 
Amid their wny, they cridc, hoe sirra, back. 

Hnr. Ariott 

NAKED AS MY NAIL, prov. i 
verbial phrase, formerly comrao 
is not among Ray^s Proverbial 

Did so towse them and so tosse them, i 
them and pull them, till he left them as ma 
uaile, pinioned some of them like fdlons 

Hegw. Bngl. Trap., ii, 1, IW 
And tho* he were as naked as my nail. 
Yet would he whinny then, and wag tLe tai 

Drojfton, Moan 

NAKED BED, phr. A perso 
dressed and in bed, was formei 
to be in naked bed. The ] 
though a little catachrestical 
universally current. It may 
served that, down to a certain 
those who were in bed were 1 
naked, no night linen being w* 

Who sees his true love in her naked ied, 
Teacbinx the sheets a whiter hue than whit 
Shtucesp. Venus Sr Adorns, Malone, 8a| 
In going to my neied bed as one thatw 
slept. Par. cf Daimig i 

When in my naked bed my limbes were laic 

Mirr.for Magi 
Tlien starting up, forth from my naked bed. 


Hence naked rest is also met \i 

With feare affrighted fhmi their mUktd rtH, 

■iflit Ik |«t him to hii Mttri trj. 


I tlieorten riiticiiledJeroiiTino: 

lio «Il* Jcnnifug rnw hu K^iti M. 

e was nothing p«ciili)ir)]r ridU 
IS iu this expression, but tLat il 
too fiimiltnr lor tragedy. 
et witU the expreHion so Ute u 
e »ery odd no»el, by T. Amory. 
j John Biincle, where a young 
declsres, nfter an alarm, "That 
vould tirver go into naked bed, 
oard ship, again." Octavo ed., 
i, p. 90. 

V. Am not; formed after th« 
>gy of nill and tumid, &c. 

'■ wt, [god laid) I ui in dale t'lkmc. 

QuitvgH^i Sitet QU$. 

&LY. Especially, particularly. 

■ HMc Df king jtichiirde l)ie kcdiiiIc. all nnW. 
•JIDC. KartUrtati ^tiial iHciag.Wn. 

S, FAMILIAR. In the hearty 
lianty of old English manners, 
s ciiitomarv to call all intimates 
friends bj the popular abbre- 
)ns of their l^hristian names. It 
be, therefore, considered as a 
t at once of the popularity of 
>, and of the love of poetry, that 
' one who gained any celebrity 
almost invariably called Tom, 
, &c. Heywood, in a carious 
i«, rather complains of this as 

zitl'd vliicb ihtj Srtt hvi Eive 

.... jnlOiiBbaiftbHrHand. ' 

, wlu lud is butli (Odcmio ta'iie 

gf Buto, ieI cuald nertr nim 
aTi BOr* Oiu IMia ; who, lud hi 
.■■^bUlhtBu- — "-...t.___ .... 

> Mnn jaUH pmitiKihiii, niiht hu 
osllt tad Bia>Bi>t«« WU* inn. 
. manvl btfak nn Di u^it. 
Wv atWa b^Md the BUM of £ 1 1 
1^ Us Bam ud Luder did 
adUkanlttr. luaaurti 

<nnM«(^ tlw ftraol nuik* 

■M >iU, WU DVW DDn thiB »»[. 

■ Uili^rMn, «h(w isfhuUic nlU 

(d ■iiUi sr puHou, mi bnl wm. 

m Jamttm, tMoch hii iMncd psn 


■d r<(Mr, gr IbM lamed pukt 

H Btn^ ntlHilbu wm but /h^ 

M Hm, mc Ibm, MtMi ~ 


Soon after, however, be muiear* to 
recollect himself, and attiiliuies the 
custom to its ri^ht cnnse : 

(Think otiien irliat llie^ \A<-wk) nni'iii lli^.i liu^iri 
And llut it tikd not ftuiii my [»iiici ur i>r.iiK. 
Ilioidhiloviimebcil tlKirndl^ueruH. Hid. 

NAPliRY, «. Linen of any kind, but 
chiefly table linen -, from nappe, 
French. Johnson (after Skinner) 
says from naperia, Italian ; but there 
is no such word in the Italian of any 
age. Naperii, in low Latin, was 
made from this. See Du Cange. 
Ciitgrnve indei'd has napperie, iu the 
plural, for "all maiitier of napery :" 
but he is no niithority, against that 
of ihe Italian Dictionnriei. 

The ugei iprnl • talik out vt hind. 

And hrouffbt forth map'rj rieii, And plate niore rith. 

"ffry. ' Ontl. Frtl. Nolu. 0. ItS. 

So nmij upkini, that it 

S'lrrict. p. IM. 

Here rather improperly or jocularly 

A long iduE Iu Itii ipint at luk, und that noble 
•afrrf, till the nulTinUije. U^f jlUm.,\ti», kS. 

2. Linen worn on the person : 

ThtBC* Clndioa hopn to ut hit ihuulden fm 
Frsni lUc light hurOcD ofbii •aptrj. Bill, StI-, V, 1. 

K dnu« a huiband fo 



hind idjoinint. 

-., 1«6. 

Ilia lexifC 

NAPKIN, *. A pockv^ handkerchief. 
Of this use of the 1 rd. Dr. Johnson 
haa given only one instance, which is 
from Othello ; but it was very com- 
mon, and occurs in many other pas- 
ages of Shakespeare : 

And to thai ;routh he calla hia Binalind 
Us aeiidtthiahloodv mpim. JtjfOut-it,iv,^ 

And tread on eorlced ttiili a priioncr't pace, 
AJid make their mniin for thdr ipillina place, 


Bnret, in his Alvearie, haa »apiim, 
or handkerchief, rendered accord- 
ingly i and table napkin is there a 
distinct article. 

A M^kiit, the diminutive otnappe, in 
its modern eenae, was th« b«djg<t. ctl 
office of tbe mfilre £ KStcl w, u '«« 




•hould call biin» the butler, in great 
houses : 

The hour of meali being come, and aU tltingi are 
now in readiness, U maitre hostel takes a clean tutpktHt 
folded at length, but narrow. Hnd throws it over his 
shoulder, rcmembring that tins is tbe ordinary mark 
and a particular sign and drmonstralion of his office ; 
and to let men see how credible (sic) liis charge is, he 
must not be shamefaced, nor so much as blush, no 
not before any noble personage, because his plnce is 
rather an honour than a service, for he may do his 
office with his sword bv his side, liia cloak upon 
lus shoulders, and his hat upon his hc»d ; but his 
napkin must always be upon his slioulder, just in the 
posture 1 told you of before. 

6iU$ Rose's School of Instrttctions for the Officers 

fNAPPY. Strong, that makes you sleep. 

M. P. wisheih happy 
Succease and ale nappjf. 
That with llie one's (uiine 
He the other may jriiine. 

Harry White's Humour, 1659. 

NARE, 9. A nofte ; from nares, the 
noatrils, Latin. A word never much 
in use, nor at all, except in a jocular 
way of affectation. 

For yet no nare waa tainted. 
Nor thumb nor finger to the step acquainted. 

B.Jons.Epig.7\U, p. 288. Wh. 
There if a Machiaveliau plot, 
Thoo^ every nart olfact it not. Hmdibr., I, i, 743. 

It is fortunate for me that the word 
was never common, as it would have 
exposed my name to many bad puns. 

-f Between the mouth and eyes th' expanded nare 
Doth carnal with spiritual things compare. 

Otren's Epigrams, 1677. 

NARKE. Nearer ; naerj Dutch. 

To kerke the narrtt ^m God more farre. 

Spens. Sh. Kal.July, 97. 

So explained in Spenser's Glossary 

Kftsoones of thousand billowes shouhlred narre. 

Ruines ofBomt, L 213. 
So did Uran, the narre the swifter move. 

Pemir. Jrcad., vol. i, p. 92. 

Minshew's Dictionary refers from 
narre, to near. " Narr, nearer, pro- 
pior." Coles. Hence the phrase 
•* never the near," is formed from, 
never the narre, i. e., the nearer. See 
NASHE, THOMAS, or more commonly 
TOM. A writer of the Elizabethan 
age, whose works are now collected 
for tlieir rarity, rather than any other 
merit. Whoever would see a good 
specimen of his style without the 
trouble and expense of obtaining his 
works, may see his Lenten Stuff, in 
the Harleian Miscellany, vol. vi, 
p. 143. There they will see that, in 
his ambition to be superlatively witty, 
Ae never sajB aoything in a oonunoD 

way, so that every sentence 
enigma, and must have been s 
in his own days. For the san 
son, however, his works are an 
storehouse of quaint phrases, i 
pular allusions. 

tNASKIN. A cant term for a 
It occurs in Higden's Moderu 
on the Tenth Satyr of Juvenal 
p. 38. 

tNATHE. The nave of a wheel 

And let the restlesse spokes, and whirling n 
Of my eternal chariot on tbe proud 
Aspiring back of towring Atlas rest. 


NATHELESSE, adv. Not the 1 

Tet nathelesse it could not doe him die. 

S^ens. F. Q 

It is more commonly contnu 
NATHEMORE. Not the more. 

But nathemore would that coraj^eous swayi 
To her yeeld passage, 'gainst his lord to go 

So also I, ix, 25. 
Both this, and the preceding 
properly belong rather to an 
period, but are common in S 
and his imitators. They ar 
also by Fairfax in hisTnsso. 
NATURAL, s. Native dispositi< 

And yet this much his courses do>» approve, 
He vTas not bloody in his ualuraU. 

Dan. Civ. W 
A buffbnne or counterfet foole, to heare I 
wisely, which is like himself, it is no so 
but for such a counterfet to talke and Inoa 
it roaketh us laugh, because it is no p 
naturall. Puttenkam^ III, 

See also the examples in John 
NAVE, for navel ; as the nave, oi 
of a wheel. 

And ne'er shook hands nor bid farewel to 1 
Till he unseam'd him from the Nar^tothe • 
And ftx'd his head upon our battlements. 

The commentators would fai 
stitute nape ; but besides thai 
from the nape of the neck to t 
would not meet with any of the 
or sutures of the skull, and 
would be a strange wound t 
when he '* faced the slave,'* 
so cut would be, as Capell ol 
in an awkward state to plao 
the battlements. He surely 
up his bowels, and then cut 
head. Nave is the reading < 
folios. Shakespeare also has 
the common acceptation. 




Bad, naughty ; from ne 
i anything : therefore good 
g, or worthless. [From the 
riht, no thing.] A custom 
liled of writing naughty 
is meant ; but nought, in 
of nothing. The familiar 
^hty probably aided this 
listinction ; but the words 
\y the same. Be naughty 
be naught, was formerly a 
ration of common usage, 
3ger and contempt, which 
supplanted by others that 
18, be hanged, be curst, &c. ; 
the while, was frequently 
rely to round the phrase, 
d has abundantly confirmed 
, and put an end to the 
he commentators upon the 

better employed, aud bauiuakt awhile. 
J» yoH like it, i, 1. 


id ht naught awhile. 

Stone of K. Darius. 
Q Mud he naught awhile. Swetnan. 

ral other instances, in a 
tie words, **Be curst the 
B. Jons. Barth. Fair, actii, 

of the sUndinf; wmten, beleeve me 

B naught, even as alio every idle crea- 

PoMtemger of Bintenuto, 1613. 

?ACK. A term of re- 
male or female, occurring 
iraya in this compound 

HI mmughty^paclc. 

Roaring Qirl^Q. PL, vi. p. 30. 

rde dai^tera. no better than naughty 

Apprehens.of Three Wttchet. 

punk, and pander, and doxy, and the 

ea, as if I had been an arrant naughtg- 

Chapm. Mag-dag, act iv, p. 88. repr. 

o to a man : 

ot a wench with cliilde, 
paeke, thon hast undone thyself for 
Bowleg** ShooMoker a Qent., i. 

of a reprint of the May- 
it is still used in the 
>antie8, but gives no proof. 
▼, p. 88. 

till speake ambignonsly to me, thou 
f Terence in Bnglith, lOU. 

in awl ; by a familiar and 
mutation, a nawl, instead 
So, probably, a nidget, 
% and others. 

There shall be no more shoe-mendiBg; 
Erery man shall have a s|>ecial care of his own soal. 
And in his pocket ourrr his two confessors. 
His Uugel and his nawi. 

B. and ft. Woman FUat*d, iv. 1. 

Tusser spells it nail : 

Whole bridle and siiddle, wliit-leather and nail. 
With collars and harness. Husbanlrg 

[So a nawger, fur an auger,] 

tTliey bore the tmnk with a nawger, and ther issueth 
out sweet potable liquor. 

lloweWs Familiar Letters, 1G30. 

•fNAY. To sag nag, to deny. A com- 
mon phrase. 

And you sag not nnv, but tlint he is priesoner for all 
that. Sir T. More's Workes, Ubl. 

NAY- WARD, a. Towards a negative, 
or a nag. Wqrd, as an adjunct im- 
plying tendency, was added at this 
period to almost all words. Thus 
we have in the authorised version of 
the Scriptures, to God-ward, to uS" 
ward, &c. 

You would believe my saying 
Ilowc'er you lean to the nag-ward. 

Winlei'* Tale, ii, 1. 

NAY- WORD, s, A watch-word. 

And, in any cnsc, have a nag-word, that you may 
know one another's nimd. Merrg W. W., ii. 3. 

A proverb, a bve-word. 

Let Die alone nith liini, if I do not gull him into % 
nag-word, and mMkc him a common recreation, do 
not think I have wit enough to lie slraixht in my lied. 

Twel. N., ii, S. 

fNAZOLD. A fool. 

I know some selfe-conceited natold, and some 
jaundice>f«c'd ideot, that uses to depnive and detract 
from mens worthinesse, by their base obloquy. 

Optick Olasse of Humors, \&39. 

fNEALED. For anealed ; tempered. 

He'l fit his strength, if you desire. 
Just as his horse, lower or higher. 
And twist his limbs hke lueded wyer. 

CartwrighVs Poemt, im. 

NEAF. See Neif. 

NEARE, or NEBRE, for nearer. 
Substituted for narre, when that 
began to grow obsolete. See 

Better far off, than near be n^er the near. 

Shakesp. Rick. JJ, v, 1« 
Of friends, of foes, behold my fonle expenee. 
And never the neere. Mirror for Majf., p. 364b 

But weUway ! all was in vayne, my neele is neter the 
neere. O. PL, ii, IS. 

Much will be ittd, and n^er a whit the nemt. 

Dragtem, Bel. 7. 
Look upon the matter Tourself. Poore men put up 
bils every day, and notlumg the neere. 

Latimer^ Serm. to K. Bdw., p. 117. 

In the following passage it is used 
alone : 

Pardon me, oonnteas, I will come no near. 

Fiw, 777, i, 3, Prolus, p. 9, pag. 14. 

NEAT, s. Horned cattle of the ox 
species. Pure Saxon. In Scotland 
corrupted to noli and nou)t» %«^ 




Ami yet the ■!€«. the hcilBr, and the celf 

Are dl eeU'd mml, Wiml. IU0, ii, 9. 

Shakespeare there puns upon it ; the 
Mune word afforded a quihhle also to 
sir John Harrington: 

The pride of 6aUe iiow it Eronn to greet. 

She lerkB to be eimaiu'd Galle the neat. 

But who her merit* ibiill and oiaimera tcao, 

May think the term it clue to her yood man. 

Ask you, which way ? Mvtliuika your wita are doll. 

My Nioomaker retolve you can at full, 

Ifeat*s leather ii both oze-hide, cow, and bull. 

KpigruMM, B. iii, 48. 

That is, he was to be considered as a 
neat, a homed beast. 

Here thou behold'st thy large Bleek ntmt 

Unto the dewlape up in meat. Herrifik, Hetp., p. 970. 

The word is now obtsolete, but is suf- 
ficiently illustrated by Dr. Johnson. 
Neat-herd is also well known, but 
not equally its female, 
NEATRESSE, s. A servant to a neat- 
herd; a female atteudine upon cattle. 

The malresM, longini; for the rest. 
Did ene him on to teil. 
Pgrt/s Ballads, ii, 249. from Wanier't Alhion*$ 
Engl., B. iv, ch. 20. 

It occurs again at line 259, Percy. 
MEAT-HOUSE, «., that is, cow-house. 
Also the name of a celebrated garden, 
and place of entertainment, at Chelsea, 
in the time of Massinger. The garden 
was famous for inelotiA. 

The ueat-kouse for muik*nu>l<ms, and the gardens 

Where we traffic for asparav'ua, are to me 

In the other world. "Masting. City Mad., iii, 1. 

'VheNeathoueeSf near Chelsea bridge, 
are noticed in Dodsley*s London and 
its Environs, 1/61, and remained 
within my own recollection, probably 
on the same spot. There was also 
Neat'house-lane, on upper Milbank, 
in the same vicinity. 
NEB, s. The bill of a bird. Saxon. 
Also metaphorically used for the pro- 
jecting point of any thine. 

Htrw the hold* up the m^^, the bilL to him, 
And arma her with the boldneas of a wife, 
To her allowing husband. Winter's TaU, i, 3. 

The amorous wonnes of lore did bitterly gnawe and 
teare his heart, wyth the nehs of their forked heads. 
FaiMter's Pal. ofPt., cited by Sleevens. 

Nib IB only another form of the same 
word, and is principally applied to 
the point of a pen : 

Rostrum— the bill, beake, or nii. 

Higius's Xommcl., p. (3. 

tNEB-TIDE. The neap tide. 

Bold oeean foames with spight, liis neb-tides roare, 
His billowea top and topmost htgli doe s<mu«. 

Historit r/ JUino ui,d BtUamsi, 1638. 

tNECENESS. Fastidiousness, coyness? 

I ihea rould haunt the market and the fayre. 
And in m fivUeke humour ieape and spring, 

TiU she whoM bemUe HA mrpuw aUfcg 
Did with her fhiaty tueemts$t nip m j spni 

Tntm's W 


The admittance bong denied Mm, and th 

Kept strict by thee, my n§etutfw womuim. 

ne Setomd Mmidn's T^ 

NECK-YERSE, «. The verae 
a malefactor, to entitle him t< 
of clergy, and therefore event 
save his life. Generally tl 
verse of the 51st Psalm. Se< 


Within forty foot of the gaUoiwi, eoaain 
teru. Jew ^ Jfalte, 0. 1 

And it behoree me to be seGm» or else m 
cun feon}. JVomms / 

Madam, I hope yonr grace wiU stand 
Bctwerne me sim my nset-9er$t, if I be 
Call'd in question for opening ihe king's I 
Histor. ofK. Leir, 160S. 8 Old PUy 
Hare not vour instmmeata 
Tb tune, when you should strike np, h 

As you would read your neek-vtne. 


It is alluded to here, in the s 
prisoner : 

At holding up of a hand. 
Though our chaplain cannot preacl 
Yet he'll suddenly you teach. 
To read of the hanleat psalm. 

Ac. ofCompL, frc^ 1 

This passage seems to imply, 
particularly diffictiit psalm r 
tNECK-WEED. Hemp. 

Some call it neet-iceed, for it hath a trick* 
To cure the necke that's troubkd with ih 
For my part all's oue, call it what you ph 
Tis soreraigne 'gainst each oommon-wcal 


fNECKERCHER. A kerchief 

A nsckenksr or partlet, amieuhnn vei ami 
Withmlt' Dietionarie, ed. 1 

tNECOCIANUM. Tobacco. 
WorkeSt Wi30. See NlcoTi. 

NED WHITING. A famous I 
the time of Ben Jonson, kno 
bably by the name of his kee 
there was one also called 
Stone, another Sackerson, 

Then out at the banqueting house window 
Whiting or George Stone were at the ataJn 

B. Jons. Bp 

See Stone, and Sackerson. 
sititation. An allusion chiefl 
first part of the word, namely 

Soon leM line host at Needham't shore. 
To crare the beggar's boone. IWsrr, 1 

Thus Lothbury is often int 
to signify uiiwillingnesM, froi 
and many similar allusioo 




commoo and proverbial. See Loth- 


NEEDLE. |)^. To hit the needle, the 
same as to cleave the pin, in archery, 
exactly to hit the small point at the 
centre of the mark. 

iBdceda ike kad Aai Mtf MMtff in that dense. 

Ptmhr. Arc., 805. 

N£BDLY» adv. Necessarily. 

Or if MNur wot Mights in feUomhip, 
▲ad mmdig wiU be nak'd with oUier griefs. 

Bom. 4' Jttf-t iii> 2. 
Bui aoldicrt stnee I mc^jt mast to Rome. 

U4^$ Wounds ofCw. War, 1594. sig. £ 2. 

NEELD, or NEELE, s. A needle. 

We. Hermia, like two aiiificial gods, 

Have with our «#fU!r emted both one flower. 

ifu^.i^. 2>..ui,S. 
Thdr thimblm into smied gantlets chanee, 
Their iw«Ut to lances. K. Jokn, v, 2. 

The old copies read needTe, but it is 
certain that fitfeM was then used; and 
the verse, in these places, demands 

Deep derks she dnmbe, and with her neetd composes 
Nature's own shape, of bod, bird, bnoch, or berry. 

PtricUs, T, 5, Chorus. 
See, he cride. 
This shamelesse wlmre, for tliee At weapons were 
Thy metU and spindle, not a sword and speare. 

jnrijrf. TOMO, XX, 95. 

The commentators cite many more 
instances. In Gammer Gurton, it is 
most frequently neele, and rhymes to 
feele^ &e. 0. PI., ii. Yet needle is 
also used, as p. 37. 
To NEESE, or NEEZE, o. To sneeze. 
It is entered in Minshew, as well as 

And waxen in their mfarth, and fM«se, and swear. 

Midi. N. D., ii, L 
Ok, sir, I will nake yoa take iMiria^ powder this 
twentie dayes. Menmekwuu, 8 pi., i, 149. 

In the authorised version of the 
Scriptures it formerly occurred twice ; 
bat in one of the passages (2 Kings, 
IT, 3$) it has been tacitly changed, 
in the modem editions, to eneezed ; 
in the other (Job, xli, 18) the old 
word ia retained. Probably because 
it appears to have some difference in 
signification. It is said of the Levi- 

By bis MCfM^« a light doth shine. 

Miss Smith, however, in her trans- 
lation, changed it to tneezings, 
Nieging root, or nieze wort, is the 
white hellebore in Minshew, and 
netzing-root in Wilkins. 
Henry More seems to have u^ed 
neexingz, for exhalations : 

Ton summer netzinas, when the snn !s set, 

That lill the air with a quick fading Are, 

Cease from your flNsliinics. Pkilos. Poems, p. StS. 

NEGATIVE. The duplication of the 
negative did not always, in our 
earlier writers, destroy its force, but 
rather strengthened it ; nor was this 
peculiar to one or two, bat general. 

But I, who nerer knew how to entreat, 
Nor never needed that 1 should entreat. 

Tam. Skr., ir, S. 
There ii no harm intended to your person. 
Nor to no Bomnii else. Jul. Cms., iii, 1. 

Where see the note. The instances 
in Shakespeare are innumerable. 
But see other authors : 

Tou, Vrederick, 
By no means be not seen. B.^-Fl. Chances, iii, 4. 
Nor have mo private business. IkvL^ Wife for M., i, 1. 
For ueedlesse feare did neeer irantage none. 

Spens. F. Q., I, iv, 49. 
Axke nut for me, nor add not to my woet^ 

Browne, Brit. Past., II, y, p. 176. 
Nor would she stay for no adrice. 
Until her maids that were so nice. 
To wait on her were fttted. 

Drayton's Nymphidia, p. 436. 

Nothing could be easier than to mul- 
tiply these examples to a great extent. 
It was the genuine language of the 
fNEGLECTIVE. Negligent; neglect- 

If assured profit cannot perswade you, but that yon 
will still be nrglcctivf and stupid, then am f sorry 
that I have written so much, to so little puriMiee. 

Taylor's Workfs, 1680. 

NfilF, z. Fist, or hand. Still current 
in the north, according to Grose. 
Coles also calls it uoi'thern. Engl, 
Diet, Accordingly we find it in 
Gavin Douo;ln8*8 .^neid : 

And smytand with ueiffis his breist, allace ! 

Uk ^n, p. 123, 1. 4S. 

See Junius, Etymol., and Ruddiman's 
Gloss. Also Jamie8on*s Diet., v. 
Neive, Neyve is also in Tim Bobbin, 
in the same sense. See Janaieson. 

Give me your nnf, monsieur Mustard-<eed. 

Mids. N. />., iv. 1. 
Sweet knight, I kiss thy neif. S Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

Also written nuef: 

1 wu* not, my good two-penny rascal } reach me thy 
am/. B. Jons. Foetast., iii, 4. 

Thy «n/once again. 

Itowl. Witek of Kdatonton. 

NEM PT, par^. Named: from an old 
verb to nempne, used by Chaucer. 
Nemnan, Saxon. 

As must disdeijniing to be so misderopt, 
Or a wiirmonger to be basely nempt. 

Spens. ¥. q.. Ill, x, 99. 

NEPHEW, 8, Grandson ; ss nepoz, in 

And your youug and tall 
Nep'nps. Ilia [ynur son's] sons, grow up in ifout 
eiubraces. B.Johs Blasi^.of Ahq.^hOu'^v^v^^' 




Pan oil. and to posterity tell this, 
Yet tee liiuu tell but truly wbat hath been ; 
Say to our uephevt that thou once hast seen 
In perfect human shape, all bear'nly bliss. 

DrayUm, Idem xviL 

Used also by Spenser in the general 
sense of descendant : 

This people's vertne yet so fruitfnil was 

Of vertnous nephews. Ruins of Borne, viii, 6. 

See Johnson, who notices and exem- 
plifies both these senses, adding *' out 
of use.*' For the former he quotes 
Hooker and Dry den. 
MERE, r. Were not, or, had they not 
been ; like the other verbs formed by 
the negative, nill, noufd, &c. 

He trembled so, that, nere his squires beside. 
To hold him up, he had sunk doH-n to ground. 

Fairf. Tasso, xii, 81. 


A bark of a tree, which apothecaries call nescio qvid ; 
itt was first brought over to bee used by dyers ; but 
iiot answering exjiectation in their faculiie, itt was 
made use of to scent tobacco : itt gives a fine fragrant 
scent. War^s Diary. 

fNESCOCK. A fondling. 

Neaeock, nestcock, a wanton fondling, that was never 
fironi home. See Cockney. 

Dunton*s Ladies Dielionary. 

MESH, a. Tender, weak, soft; nesc, 
Saxon. It was used by Chaucer. 

Of cheese, — he saith it is too hard ; he saith it is too 
rusk. Chaise of Change, 1685, in Cens. Lit,, ix, 436. 

I presume that it is still used as a 
provincial ^*ord, for it not only 
appears in 6rose*s Provincial Glos- 
sary, but is employed by Mr. Crowe, 
in his Lewesdon Hill : 

The darker fir, light ash, and the ursh tops 

Of the young hazel join. Ver. 31 . 

NESS, «. From n^e, Saxon, a nose, 
or projecting promontory of land. 
Often found in composition, m Sheer- 
ness, Black-ness, &c. ; but also sepa- 
rately : 

Without bridge she venters. 
Through fell Charibdis andfalse Syrtes' nesae. 

Syh. Dm Bart. 


Net shores: liUe forkes wherewith nets are set and 
borue up for wild beasts. Nomenclator. 

NETHER - STOCKS, s. Stockings; 
that is, lower stocks. The breeches 
were the upper stocks. Thus, haul- 
t/e-chausses, and bas-de-chausses, were 
the old French names for those two 
parts of dress; the latter having 
retained the abbreviated name of bos. 
The reason is, that the whole was 
originally in one, like the present 
pantaloons, under the name oichausse, 

made hose in English, .^ee Ho8l. 
Thus Cotgrave : 

Ckause; f. A hose, a ttocking, or nether-stock {has 
de chause), also a bret* k, or breech, in which sense it 
is most commonly plunl {hamt de ehausses). 
Wiien a man is over-lusty at legs, than he wean 
wooden nelher-stOiks. King Lear, n,^ 

That is, he is set in the stocks. 

An high paire of silke nether-stoekes that covered ail 
his buttockes and loignes. Fnttemk., p. S87. 

Then havtr ihey neyther-stoekes to these |ray ha*f% 
not of cloth (though never so fine) for that is tbo1^cht 
too base, but of jarsey, worsted, rewell, alike, thred, 
and such like, or els Ht the least ot the llurst yawa 
thAt can lie KOt, and so curiously knit, witli open 
seame down the legge, with quirkes nud docka abant 
thf HUi-kles, and sometime (haplie) iiiierlaeed with 
golde or silver thrcds, as is woondrrfull to bdiolde. 

StHbba^sMnat of Jhnses.^ll. 
The netherstocke was of the purest Granadu nl£e. 

Greene's Q»np, /«.. BS. 

We see what a luxury silk stockings 
were at first esteemed. Here we have 
upper and nether-stocks together; 
tiie latter being, as in the first exam- 
ple, an allusiuii to the stocks for 
confining the le^s: 

Thy upper-^tociit, be tliey stuff with silke or flocks. 
Never become thee like a nether paire of stocks. 

Heywood's Ifyiyr. 

Sometimes also the upper-stocks were 
called OvEK-STOCKs. See that word. 

NEITLE. To water one, in a peculiar 
manner, was said proverbially to 
cause peevish and fretful humour. 
See Greene's Quip, Harl. Misc., v, 
397. See Howeirs English Proverbs 


The third profit which ariseth from the dairy is 
cheese, of which there are two kimis, momiug-milk- 
che<^se, nettle cheese: But the momin)t-niilk«cfaeea« it 
for the most part the fnttest, and the best cheese that 
is ordinarily made in the kingdom. 

Dunton*8 Ladies Dictionary, 1S94. 


There we did eat some nettle porridge, which was 
made on purpose to-day fur some of their ooninK. 
and was very good. i*fpy** jW«ry, ITeb., IMl. 

very similar to the influenzay which 
appeared iit England in 1562, and is 
described under that name in a letter 
printed in Wright's Queen Elizabeth, 
i, 113. 


Novella, a tale, a parable, or a neweltee. 

Thomas's Rules of Italian Ormwuner, 1563. 
1 at. Good Corel, stand back, and let me see n iitUe: 
mv wile loves newalties abominationty, and 1 must 
tell her something about the king. 

The Fonng JRiiy, 169S. 

NE W-CUT. A sort of game at cards. 

F. Yuu are best at new-cut, wife ; you'll play nt that. 
W. If you play at new- cut, I'm soonest hater of any 
here, for a Woman k. with K., O. ?L, vii, 291 




flfew-^mi at eardes bring* lome to be;r{Enne, 
But this iiev>cat brinjr* most untii desirucUnn. 

iMu^sTom Tet-Troth't Me9aage,\ek}0. 
IThef are deepl.v ciixM^'d 
At mem-Oil, and will not faivc iTicir pime. 
They avear, for all the doiis in Sevil 

Ji9entnru of Fit* Hwr$, 166S. 

NEW-FANGLED, a. This word cannot 
be deemed obsolete; but see Fangle, 
and Panoled. A Dr. Th. Hensliaw 
wished to derive it from new evan^ 
geiU^ new gospells, which, according 
to Lye, Skinner much approved ; but 
to me it seems clear that SkinneiC 
sneers at it, as well he might. He 
says, *' *^1 gratiU omnibus litavit vir 
ertMt«# Doct. Th. H. qut dictuni 
putat quasi neie; evangelU, (i. e.) nova 
evangelia." But he gives a different 
derivation of his own, '* forte ab Ant. 
/angles coepta : hoc a yerho /engan ;*' 
nnd this is clearly right. 

tN'EWS-BOOK. A newspaper. 

This mnu-iook, upon Mr. Moore's showing L' Kstran|re 
capiam Ferrers't letter, did do my lonl S»iidwirh 
cxv^t rifclit as to the ht^rictury. P^PV'* IHary. 

Imct this noon wiih I>r. Bnrnett, who told me, Hnd 
I And in tlie Mrw»'hifotthi» week, that he posted upon 
the *Cii«nge, Im Ibid. 

This day in the Mnes-booke 1 ftnd that my loi d Buck- 
hsrst and his felkms have printed their cnse. 

Hid., 1663 

fNEW YEAR. A complimentary ad- 
dress, which it was formerly custo- 
mary for scholars to present on New- 

A srh«iUer prraented a gratalatorie new yeere nnto 
sir l*boni«s Mo«re in prose, and he readinje it, and 
st*in^ liow barraine aud senceleMk: it was, ask'd him 
whrtber hee could tame it into v«rseF He answered 
yes. With thai air Thomas Moore deliver'd it him 
a^piiiic so to altrr. Who, within a two dayes after, 
came and bronght it him all in verse; which sir 
ThiMvas Moorr re«diii|p aad noting the rime, said, 
I, mane, now is hrere nme I see, where as before was 
BdUier lime nor reason. 

CapUy's Witt, Flit, and Fancirs, 16U. 

fNEXT-DOOR A near appronch, or 
the nearest approach. " He is next 
door to a fool," t. e., he is not far 
from being a fool. 

To diqmte in n matter of this kind would hare been 
Uw n€3ft door to the bein|c convinc'd. 

Rymer oh Tragedirs, 1678, p. 90. 

NIAS, or NIAISE. A young hawk ; 
from niaiSf French ; and from tiiis, if 
my conjecture be right, an eyas is 
only a corruption. See Eyas. Also 
Minsbew, under "a nias hawk.** 
Skinner, however, in Nyas^ doubts 
which is from which. 

Longht at, vweet bird, is that the icniple? come. 

Tott are n MalML B, Jom. Detil it uh Jtt, i, 6. 

I need not sav that niaise means also 
a simpleton, in French. 
Mr. Gifford thinks a niase a corrup- 
tion from an eyas; but it would be 
extraordinary if eyas, from ey, and 
niais, from nid, had been separately 
formed in the two languages. Be- 
sides, many of our terms in falconry 
come from the French. It may be 
observed, too, that ey means an egg, 
not a nest. 
tNIBLES. The nipples. 

The heades or extnberancies whence the miike is 
sucked out, are called niblrt. 

Lomatiut om Pomting, 1598. 

NICE, in one passage of Shakespeare, 
seems to signify foolish, trifling. It 
certainly had that meaning in Chau- 
cer*s time, and was supposed to be 
formed from the French niais. See 
Tyrwhitt's Glossary. Also in Gower. 

By mr brotherhood I 
The letter was not niee^ but full of charge 
Of deur import ; nnd the neglecting it 
M ly do much danger. Romeo /- Jul., r, 2. 

Probably it meant the same in this 
passage also : 

Old fNShions plense me best ; I am not so nice 
To change true rules for odd iiiveiitiuiis. 

Tarn. Skr, iii, 1. 

This removes all difficulty from the 
passage, which has puzzled several 
NICHOLAS, SAINT. The patron of 
scholars, being a learned bishop, but 
mote particularly of school-boys, as 
he was remarkable for very early 
piety. So Chaucer : 

But ay, whan I remeinbre on this matere, 
Seint Nicholas stant ever in my presence, 
For he so vong to Cnst did reverence. 

Priorette't Tale, Stan. S. 

On his da;, the 6th of December, in 
some cathedrals, a boy-bishop was 
chosen, who continued in office till 
Innocent.s* day, the 28th of the same 
month. J. Gregory gives this account 
of it in his tract entitled Episcopus 
Piierorum : 

Tilt' rpiseopnt Ckorittantm was a chorister bishop 
clmscii by liis fellow children upon 5. Nlckolat daie. 
1J|ion tins ilaie rather than anie other, because it is 
ii'ii<;iil:iriy noUrd of tliis bishop, (as S. PhuI said of his 
Tcnothie) that hee had known the scriptures of n 
c-liild«*, and led a life taHctiuimi ab ipsit iHcunabHlis 
inchoataM.—Ymm this dale till Innocents* daie at 
ni>.;lit (it lasted longer at the first) the epitcopnt 
pnerorum was to bear the name, and hold np the slate 
of a bishop, answerably habited with a crosier or 
imstorHl-stiiff in his hand, and a tnitrr upon his head, 
and such nn one too soon liad as was muttit epitco- 
porum tnitrit tumtitotior (saitli one), ferie mucii 
richer than those of bisho\^ vadetd. 




The reit of hit fellovt. from the ume time bein^, 
were to tejce upon them the ttvle and couiiterfait 
of prebends, yielding to their bishop (or els a« if it 
were) no lese t kan canonical obedience. 
Ar.dlook what service the verie bishop himself with 
iiTs dean and prebends (had they been to offlciate) 
w :>» to hare performeiL the maas excepted, the Tehe 
same was don bv the chorister bishop and his canons 
nnoa the ctm ana kolUdme. 

/. Gregorii Optac, 1660, p. 118. 

Strype gives a more particular reason 
whv St, Nicholas was celebrated by 
children : 

The memory of this saint and bishop iVi«o2a« was thus 
solemnized by a child, the better to remember the 
holy man, even when he was a child, and his child- 
like vertnes when be became a man. The popish 
festival tells us, that, while he lay in his cradle, 
ke fuUd Weduudajfs and FHdays, iueking kut once 
a tny on tkoae day*. And his meekness and sim- 
plid^. Ihe proper vertnes of children, he maintained, 
fruninis childhood, as lone as he lived. And there- 
fore snith the festival, chilaren dom him wonltijitt before 
M othmr taints. Srvp^t MemoriaUt vol. iii, p. S06. 

See also Brady s Claris Calendaria, 
vol. ii, on Dec. 6. 
So Puttenham: 

Methinks this fellow speaks like bishop NiekcUu : for 
on taini NicMa^ night eommonly the scholars of 
the coantiy make them a bishop, who, like a foolish 
bo^', goeth about blessing and preaching, with such 
eliildish terms, as niaketh the people laugh at his 
foolish counterfeit speeches. Art ofPoetrjf, p. 238. 

There is an article on this subject in 
Bourne's Popular Antiquities, edited 
by Brand, p. 362, 8vo. It was pro- 
bably observed in all cathedrals, as 
bishop Lyttelton conjectures in his 
mccount of Exeter (p. 11), and in 
most schools. In Heame, Liber Niger, 
he is called the bame-bishop, t. e,, 

But a very different person was also 
jocularly called St. Nicholas, now 
converted into Old Nick ; the same 
person whom sir J. Harington has 
called saunte Satan, in his intro- 
duction to the Blacksaunt. 
The real saint, the patron of scholars, 
is principally alluded to in the fol- 
lowing passage ; though, perhaps, 
with a sly reference also to tlie false 

8. Come, fool, come try me in this paper. 
L. There, mud SL NickoUu be thy speed. 

Two Oent. Ver., iii, 1. 

But it was clearly the latter who gave 
a name to St, Nicholas clerks, when 
used to signify thieves, highwaymen, 
and the like. Tanner, in a letter to 
T. Heame, has supposed that title to 
be derived to them from the unlucky 
pranks of the young clerks attending 
on the boy- bishop. Letters from the 

BodL, vol. i, p. 302. Bat their 
ish tricks were little applies 
the practices of villains of the 
description, whose patron migl 
perly be saint Satan. 

6. Surah, if they meet not with mm/ / 
eUrkt, I'll give thee thU neck. C. No. I'l 
it : I pr}iliee keep that far the hangman ; fo 
thou worship'st Mtuni NicMat as tmlyas 
falsehood may. 1 Utn. 

I think yonder come prancing down the h 
Kingston a couple of hnr tother eoza 
NiekoUsTs clerks. Match mi Midn., O. PI. 

Ben Jonson compliments N. I 
avel with this title : 

He that is cruel to halves (said the said St. . 
[i. e. Machiavcl, who had been mentioned 
loseth no less the opportunity of his craeftt; 
his benefits. Discoweries, p. ! 

Butler pretends that the devi 
called Nick from Machiavel : 

Nick Machiavel had no such triek. 
Though he gave name to our Old Niek. 


This has been supposed to be an 
of Butler* s, the name of Niek f( 
devil being much older than 1 
avel ; but it is clearly a mere aai 
If it be asked how the old gent 
did obtain that name, we 
answer, from the northern lang 
Islandic, Swedish, or Dutch ; 
Nicka, Nickefi, and Nicker, ha^ 
sense. Dr. Grey makes it 
also ; but that seems to be n mi 
unless Lye's Saion Dictionary 
fective. ** Old Nicka,** says i 
Temple, " was a sprite that ca 
strangle people who fell int 
water;" that is, among the 
nations. Sir W. Temple, on P 
vol. iii, p. 431. " De hoc Nice 
Nicken, ut et aliis septentrioi 
idolis, compendio disserit Jo. 
hovius, in prsefatione ad vitaa 
torum," says Olaus Wormius, 
Dan., I, c. 4. There is do < 
therefore, that Nick was a Yei 
name for the devil ; and the j 
making him a saint, must have 
after the Reformation, in p 
ridicule of the popish saint. 
fNlCK. A deceptive bottom in f 
can, bv which the customers 
cheated, the nick below and th< 
above filling up part of the nic 

We must be tapsters running up and downe 
With Cannes of beere (mnlt sod m tislies bro 
And those tliey say are til'd with uick and ft 

Botclauds, Kuawe of aa 




a BOMckittiwi IwwtMt. a titter of out, knowing 
koBcttj to be no policy in her «-aj of life, nrtolved 
t» Inre off Inwiiiett tome little time before her 
Aeath, in oriar t* prepune tor ber patttge over 
Mwl^ Moor. But wMn the purpotet lo depart thit 
life u t» vt a tecrel, tU we khow of the matter it, 
that the ttfll Cf tianet Um niek auJ/rvtA trade tt 
«MuL Poor Babim, 1741. 

fNICK. In the niek, at the right mo- 

And wo where Nerea comet jntt m Ikt niek. 


-fTo NICK. To hit exactly. From the 
preceding phrase. 

He intreitM nim to be ready very early at the door 
befiiire the wanon wat to go ont of town. This 
dreatt tnily dStnrb'd bin it teemt verj niuch, and 
" t nt «p fcfj early ; he uicted tne time, and 

widi flia wanoder jntt at the very door, aud 
itbtbadi " 

duAnfs Mltcellmmett p. 50. 
Sbe mcki it» yonl tay, exactly. 

Tk§Pfmu Prinee, 1690. 

To nickname. 

Bdicre bm, air, in a little time yon'U be me^d the 
tovu-UolL Pnmce§iofCUM,\tfi9. 

fNICKERS. Ditorderiy people and 
debauchees who, like tne Roaring 
BovA, intuited passengers and at- 
tacked the watch. London was for- 
merly infested with these desperados. 
They amused themselves especially 
with breaking people's windows with 

fNICOTIAN. Tobacco. 

Tb tbcaa I may tttocitt and Joyn oar adulterat 
jrtm/iMor tobaeo, to called of the kn. tir Nicot, that 

ftrtt brongbt it over, which it the tpiritt incubua, 

" forawd pi 
the brain. Optitk €fUu$9 ^ Bmmort, 1639. 

that bojipela auny n|^ and defo 

Bhantaiiea in 

NIDDICOCK, tf. A noodle, a foolish 
person ; possibly quasi nettling cock, 
or the same as niding, which see, and 


Oh. Chrytootome thoa . . . dcter%e«t to be stak'd, at 
rail at bnricd in the open fteUt, for beinir tneh a 

(ooae^ vidgaoiW ■Ml niddecoek, U* d^e for lore. 

Gawtom'g Frtttpous Notes, y. v*.. 
Tk€9 wen never aadi ibad nidJieoekn at to offer 
an J Bum a rodde to beate their owiie tarlet. 

HttUiuh. Deter, ofjref., G 3. col. 1 n. 

Gayton has ouce made it nicUlecook, 
for the sake, as it seems, of applying 
it to a woman : 

Sbee wat jaat nich another middeeook at Joan 
Giitierei. Fest. Xotes, p. 37. 

NlDCiBRIES, a. Tnfles. Skinner 
and Coleg, But rather fooleries. See 


fool. Howeir§ Lexicon Tetraglotton, 
&c. Camden seems to interpret it a 
coward : 

It [that it, tlie ok! word nidiHo] si|{iii|{cili, as it 
aerweth, no more then nbjrct, liiite-nuuded, false- 
hearted, coward, ur uidget. Camd Memaint, p. 31. 

This deriTation would never have 

been adopted, but on the authority of 
so great a man as Camden ; since it 
is neitlier probable in itself, noi* does 
it give the real sense of the word. 
He is doubtless ris^ht, as to the sense 
of Hiding ; but nidget has no relation 
to it. It id formed, probably, from 
ideot, currently pronounced idgeot; 
and a nidget, or nigeot, is no more 
than an ideot, carelessly spoken ; and 
that is its exact meaning : 

Fear him not, niittrett, 'tit a gentle ui^pet, yoa mj 
pbtv with hiiu. CkaHgeling, Anc. Dr., iv, 367. 

NIDING, 8. A coward, a base wretch ; 
nithing, Saxon, from at'M, rileness. 
Camden says of this word, that it 
has had more force than abracadabra^ 
or any word of magical use, having 
levied armies and subdued rebellious 
enemies : ^ 

For when there wat a dangeroat rebellion agaiatt kinf 
William Rufot ... he proclaimed that all labjectt 
ahould repure to hit canipc, upon no other penidty, 
but that whoc\-rr refuted tu coiue ihould be reputed a 
uidinff ; they swarmed to him inunediately from all 
tidet, in tuch nuatbert, that he had in few dayt an 
infinite armie, and the rebells therewith were to 
terrilicd that forthwith they yeclded. Bemaitu, p. 31. 

The other example I must borrow 
from Mr. Todd. 

Ue is worthy to be called a uiJiM^ the pabe of 
whote soul beats but faintly towanu heaven,— who 
will not run and reach his hand to bear up his 
temple. Howell om For. Tr—eU, p. 2:39. 

NIECE, if the following passage be 
correct, means there, a relation in 
general. It has been shown, that 
nephew sometimes meant a grandson, 
or more remote descendant. See 

Myself was from Verona banished, 
Fttr practising to steal away a Udy, 
An heir, aud nircr, ally'd onto the duke. 

Two (tewt Fer iv 1. 

NIFLE. 8, A trifle. Used byChaii- 
cer, Cant. T., 7342, but not disused 
after his time. From a Norman word 
A^///e. See Kelham's Norman Diet., 
and that perhaps from nifio, a drop 
hanging at the nose. Diet, du Viewt 
Langage, vol. ii. We find in a pro* 
verb, given in Withals' Dictionary, 
1616, 12mo, 

Munus letldense, as good as nijies in a bag. ?. 536. 

Coles has, <'A nijle, titivilitium.*' 
Lat, Diet, See also Howell's Lex. 

Here the guga-girles iringle it with his neat nijies. 

Clitus's Cater-Chmr^ 16S1. p. 19k 
The sul](iect of it wat not forr to seeke, 
line wittt worke mickle matter out of nifies. 

Misc. Ant. Aitgl. in Xs. Prince , p. 4fk 




NIFLING, a. Trifling; from the 

For a poor nijling toy, that's worse than notliing. 

Lady JUmtmy,%Zy. 

A niffling fellow is sometimes said 
even now, in contempt, and means 
probably the same. The expression 
is cnrreiit in Devonshire. Niffy- 
naffy may have a similar origin. 
tNIGARDKSE. Greediness ; avarice. 

And hence it appeared plninely, tliat this was done 
npoB fraudulent malice rather thnn nifjardize. 

Jmmiantu MarctUintu, 1609. 

tNIGGISH. Stingy; mean. 

A most nigg\$h and miserable man. 

Coplev*s tnu, Fits, and Faueiei, 1614, p. 130. 
Asclepiad, that gredie carle, 

By fortune founde a mouse. 
As he about his lod^tyn^ lookt 
Within his uigqishe house. 

KeudalVs Jnoveri of Epigrammfs, 1577. 
And yet knowing them to be suclie nigetke penny* 
fathers, that they be sure as long as they lire, not the 
worthe of one farthinge of that heape of gold shall 
oonie to them. More* Utopia^ 1551. 

HIGGLE, V. fo trifle, or play with. 

Take heed, dau|^hter, 
Ton niggle not with your conscience and religion. 

Mau. Bmp. of the iMt, v, 3. 

Also to squeeze out, or bring out 
slily : 

I had but one poor penny, and that I wns obliged to 
niggle out, and buy a holly wand, tograce him through 
the streets. Honest Wk., 0. PI., iU, 422. 

tNIGHTERTAILE. Night-time. Saxon. 

4. And that yee do provide, that at all times con- 
venient covenable watch be kept, and that tlie 
lanthomes with light by n'takterlatle in old manner 
accustomed be hanged forth, and that no man go by 
nightertaile without light, nor with visard, on the 
peril that belongeth thereto. 

Caltkrop*s Reports, 1670. 

MIGHT-MARE, s. The fanciful name 
for that oppression which is some- 
times felt in disturbed sleep ; sup- 
posed to be a demon, or incubus. 
For the derivation, see Todd. Drayton 
has poetically made queen Mab her- 
self the agent in it : 

And Mab, his merry qneeu, by iii|lit. 
Bestrides young folks tliat lie upngiit, 
(In older times the mare that lught) 
Which plagues them out of measure. 

ygmphidia, p. 453. 

ISee Mare. 

In one of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
plays we have a spell against the 
night-mare^ which seems to be con- 
nected with the lines quoted from 
K. Lear : 

Have at vou with a night-spell then 1 

St. George, St. George, our lady's knight. 
He walks by day, he walks by ni^tj 
And when ue had her found. 
He her beat and her bound, 
Untill to him her troth she plight. 
She would not stir from him that niitht. 

Mom, Thomas, ir, 0. 

The same is cited, with a few Tarn- 
tions, in R. Scott's Diacovery of 
Witchcraft, p. 48, ed. 1665. 
NIGHT-RAIL, «. A sort of loose robe, 
or pendent vest, thrown over the 
other dress ; still in use in the time 
of the Spectator. Kersey explains it 
as a sort of gorget, or whisk, bat 
erroneously. They were sometimes 
very costly. Among the extravagances 
of fine ladies are mentioned. 

Sickness feign'd, 
Tltat your night-rails of forty pounds a-pieee. 
Might be seen with envy of the visitants. 

Mass. dig Mmi^ir,^. 

Addison mentions a night-rail in bis 
treatise on medals. 

iLon Upon her toilet lav Uie overplus of her oom* 
plexion. in the frint of three red flngers vpaa the 
comer of a caUico nightrail. 

Cither, Woman's Wit, 1C97. 
-I-Here every night they sit three hours for sale, 
With dirty night-rail, and a dirtier tayl. 

Gould's Poems, 1689. p. 181 
iQ. Wlirtt's the necessary stock of our profession f 
ji. A taiter'd nightrail, a red ttip-knol, and a pair of 
French ruffles, hut one sm<ick, and a clean one, errry 
day ; :i quHi-tern of '.'ruiinds. n |uiper of piitchra, a 
pot ol Tovver-hill, and ii penny «iii-tli of sriK-haueel. 

The TovH Misars Catechism,, 17ttt. 
-i-And to make short uf this long story, 
I'll let you see the inventory. 
Two night-rails, and a turbeluw. 

To tempt you to the thing you know; 

)f silk, whicli very 
A pair of stays instt-nd of IkhIics 

A gown of silk, whicii very odd is. 

The London Ladies Dressiyg Room, KOi. 

NIGHT-RULE, *. Niglit-revel, or ratht-r 
niglit-work. Mr. Steevens and Mr. 
Douce agree in thinking rule in tbit 
and misrule, a corruption of revel ; 
hut misrule clearly does not mean 
mis-revel, hut misgovern ment, or mis- 
conduct ; exemption from all common 
rule and order. Night-rtile therefore 
may, I think, hetter he interpreted, 
such conduct as generally rules in the 

How now, mad spirit ! 
Wliat night-ntle now about this haunted grove? 

Mids. N. Ur., iii, 1 

fNIGITING. To go a nigiting, i. e., to 
go to fetch mid wives, nurses, and 
gossips. See a tract called Low Life, 
1764. p. 21). 

To NILL. Not to will, to he averi^e 
to. This remnaut of the still older 
language remains only at present (if 
it can be said to remain) in the phrase 
"will hent7/he ;'* mid in Shakespeare 
it occurs no otherwise, in Chaucer *8 
time there was nis for is not, nould 
for would not, &c. 




1 JIM, mil yon, I win marry you. 

Tarn. Skr., u. 1. 
, miU he, he goes. Hand., v, 1. 

thers have it iii a more general 

1 taste in von the same Affections 
or niU, to think things good or bad. 

Catiline, i, 3. 
with Man and wife, to will and niU, 
r same things, a note of concord be. 

Ibid., Bpiffr., 987. 
aine delights are wondrous to behold, 
t, that nature nils, nor nature sowes, 
ke in hand on science far too bold. 

Mirr.fur Magistr., p. 56. 
the regent hence dispatcht in many daies. 

Ibid., p. 487. 

•nilly is sometimes said, or even 

D, for the other. 

ive also nilt for wilt not :' 

Est thoa to work me grief and harm P 
U thou speak, why not thr face disarm F 

Fairf. Ttuao, xriii, 81. 
Pentheus her sonne to slay could bee content, 
i hee mlde to Bacchanalia assent? 

Miromrfor Moffistraies, 1687. 
ikes a thin^, mlling his lord, '• a thief ; 
at ifs lordess in that act be diief ? 

Owen's Epignmi, 1677. 
othem gii, none from thcni come again ; 
Ml// ask them, lest 1 ask in vain. Ibid. 

[, tor to Steal, is pure Sazou ; 
, to take, though Dr. Johnson 
to the Dutch for it. To nim 
le afterwards a familiar term for 
fer. Hence Shakespeare called 
f his rogues Nym, 
OLD. By some corruption or 
e, apparently put for nine-foals^ 
ir, iii, 4. The first and ^ecoud 
igree in the reading. 

hold (Vitalis) footed thrice the uold. 
: the night-mare and her ninefold. 

ines are proliably n fragment of 

old ballad, and therefore likely 

;h to he corrupt. The folio 

"Swithin footed thrice the 

Dr. Farmer, therefore, pro- 

to read oles and foles : oles 

provincial for wolds, Mr. 

le says it means nine familiars. 

lOLES, s, A rural game, played 

iking niue holes in the ground, 

e angles and sides of a square, 

)lacing stones and other things 

them, according to certain 

; at ooytes, or nine-hclet, or shooting at buttes. 
New CuMtome, O. PI., i, 256. 

rh' unhappy ws^ which let their cattle stray, 
^•kdUe on the heath while they toxeiher play. 
I>rayt. Folyolb, xiv, p. WO. 

K> our hooks and scrips, and we to nine-kolet 
L Ibid., Muses' Elys., ^\. 

Ra«pe pinyes at nine-koles, nnd 'tis known he gets 
M«iny u tester by his jmme, vnd bets. Uerriek, p. 178 

only another name for the sante sport. 
The plan of the game is particularly 
described and illustrated by a wood- 
cut in the variorum notes on the: 
following line of Shakespeare : 

The nine-men's morris is fiU'd up with mud. 

Mids. N. Dr., ii, % 

I am inclined to think that the 
simpler form here represented, which. 



. I have also seen cut on small boards)^ 
is more like the rural game ia 
NINE-WORTHINESS,*. Having worth 
equal to that of the celebrated nine. 
See Worthies-nine. From the fame 
of these personages, Butler formed thia 
curious title ; meaning, I presume, 
that his hero was equal in valour to 
any or all of those nine. Ralpho thus, 
addresses him : 

The foe, for dread 
Of your nine-worthiness, is fled. 


NINEVEH. A motion, or puppet-show, 
which 6eems to have been more famous 
than any other, being mentioned by 
almost all the authors of Ben Jonson'a 
time. It included the history of Jonas 
and the whale. 

They say there is a new motion of the diw of Ni$uvek^ 
with Jouas and the whale, to be seen at fleet-bridge. 

Every Man out qfhis H,, ii, 8« 

Several others are enumerated with 
this in his Barth. Fair: 

O the motions that I, Lanthoni Leatherhead, hare 

fiven Ught to. i' my time, since my master Pod died \ 
eruwUem was a stately thing, and so was Ninive, and 
the city of Non« icli, and Sodom and Gomorrah ; with 
the rising ot the prentices, and puliinK down the 
iMwdvhouses there upon Shrove Tuesday ; but thft 
Gunpowder-plot, there was a get-penny I I hNve- 
presented that to an eighteen or twenty-pennv 
iiudience nine times in an afternoon. Act v, sc. 1. 

C. Nay by Tour leare Nel, Ninitie was better. W^ 
Mnieie, O tnat was the story of Jon and the walb 
[Jonas and the whale], was it not GeprgeP 

B.mndFl. Knight ^ B. P.. iii, U 

Again, Wit at several Weapons, act i. 
Visus, I wonder UmH aiuAni^V i2^ ^crat ^\wX»«^<s^ 




•resented oe not with Plato's ideas, or the si^lit of • 
Ninrrek, Babylon, London, or winie Siurbri«lj:c-tHir 
monsters. ' Lingua^ O. PI., v, Ibti. 

NINGLE, i.e., an ingle, or mine ingle, 
used originally in a very bad Rense, 
but afterwards more commonly in 
the mere signification of a favorite. 
We have both forms of the word in 
the speeches of the same wise person- 
age (Asinius) in Decker's Satiro- 
niastix : 

ITonire, Horace, mj sweet ningU is always in labour 
when I come ; the nine Musr* he his midwiTes. 

Orip. u, Dittma, vol, iii, p. 103 
I nerer saw mne iiwle so daslu-d in my life before. 

Ibid., p. 116. 

And passim. 

When his parse pngles, 
(UNirinje boys follow ut 's tail, fencers, and ningUs. 

Roaring Girl. 0. PI., vi, 70 

See aleo Lady AliinoMv, C 2 b. 
tNlNNY BROTH. A'poptilar name 
for coffee. 

How to make coffee, alias wnng-hrotk .- . iiem* inven- 
tion of biittfrin); tunieps: to ninke a loa: of bread to 
dance about the iHble, iutei mixed with profit Mnd 
delif^ht. Poor Robin, 1696. 

'•^'htch makes some saints low-tcnclicrs chose 
N<*t for their doctrine, but their neus. 
But when they're in a fit of zexl. 
Their wounded consciences thev hral 
W^h nimnjf'broth, o'er m hicli tfi< y seek 
Soon new rdigion ev'ry meik. 

HuiiibMs Ufdirivut, Part I. 1708. 

NIP, s. A satirical hir, n taunt. 

Will, didst thou lieare these Indies so talk of mec, 
Whut ayleth tiicni ? from their uipprs shall 1 never be 
free? Damun S- Pith., O. PI., i. 18:2. 

Eiiphues, though he perceived her coie nip, seemed 
not to care for it, but taking licr bv the hand, said. 

Euoh., D 3 b. 
JWhcrwith, thought the flie, I have geven liini a wvp. 

Heywood^M Spider and Flie, loaC. 

2. A thief> or pick-pocket ; a cant 

They allot such countries to this band of foists, such 
townea to those, and such a city to so nuiny nipt. 

Decker^ Belm., sig. II S. 
One of them is a nip, I took him in the two-penny 
nilrry at the Fortune. Roarimg 0., 0. PL. vi, 118. 
Of cheaters, lifters, nipt, foists, pnggards, cnrbers. 
With all the devil's black guard. Ibid., 115. 

PinqNt, n^, and tints, prinados, highway standers. 
All which were my familiars. Honest Ghost, p. 231. 

To NIP, r. To taunt, or satirise. 

There were some, which on the other side, with 
epigrams and rymes, nipping and qnipping their 
fsnowet. Stowe's Hist. Loud., Mo, 1599, p. 55. 

fTo NIP. To vex. 

These cogitations did so nifps Iivm, that he could not 
S4I well dissemble his greei. Rieke's FamteU, ISS] 
Juliua, somethyng nipjpsd with these speeches. Ibid. 

fTo NIP. In cant language, to steal. 

Take him thus, and be is in the inquisition of the 
purse an authentick (typsie, that nips yomr bung « iih 
a canting ordinance ; not a murthered fortune' in all 
the coontiy, hut bleeds at the touch of this malefactor. 

CleteUnd's Works. 

fNIPPERKIN. A small measure. 

B7 tlMt time w bad tip'd off enr uipperkin of my 
frenniuu aqva mirabiUa, our airy taMljt grew so irer>- 

uipjiittilMM in this tonne, which is commonly CNlkd 

huffcHp. Ufa. 

My fiither oft will tell me of a drink 

Ufp. FulwelPs Art o/Ftatterf, H 1 

In En;elnnd found, and nipitato call'd, 
Which dnveth ulltlie sorrow from your hearts. 
R. liiidy, 'tis true, you need not lay yoor lips 
To better nipitato than there is. ^ 

B. 4- Ft. Knight of B. P., iv, 1. 
Hien when this nippitatum, this huffe cappe. as they 
call it, this nectar of life, is set abroach, weU is betli^ 
can get the soonest to it, and spend the most npoa it. 

Stubba's Jnmt o/Jbua. 

Describing church-ales. 
NIS, V. Is not ; formed of the negative 
particle and is: as nill, nould, &c. 
A Chaucerian word, retained by 
Spenser, in his Eclogues: 

Leave mee tliosc hills whereuarbroii^ «w to see. 
Nor holy bush, nor brere, nor windinpr ditch. 

Hkep. Xmi.,JmMe,v.l%. 

Also Sidney : 

Fur nothing ciin indurc w here order mis. 

Fsmkr. Art., p. VHb. 

tNISEY, or NIZEY. A simpleton. 

To crown the show, we 'ad tumbling, ^vaiiltin;;. 
Miniick'd by Merry Andrew haulting; 
And many other quaint devices. 
To win iipiduusc from gaping uisevs. 

Ilndibras Rsditirns, ITttl. 

And thus the females of all sif** 

Go in tlie devils new disguises, 

All to delude fools, fops, and nitet. 

Tke London Udirs Dretsii^ Room, IfH. 
80 our zealots « ho put on most sanctify'd pliytn% 
That their looks may deceive the more crrdubMi 

uizies. Tke GsMeper, 1710, f. L 

NITER. Seems to mean a smart pe^ 
son, but wants further ezemplinci- 

mercurial they no longer could etatabi tbdr fetgnl 
modesiy. LomU* Spy, IM. 

NIPPITATE, *. and a. A sort of 
iocular epithet, or title, applied in 
commendation, chiefly to ale; but 
also to other strong liquor*. It seems 
always to imply, that the liquor is 
peculiarly strong and good. Tiie 
derivation of so whimsical a word, it 
is perhaps idle to inquire ; but as it 
is most frequently joined with ale, I 
cannot help surmising that it U in 
some way connected with neippy, 
qunsi nippy-nappy. 

Well fnre EngUnd, where the poore may liaTe a pot 
of ale for a penny, fresh ide. firme ale, nappie ale, 
nippitate ale Wemh-si goes to U'., K 2. 

Twill make a « up of wine taste nippiUUe. 

Ckapmon's Alphonsns, F 1. 
He was heere to-diiy, sir, and lil'd two bottles of 
nippitate wick. Look about yon^ K b. 

And ever quited himself with such cstimatiDn. w ytt 
too tnst of a cup of nippitati, bis Judgement wid'bs ^ 
tiiken alwve the best in the parisb, be his nose oetf 
f o read Lsuiskitm's Ltlter. 

liquor; a mock Latin wortl, formed 
from the preceding. 

We shall find some shift or other to quench tke 
scorrhin); licit of our parched thrutes, with the bert 




tion ; possibly from niitie, quasi 
shiner: See Nittik. 

He that was admired by miter* for hit robes of fcalUiH 
tnr. XcfkmsUiikis Pemrl, O. PI., ri, S8i. 

fNITID. Brilliaut. Lat. This word 

occurs in Reeve's Plea for Nineveh, 

MT VIE seems to be used for splendid, 

shining, as if from nitidus, ImUu ; 

but it also means filthy, from a nit. 

O dapper, rarCt eonplete, sweet, nitlie vonth. 

Marst<m*» Saiirrs, Sat .Sd. 
Next night therefiare these uittie linxlim inte iid with 
stroos band to breake his kImm viiulous. 

aUw's WkiMurt, 1031, |t. 134. 

NO. Ironically used, to signify the 
contrary to what seems to be asserted. 

This is no cmiBiiig qneen t 'slight, she wiU make him 
To think that, like a stag, he has cast his hf»rns, 
And is grown young agmn. Mtut. liutuim., i, 3. 

See Mr. Gififord's note on the passage, 
and the article Here's no, above. 
fNOCBNT. Injurious. Lat. 

We will examine wisely what the foe sent, 
And whether he be innocent or noemt. 

Taylor's Worke$, 1(W). 

NOCK, s, A notch; most commonly 
applied to the notch of an arrow, 
where it rests upon the string; or 
those of the bow, where the string is 
fastened. See Minahew. Hence a 
Law Latin Dictionary, dated 1701, 
has, " the nock, in horn, of a bow, or 
arrow, crena, se. f." Nick is only a 
corruption of it. 

He took hit arrow by the nocki^ and to his bended 

Tha axy sinew cloae he draw, even till tbe pile did 

Upon the boaone of the bowe. 

Ckapm. Horn. II., p. 53. 
Thit mocks of the shaft is diTerscly made, for souie be 
great and fUl, tone handsome aitd litUe. 

Jsek. Tompk., p. 167. 
Be sore alwayes that yoor stringe slip not out of the 
Mcls; for thai all is fai jeopardy of breakinge. 

IHd., p. 801. 
iOf the sbepe is caste awaye nothytigr. 
His iMrne for aocfav, to hafles go ais bone. 

J kgtdl Tremtjfse ^tke Horse^ /-c, n. d. 

2. Also a man's posteriors, from being 
cleft : 

Bat when the date of moek was oat, 
Offdn^thaqfaipathetksaont. /irKiift.,I,i, LlSfi. 

To NOCK» V. To place the notch of 
the arrow upon the nthng. 

Then tMk he np his bow 
And wodft Ua shaft. Chop. Horn. 11., p. 63. 

And the wild IMar does no daager feare, 
Uia arn»« m»eH, and athagdmwn to his eare. 

Hryw. Pteas. Disl., p. 280. 
God is aU-cnfferanee here ; here he doth show 
Ha arrow mockt, only a itringlesse bow. 

Hsrnck's Soble Numk., n. Sa. 

**Naete jmut arrow," is a wora of 

coiiiniand, in Gro«e*s Military Antiq., 
II, 27d. 

2. To form with a notch: applied 
also to the notch in the bow which 
receives the string at each end : 

Moreover, you must looke that your bowe be well 
Mocked, for fenre the sUarpiiessf of the home shere 
asuudcr the siring. AscA. Taropk., p. U1. 

NOCKANDRO, *. The posterior part 
of man ; probably a bnrlesque compo- 
sition of nock, a notch, and the On ek 
ntbpos, of a man. 

Uh'ftt We Dulcinca, whose favour 1 1>oseechiii<;. 
Kcscned poor Andrew, and his Hoek-tmdro from breech* 
ing. Gdf/tuH's t'ett. Aol'S, p. II. 

XI V foul nockandrow all bemerdcd. 

Bmhelais, by OzeU, toI. i, p. 194. 

See Nock. 
fNODDIPOL. A fool. 

Fit tnmirin nrHsi st6l'tdH$. I now yet scarse perceive 
it, f(K>le that 1 tini : 1 now at len};th']ly unoerstand 
with much Hdoe, whorson noJiftol ihiit 1 am. 

Tfrruce i'm Kuglisk, 1614. 

tNODDLE. Tlie nape of the neck. 

After tluit fasten cupping uhisses to the noddle of the 
necke. Barrvw/h's MrtktjJ of Pkytick, 1634. 

NODDY, s. A fool ; because, says 
Minshew, he nods when he should 

S. She did nod, and I said, I. 

P. And tliHt ftft tnyfther is noddy. 

S. Now yuii haive taken the pains to set it together, 

take it for your pains. Tko Gmt. r., i, 1. 

£re vou ronie hither, poore 1 was somebody. 

The king delighted in me, now 1 am a uoduy. 

Dam. .y Pilk., O. Pi, i. 174. 
As we find of Irus the he^er, and Thersitc-s the 
glorious moddie, whom Homer iimkes mention of. 

PHllenhaut, B, i, ch. 20. 

2. A game on the cards. Mr. Heed 
conjectured that it was the game now 
called cribbage ; but merely from the 
knave being called knave noddy, 
which it is also at One-and-thirty, 
and other familiar games. In a play 
of Middleton*s, Christmas, speaking 
of the sports of that time as his 
children, says, 

I leave them wholly to my chlest so i Noddy, whom, 
during his minority, 1 etimmit to the cnstody of a 
pair m knaves and one and thirty. 

Tmner Temple Mask. 

Mow pairs, and one and thirty, belong 
to the game of one and thirty, as well 
as to cribbage ; but in a passage 
qnoted from Shirley, it seems as if 
fifteen wns the game nt noddy : 

He 18 npou tht* nmtter then fifteen, 

A game, ai middy. Hide Park, 

It was, therefore, more like quinze, 
which has fifteen the game, in other 
respects the same as one and thirty- 

Master FJraBkibrd, yom pli^ heat at ^riodd;). 




Here the speaker means to pun on 
the word. 

In another place it seems as if twenty- 
one wa» the game; bringing it to 
vingt'Un, All, however, are the same, 
except in the number which wins the 

A young heire it a gamester at noddy, otu and twenty 
makes him out ; if he hare a flush in his hand, expect 
him shortly to shew it, without hidmic his cards. 

W. SallonttaIVs Pictunt, Char. 9. 

It is probable, therefore, that it was 
played all the three ways, as 15, 21, 
and 31, at the choice of the players. 
It is not noticed in that learned work, 
the Complete Gamester. Noddy* 
boards are mentioned by Gaytou, 
Fest. Notes, p. 340 ; but tbey could 
not belong to this game, which re- 
quired no particular board. 

f To descend lower to more familiar examples, I have 
knowne a great man very expert on the Jewc-harpe ; 
n rich heire excellent at noddy, a justice of the peace 
skiifuU at Quoytes. Taylor's Worket, ItSO. 

tUe trains \>y the book, snd reckons so many postures 
of the pike and musket as if he were counting at 
noddy. (herbury't Ckaractm. 

tSoroe folks at cards and dice do sit. 
To lose their money, and their wit. 
And when the game at cards is psst. 
Then fall to noddy at the hist. Poor Robin, 17SS. 

NODGECOCK,«. Simpleton. O^ noddy 
and cock. 

This poore nodgeeoek conitviixif, the time with sweete 
aud^rasauut woordeswith liisdHrelinK Simphorosia. 

Pa'tMter, Pal. Pletu., i, E e 6. 

NODOCK, s. In the only passage 
where I have found it, appears to 
mean the back of the head. It is 
thus employed, speaking of the va- 
rious fashions for the hair : 

All entire grove of hnire the skull did shade ; 
^ow the iionh siile aluiie's depriv'd of liuire. 
And now the south side iippenrcs only \mre ; 
Kow the rast pairts the fnmt of time present. 
Whilst the blind tutdofk wants its orniinient; 
Why now the lore-piiri's liald, 8cc. 

Bultcer, Fertes jtref. to Man Trans/., p. 1. 

By the east parts, he evidently means 
the front of the head, which in this 
instance, he says is bushy, like the 
front of Time, according to the old 

Fronte capillata. at post est occasio cnlva. 

While the contrary part, the nodock, 
either the hack or the west, is unorna- 
men ted. Nodock, possibly, means 
no-dock f i. e., having no tail. 
NOIE, V. To hurt, or annoy. 

His cat, his rat, his blood-hound had not wn^ 
Soch liegemen true, as after they d> stroved. 

Mirr./or Mag., 458. 

fTo NOINT. To anoint. Is a word 

of not nnfrequent occurrence. It it 
thus used by Chapman, Odyss., iv. 
NOISE, «. A set, or company of muta- 

And see if thou canst find Sueak's iumw; mistitM 
Tear-sheet would fain hear some mwie. 

2 Sen. IT, n. 4. 

Heywood has alluded to this very 
pas^ase : 

We shall have him in one of Sneak's mow^— vit^ 
will vou have any music, gentlemen ? Jrm Ays. 

The king has his noUse of gypsies, at well as of heir- 
wards, and other minstrels. 

B. Jons. Mnsf. pfGyps.^ tI, IQB. 
HaTe you prepared good music? 
G. As fine a noiss, uncle, as heart can wish. 

Press all MouiM 
Of Finsbnxy in our name. B. Jmu. 2W« of T^ i,l 
What's your fellow's, whose noyu are yoaf 
F. Ruben's noyw, and please > on. J&. m Qrnm, H 1 

It is abundantly exemplified by lir. 
Steevens, in his note on the passage 
of Shakespeare. Milton applied it to 
a heavenly concert. Ode on Solemn 
Music, 1. 18. 
But it was also applied to voices : 

On the south side was appoynted by the citie a Mfsr 
of singing diildren. 

Passage tffomr most dretd Soo., p. 8S ; NidisFs 
Progresses, toL i, sheet D 4b 

NOISED, part. Played, or accompanied 
with music. 

A ptteme ill played on, accompanied with a home 
Yoice, who seemed to ring roauger the muses, nd 
made them looke the way of the m-noysed song. 

Pemir. Are., p. 90S. 

NOLE, «., or NOULE. A head ; as in 
the compound ^'o&6emotf/, &c. 

Then came October tuU of meay glee, 

For yet his nomU whs totty of the must 

Which he was treading. S^ens, F. Q., VII, ni,8a 

I meane the bastard law-brood, which can n¥)Uifie 

All kinds of causes in their oaftie noUs. 

Mirr. M^.,f,4fft. 

NOLT, V, Know not; analogous to 
fitV/, and nould^ &c., prefixing tbe 
negative to the verb. Strictly it 
should be n^ote, which is contracted 
from ne wot, not know. But Fairfiu 
has written it nolt, at least it stands 
so in all the editions ; perhaps frooi 
some mistake as to its origin : 

But loe, (from whence I noU) a fiioloon eaae^ 
Armed with crooked biU and talona long. 

Imps, zfia,M. 

NOMENTACK. The name of a native 
Indian chief, who was brought over 
from Virginia, which country was 
first efiectually colonized in 1609; 
but had been attempted many years 

Tes sir, of Nomentaek, when he was here, and of tk 
prince of Moldavia, See. B. Jons. Epiemne, t, I. 

That play was first acted in 1609, to 




bably this American was then 

f., or NONES. Purpose, or 
occasion] ; of doubtful etymo- 
>ufficiently illustrated by Dr. 
. Used several times by Shake- 
nd still provincially current. 

et of backram for the nonee, to insconce 
tntwanl garments. 1 Hen, /F, i, 3. 

les written nones : 

of Mo&kes, devised for the Home*. 

Mirr. Mag., p. 615. 
igly contrived them for the nona, 
Dgs of excellent devise. 

Dray/. Moses, p. 157S. 
dog in Christendome, and it is the king of 
that sitteth openly in justice, thrice in the 
hath doores kept open for the »onee. 

Latimer, Sem., foL 110 b. 

A kind of rustic burden to 

; equivalent to het/ nonny 

f which it is only a variation. 

, and a bo, and a hey nonino. 

J$ you like it, v, S. 
u>$ of beastly ribauldry. 

Drayt. Eel., 3. edit. 1503. sign. C 8. 

of burden to some old love 
3 that in Shakespeare. Such 
ns: burdens are common to 
n most languages. 

all your sounds of woe 

mny, nonny. Much Ado ah. No., ii. S. 

lother fragment, sung by 


m bare-fae'd on the bier, 

tuty, :u>nny, hey nonny. Rami., iv. 5. 

e used by some writers to 
. mistress, or a love passion : 

mind to melt away and roonlder. 

\<mny, nonny. B. and Fl. Hum. Lieut., iv, S. 

rs from Florio's Dictionary, 
word had not always a de- 

JN, written also NUNCHION, 
tpast taken at noon, usually 
other meals. 

vnt folks, with curds and clouted creame, 
e and bmter cakes, and cutcs enow — 
of come were at their noonshtitu close. 

Brovme, Brit. Fast., P. 2, p. 9. 

1 is in Hudibras. See John- 

AD, *. The point or period 
; from stead, place ; as girdle- 


noonstead so far drove his teame. 

Browne, Br. Past., P. 2, p. 9. 
:h heav'n were able to affright, 
noonsted bring a double night. 

Drnyt. Mooncalf, p. 486. 
nigh'd the noonstead of the duy, 
hing heat the gadding herds do grieve. 

Ibid., 1574. 
. . . Noonested, or midday. Nomenclator. 

NOORY, or NOURIE, *. A boy, a 
stripling; conjectured to be from 
nourisson, French. 

And in her arms tlte naked noory strain'd, 
Whereat the boy begun to strive agood. 

Turberv. in Ellis' Spec., ii, p. 153 ; also in 
Ckalm. Poets, p. 599, a. 

NOPE, *. A bull-finch. **Rubicilla, 
a bull-finch, a hoop, and bull spink, 
a nope.** MerretVs Pinax, p. 176. 
One of many provincial names given 
to that bird. 

The red-sparrow, the nope, the red-breast, and the 
wren. Drayt., xiii, p. 916. 

To phibmel the next, the linet we prefer. 

Ana by that warbling bird the woodlark place we 

The red-sparrow, the nope, the red-breast, and the 

The yellow-pate. Ibid., Polyolb., xiii, p. 915. 

By the red-sparrow he probably meant 
what is now called the reed-sparrow. 
The yellow-pate is the yellow-hammer. 
NORG AN E . Norwegian . 

Most gracious Norgane peers. Alh, Engl., B. iii, p. 71- 

The king's and Norgane ladies ship was tossed to the 

coast. Ibid., p. 73. 

tions have certainly been entertained, 
at various times, for finding a north- 
east passage to India, round the 
northern extremity of Asia ; but the 
attempts so ably made by Frobisher 
and Davis, under queen Elizabeth, 
and the company set up under James, 
had all the north-ir^*^ passage for 
their object. In both the following 
examples, therefore, we should read 
only north passage. In the first it 
stands so in the quarto, and has been 
restored by Mr. Gifford ; in the se- 
cond the verse requires it, though 
printed north-east in both the folios. 
The common editions of both poets 
have the false reading. 

I will undertiikc 
To find the north-east passage to the Indies sooner. 

Mass. City Madam, ii, 3. 
That everlasting cassock, that has worn 
As many senants out, as the north-fast passage 
lias consum'd sailors. B. and Fl. Tamer Tamed, ii, S. 

•fNOSE. To put the nose out of joint, 
to supplant one in another's favour. 

Wlio. . . .was verie well assured that it could bee no 
other than his owne manne that had thrust his nose 
sofarre out ofjoynte. Riche's Farewell, 1581. 

Standing on tip toe, looking toward the door to behold 
a rivall, that he would put his nose out of Joint. 

Jrmin, Nest of Ninnies, 1608. 
And why so, I pray you. but that you love him better 
then me ? And feanng now least this wench which is 
brought over hither should put your nose out the joy nt, 
coniniing betweene home and you, aud «a Vv^^^ vxOcw 
a trimme fellow \i« u\te. Terence xtv EivgUs^A^^* 




To wipe any ones nose of anything, to 
rob or deprive him of it. 

J. WliHt liHst thou done ? 

6. I have viptd the old mens noaet of the money. 

Tertnee in English, 1614. 
But loe, nowe eonies forth tlie very destruclion of our 
■ubttance: whowAifcf onr notes of all iliat we thould 
have. Ihid. 

Siranee children, to ieip» her hu^ands owne childrms 
mae of their share in liifl goods. 

Ptusenger of Bsnvenmto, 1812. 

To wipe the nose, or to nose, was also 
used in the sense of to affront. 

Shee was soe note-wip't. slighted, and disdain'd. 
Under honour's rioak soe closely muffled. 
And in my rare prcgects soe shuffled. Reference lott. 
Dip. And I must tell you y'are an arrant cockscomb 
To tell me so. My daughter iio«'(/ by a slut? 

Randolph** JetJouM Lo9er$, 1646. 

To take pepper in the nose, to take 

A man is teisty. and anger wrinckles his nose, such a 
man takes pepper in the note. 

Optick Glaue of Humor*, 1639. 
Alas, M'hat take ye pepper in the note 
To see king Charles his colours wome in pose ? 

Rump Song*, 

NOSE OF WAX, prov, A proverbial 
phrase for anything very rautable and 
accommodating; chiefly applied to 
flexibility of faith. 

But vows with you being like 
To vnnr religion, a noteoftoax. 
To Itc turned every way. Mas*. Unn. Comb., v, 2. 

Ah t hi' judge is mAdc by friends, bribed or otherwise 
afri-i-tcd, ns a note ofvc'ax. Burton. Introd., p. 34. 

As I litre's no rite nor rustom that can show it, 
But I ran soon conform myself unto it. 
YfM of my faith a note of vox I make. 
Though all I doe seems done for ronscicnce sake. 

Uonett Ghoti, p. 2S5. 

It shonld he noticed, however, that 
the similitude was originally borrowed 
from the Roman Catholic writers, who 
applied it to the Holy Scriptures, on 
account of their being liable to various 
interpretations ; which was their 
argument for taking the use of them 
from the people. 

Sed tuhlnnt clinm simile quoddam non nptissimum : 
laa ' 8. Scriptur.18. snl.] j'sse quoddamraodo natum 
rerrt'in, posse fiup. llcctiquu lu omncs niodoe, et 
onin.utii iiiBlituto iiisenire. 

Juelli, Jpologia Keel. Jngl., ^ 6. 

NOSE-THRIL. s. The nostril; the 
original and etymological form of the 
word: from nose, and thirl, a per- 
foration, Saxon. It is so spelt in the 
first editions of Shakespeare. 

That flames of (ire he threw forth from his large note- 
thrill. Spr,u. F. Q., I, xi, 22. 

Secm'd to make them flye 
Out at her oyster mouth and uose-thnlt wide. 

Browne, Br. Patt., F. 2, p. 16. 
Will shine bright, and smell sweete in the note-thrillt 
of all young novices. Lyly't Euphuet, sign. L 1. 

NOT, negative adv. Used for not only. 

Given hostile strokes, and that not in the presence 

Of dreaded justice, but on the ministers 

Tbst do dJMtiibute it. Sh. CorioUm., iii. 3. 

So in the authorised version of the 
New Testament : 

He tberefor« that detpifeOi, detpiieth uoi mam M 
God. I Tketi,, ir,%. 

NO*T£, 0. Know not ; firom ne wot. 

Great be the erUs which ye bore 
From first to last in your late enterprise. 
That I no'te whether praise or pitty more. 

Such manner time ther was (what time i no'O 
When all this earth, this damme or mould of oaii» 
Was only won'd with such as beast besot. 

Pemt^. Arc., p. 4ML 
Whose fflittring site so ^imsed in mine cyea» 
As yet 1 no*te what proper hew it bare, 
Ne therewithal my wits caa wel detriae. 

Cfc. f jytossmt 

I am not certain that this is so in the 
original edition. 
tNOTHING. Used in several phrases. 
"Nothing hath no savour," Howell, 
1659, t. e,, there is no savour in 

Flash, when thou'rt drank, then in \\xy ova conceit 
Thou'art valUnt, wise, great, honest, lich, discreet 
Troth, Flash, be always drunk ! for well I know 
When you are sober, you are nothinq 90. 

Wittt Recrfl&tm, 16Si 
He did his message ; Jove bid him sit downe, 
At nothing moved with the dismal! sounde. 

The Neve Metamorphotit. 1600. MS.. 1. 4& 
My hearty condemnations I send forth 
Unto a erne of rascals nothing teorth. 

Tijflor'* Worktt, 16901 

NOTT, for notted, shorn, cut close, or 
smooth ; from to nott, to shear or 
poll : which is from the Saxon hwit 
meaning the f^ame. 

Imagining all the fat sheep he met to be of kia ti 
the coward Ulisses, because they ran away from kii^ 
he massacred a whole flocke of goo«l nott ewct. 

MetuMorph. of Ajeue, Prol<^ue,f^ 
He caused his own head to bet: polled, and nea 
thenceforth his beard to be netted and no mai 
shaven. Stot^i Atuudt, 1S8S- 

Sweet Lirope, I have a lamb. 

Newly weaued from the dam. 

Of the right kind, it is netted. 

Drayt. Mutet* Ely*., Nfmpk. I 

Where a marginal note says, '' withoit 
horns." It is doubtless the old term 
for such sheep as were without horns. 
It is to be found also in Chaucer's 
Prologue, in the character of the 
yeman. See Junius, Minshew, Barefs 
Alvearie, Ray*8 South and East 
Country Words, &c. It is extrs- 
ordinary, that Mr. Tyrwhitt haa mis- 
taken its origin in Chaucer, vr, p. 
from the above. Having the hair 
•close cut. 

Wilt thou rob this leathern jerkin, cryatal b•ttai^ 
pott'pateJ, agat.ring, 8m;. 1 Men. /T, a. 4. 

Cnly your blockheadly tradesman, yoar koBest- 
mcaning citizen, your nott-htttded ooontry gc^l^ 
man, &c. Wtd. Tsan, O. Pi., ri. US 




est wheat has also been called 
\eat. See Todd, 
i, s. News ; nouvelle, French, 
nything new. 

«t yoa posMMe as o' th' ttoveU. 

. Heww. Bm01 Tnu., 4 b. 
triog nowelU, foil of affecUtioo, 
the nuuinen of each other natioiL 

Sjflvetter, cited by Todd, 
id in ship again depart more connthes for to 

the heathen for to view snch lumelt as were 
ice. Eittory of ^tutnUut. 

r. A novice. 

the boy his angry father comes 
a notist both to die and dare. 

mrforlnnu of Arthur, 1587. 

See Noll. 

Would not» ne would: like 
t of that class. 

whereof the lad n*ouU after Joy. 

_ &«w. F. q., I. vi. 17. 

E, or NORICE, s. Nuwe. 

w strife and tumriet of debute. 

Oateoyiu'i Worki, 1687, »ig. V 7. 
A noriet 
e ystept in age. OrtUn., O. PL, x, 236. 

le made a nourish of salt tears. 

1 Hen. ri, i, 1. 

sevens here sufficiently shows 
mrish was often written for 
! ; which destroys Warburton*8 
ure of marish, 

ling aside fliitterie, the very nonrice of vices, 
nind nponjostice, the most excellent vertue 
ers. Holland's AmwMnuM Mareel, 1C09. 

RRIB. To nurse. 

rud with the same milke of infldelitie that 
ce was, trained up in the same schoole, and 
rith the Mme ayre. KnolUi' Turks, 161U. 

ITURE. Nourishment. 

I in all other sublunary bodies that have 
principles of heat, useth to transpire, breath 
astaway through invisible porrs, by exercise, 
nd sleep, to make room still for a supply of 
riture. HoweWs Familiar Letters, 1650. 

orNOVEM. A kind of game 

in which it appears that five 

persons played. Mr. Douce 

bat the game was properly 

novem quinque, from the two 

al throws heing nine Mid five ; 

t it was called in French quin- 

. IHustr, of Sh„ i. p. 243. 

fers the reading of the old 

in the first passage cited : 

a throw at novum. ^^ Prevost 

lis account of it: "Norn d'un 

i se joue k deux d^s, forme de 

ots latins, qui signifient cinq 

" Manuel Lexique, 

it, the brag;eart, the hedge -priest, the fool, 
3y — a bare turow at notum. 

Last* 9 L. L., V, 2. 

Change yonr game for dice ; we are a full number for 
MorKM. [Namely, 1. SpendaU -, 2. Scattsrgood; 8. 
JF. Rash; 4. Ninnihammer ; 5. LonqfieU; 6. Slaimes.\ 
x^ . . , Oreen€'sTuquoqu€,0.1f\.,\x\i». 
tTbe principal nse of langrets is at norum ; for so long 
as a payre of bard cater treas be walking, so long can 

Jou CHst neither 6 nor » ; for without cater treay 
or 9 can never come. Deeker^s BeUman, 1S40. 

The bard eater tray was the contrary 
to the langret. See Lanoret. 
tNOWNE. A familiar corruption of 

There into th* hands of her nowns dsddy 
Having deliver'd her, thus sayd he. 

Homer a U Mods, 16S6. 

NOWS, for noose. Crashaw, quoted by 

NOWT, «. Cattle; for neat. 

Goodly nowt, both fxt nnd hijrjre with bone. 

Churchyard Worthiuess of Wales. 

NOY, *., for annoy, or annoyance; per- 
haps only an abbreviation. 

Tis not the want of any worldly joy, 
Nor fruitlesse brecKl of lanibes procures my nop. 
Lodge's Forbonius /• Prisceria, cited Poet, bee., ii, 28S. 

So also the verb to noy. See Todd. 
NOYANCE, s. Annoyance; similarly 

The sinele and peculiar life is bonnd, 

With aU the strength and armour of the mind. 

To keen itself from uoyaHce. Haml., iii, 3. 

A rioud of cumbrous {cnattes do him molest. 

All striving to infix their feeble stinices, 

That from their noyoHce he no where can rest. 

Spens. F Q., I, i, 23. 

See also Todd. Spenser also has, 
several times, noyous : 

But neither darknesse fowlc, nor filthy bands, 
Nor Hoyous smell, his purpose could withhold. 
^ F. q., I, viii. ia 

tTliat be so troblcsome and noyous in peace. 

Mare's Utopia, 1551. 

fNUN. An old name for the titmouse. 

A lillc titmouse, called a Hnnue, because his heade is 
filletted as it were nunlike. Nomenelator. 

fNUNCION. The intermediate meal, 
at or after noon. See Noonshun. 

His conserves or cates, when he hath well dined ; his 
afternoones nundons, and when he goeth to bedde, 
his posset smoaking-hote. Man in the Moone, 1609. 
When then, is there nothing in the sncrament but 
bread and wine, like an hungry nHntcion? 

Saiitk's Sermaus, 1609. 

NUNCLE, s. A familiar contraction of 
mine uncle; as ningle, &c. It seems 
that the customary appellation of the 
licensed fool to his superiors was 
uncle, or nuncle, which is abundantly 
exemplified in Lear, act i, sc. 4 and 5. 
In the same style, the fools called 
each other cousin. So Gavton, in 
telling a story of two fools, of whom 
one was sent to find the other, says, 
** Fooles are soon in treated, especially 
the servant telling him that his cousen 
had been m\%&\ti^ x£k%Xk^ ^i\ft.%T 




Accordingly he goes about, calling 
coZy coz, Festivous Notes, page 1 79. 
In Beaumont and Fletcher's Pilgrim, 
when Alinda assumes the character of 
a tool, she uses the «ame language. 
She meets Alphonso, and calls him 
nuncle ; to which he replies, by calling 
ber naunt : by a similar change of 
aunt. Pilgr,, iv, 1. 
fNUNGEREL. Perhaps for mongrel. 

With the white starch of your firnie constancy, you 
will stiffen the weukenrsse of my feeble Mnd Umber 
lalwurs, that it may be able to stand like a stout 
maatiffc dogge, against the opposition of »ll detracting 
MtngereU. Taylor's H'orkea, 1630. 

NUP, or NUPSON. A fool ; of doubt- 
ful origin. 

*Ti9 he indeed, the vilest nup ; vet the fool lovea me 
exceedingly. Litujua, O. PI., v, 150. 

Who having matched with such a twpson. 

B. Jotu. Devil 14 an Ass^ ii> 3. 
I say Phantastes is a foolish transparent gull ; a mere 
fanatic nupson. Liiu/ua, O. PL, v, 238. 

I find this word in Grose's Classical 
Dictionary, &c., recorded as still in 
fNURITURE. Breeding. 

His two brethren, . . he caused to be brought up 
in t;ood nuriture and vertuuus txercise. Holimh., 1577- 

To NUSLE, or NUZLE. To nurse; 
quasi to nursle. 

Borne to all wickedness, and nusUd in all evil. 

Nnc Cu3lom, O. Pi., i, 284. 
And Htukd once in wicked deeds, 1 feard not to oft'end. 

Promos 4' Cass., ii, 6. 
From paganism, wherein 
Their unbelieving souls so long had tiuzleU been. 

brayL Folyolb., xxiv, p. 1126. 
Though it be a hard thing to change and utter the 
evill uispositiou of a man, alter he is once uuselUd in 
viliainv. North's PluL, 1050, A. 

A prodieall is a profuse fellow, puft up witli affecta- 
tion, and nusled in the same by vuine glorie. 

Lenton's LeasureSf Char, 19. 

Spenser writes it nousled : 

Whom, till to ryper years he gan aspyre. 
He nousUd up m life and manners wilde. 

F. C , 1. vi, 23. 
fThis Eutherius being principal! chamberiaine, now 
and then would seenie to refurnie even Julian also, 
nuttUd and engniffed in the manners of Asia, and 
therefore vaine and uu constant. 

Holland's Ammianus Marcellinus, 1609. 
jSurely I take almost every one to be of that quality, 
wherein he is nusUd, and afterwards taught by 
anothers example. Passenger of BeMvenuto, 1612. 

fN UTGA LL. An excrescence on the oak . 

Take vineaer and musterd, ponder of pepper, and 

gellitory of Spaiue, and the curncll of a ttutijall, and 
oile them all together, and put it in the hulluw teeth. 

The Pathway to Health, f. 17. 

NUT-HOOK, 8, Literally a hook to 
pull down the branches of nuts, in 
order to gather them. 

She's the king's nut-hook, tlint when any filbert is 
ripe, pulls down the bravest boughs to hishaiid. 

Match me in London, Co\\\iri\\, \GXl. 

I will make tliis verse like a uut-houke, like a nut- 

booke — and then puU downc — pull downc the niooiie 

trith it. Tecknogamia, 1, 1. 

2. Metaphorically, a bailiff, who hoob 
or seizes debtors or malefactors, with 
a staff or otherwise : 

DoU Tear-sheet says to the beadle, Nuikook, NmtiMk, 
you lie. 3 H^m, IT. r, i. 

I will say marry-trap with you, if you run the mrf- 
hooks humour on me. Merry IF.ofW,,i,\. 

I fancy he means, if you try to bring 
me to justice, like a bailiff or beadle. 
Some suppose it to be a name also 
for a thief, from his seizing articles 
with a hook ; but I see no direct 
example of it. Cleveland says of a 

He is the devil's nK^AM>il', the sign with him is always 
in the clutches. Char, of a Country Cuum. Jfcs. 

NUTMEG. A gilt nutmeg was a com- 
mon gift at Christmas, or festive 

A. The armipotent Man, of lances the almighty, 

Gave Hector a gift. 

D. A gilt nutmeg. L. L, Lotlt v, 1 

And I will give thee—— • 

A guilded nutmeg, and a race of ginger. 

AffeelloH. ShepL^Cl 

NUZZLE, v., for nursle. To nurse. 
See NusLE. 

These noble Saxons were a nation hard and stroog, 
On sundry lands and seas in warfare nuzzled long. 

Druyt. Poly., xi, p. 864 

See Todd on this word. 
NYAS, *. A young one, a cub. See 


Then like a nyas-dragon on them fly, 
And in a trice devour them greedily. 

Fasaeulus Florum, p. 4Si 

NYMPHAL, s. An eclogue consisting 
of nymphs, or relating to them. 
Drayton's Muses* Elysium contaius 
ten nymphalsy and the arguments to 
them are in this style : 

This nymphal of delight doth treat, 
Choice beauties, and proportions neat. 



0, *. This single vowel for some time 
enjoyed the dignity of being used at 
a substantive. 

1. To signify anything circular, as 
the stars, or round spots of any kind, 
spangles, &c. : 

I'uir Helena, who more enzilds the night. 
Than all these fiery o's ana eyes of liglit. 

Mids.Ti. J)r.,'m,l 
The purple canopy of the earth, powdenl over sad 
beset with silver ue's, or rather an azure vault, jcc. 
Parthenia Sacra, 1633, cited by Stcercai 

In D'Ewes's Journal is mentioned a 
patent to make spangles and o*eto( 
gold. Toilet, ibid. It seems to have 



been a common name for a spangle. 
See Bacony cited by Todd. Also for 
tbe globe of the earth. Ant. and 
Cleop., ▼, 2 ; the circle of a theatre. 
Hen. V, i, Chorus. Also for spots in 
a person's face, L. L. L., v, 1 . 

2. For a kmentation, or exclamation 
of sorrow : 

Wby tbould yon fall into lo deep an 0. 

Rom. {- Jul., iu,Z. 
And O shall end I hope. Ttoelftk N., ii, 6. 

like to an 0, the character of woe. 

Hymm*$ Triumph, cited hy Steevens. 
With the like clamonr, and confueed 0, 
To the dread shock the desp'rate armies go. 

Drayt. Barons* Wan, ii,S5. 

3. For the arithmetical cipher, called 
by the French eero: 

now tlion art an without a fignre. Lear, i, 4. 

Consequently, worth nothing; the 
Fool adds, 

I am better than thon art now ; I am a fool, thou art 
nothing. Ibid. 

D YES, for oyee, the usual exclamation 
of a crier, is used in the following 
passage as a suhstantive, in the sense 
of exclamation. 

On whose hrisht crest, Fame, with her load'st yes. 
Cries, this is be. Tro. jr Cress., ir, 6. 

Fairy, hobgoblin, make the fairy O yes. 

Merr. W. of V., v, 5. 

Oaf, 9. A fool. This word, which is 
hardly enough disused to require 
insertion here, is well illustrated and 
exemplified in Todd's Johnson. 

tOAKS, FELLING OF. A popular 
term for sea-sickness. 

The word si^^nifieth to bee provoked, or to have 
apetite or desire to vomit properly upon the sea, or in 
a ship. They csM felling cfoakes merilie. 

WtikaW Dtetionarie, ed. 1608, p. 39. 

fOAR. He laves to have an oar in 
every one^a boat, i. e., he likes med- 
dling with other people's business. 
Howell, 1659. 

Lodge for his oare in erery paper boats. 
He that tomes o«'er Galen every day. 
To sit and simper Eupboes lej^ie. 

Belum/rom Pemassus, 1606. 

tOATS, WILD. A term applied com- 
monly to a very extravagant fellow. 

The tailocs now-a-da^s are compelled to exco^tate. 
invent, and imagine diversities of fasliions fur appart-l. 
that they m>«7 s^Lisfy the foolish desire of certain 
li|^t brains and mU oats, which are altozether givrn 
to new fangieness. Seconds Worts, ed. 1B43, p. 30 >. 
Well, go to, irild oats! spendthrift ! prodigal ! 

How a Man may ekuu a Good Wife, 16^)2. 

OAT-MEAL, s. Seems to have heen a 
current name for some kind of profli- 
gate bucks, being mentioned with 
the Roaring Boys, in a ballad by Ford 
or Decker: 

Swaefrer in my pot-meals, 
D — u me's rank with. 
Do mad prank with 

Roaring boys and oeUmeaU, 

SuM*s DarliMy, i, I. 

No trace of this odd appellation has 
yet been found, except that the author 
of a ludicrous pamphlet has taken 
the name of Oliver Oat-meale. See 
Weber's Ford, ii. 335. 
OATH. A burlesque one, like that 
administered by old custom at High- 
gate, was a species of humour prac- 
tised on other occasions. In Gam- 
mer Gurton's Needle, the Bayly ad- 
ministers this oath to Diccon : 

Thou shalt take an othe of Hodgo'a leather breache. 
First for master doctor, upon paine of his curse, 
Where he will pay for all, thou never draw thy purse. 
And when ye meete at one pot, he shall have the first 

And thou shalt never offer him the cup but it be full. 
To good wife Chat, thou shalt be sworne, even on the 

same wyse, 
If she refuse thy money once, never to offer it twise, 

8m;. &c. 0. PI., ii, 74. 

OBARNI, *. A liquor apparently fac- 
titious, and composed of some pre- 
paration of mead, with the addition 
of spices. 

Are Kot into the yellow starch ; and chimney sweepers 
To their tobacco and strong waters, hum, 
Meath, and obarni. Devil is an Ass, i, 1. 

With spiced meades (wholsome but dear), 
As meade obame, and racade cherunk, 
And the base quasse, bv pesants drunk. 

Pymlyco, or kunnr Redcap, cited by Oifford 

in B. Jons., vii, 241. 

Qu. Can quasse have any reference to 
the drug now called quassia? Obarni 
seemed likely to be Welch, being 
joined with mead, or metheglin ; but 
on consulting Welch dictionaries, no 
such word appeared. 
tOBDURE. To become hard. 

Seucelesse of good, as stones thev soone obdure. 

Heywood's Troia Brilanica, 1009. 

fib OBFUSCATE. To obscure. Used 
also as an adjective, dull, obscure. 

E. The daujrhters beautie is the mothers glory ; light 
becomes more obfuscate and darkc in my hand*, and 
in yours it doth atchieve the gre^iter blaze. 

Passenger of Bmrenuto, 1612. 
It is hard to digest, oht'uscaUs the sight, geriemtrs 
bad humours, it hurts tbe head. Ibid. 

OBIT, *. A funeral celebration, or 
office for the dead ; from the Latin 
verb obiit, he died. Sometimes an 
anniversary celebration in honour of 
the dead. Coles has, "An obit^ 
[funeral obsequies] epicedium, fera- 
lionim dies anniverAariae,*' &c. 

The Qoecne enterde,aod rAU V.c;a^,aA i^^vNCNurut 
did pve. Womc/s Alb. Ia.,^.\i^ ta. 




M7-ieire. my tnutie friends, will irith my detrett 

Keepe obite to your happie gboilet. 

jM. Engl, B. iii, p. 84. 
Will not my bitter banninn,iind sftdplaintt, fcc. 
Prevail, thou glorious bri^nt iampe ofthe day, 
To cause thee keep an ohtt for their soules, 
And dwell one montbe with the Antipodes. 

Death of Rob. E. ofHwU.,'\j\. 

OBLATRATION, «. Barking at ; obla- 
tro, Latin. Met. Railing at any one. 
T. Churchyard wrote what he enti- 
tledy "A playn and final confutation 
of Camera corlyke [cur-like] obla- 
tration,** Life of Churchyard^ by 
G. Chalmers, p. 12. Mr. C. shows 
that the word was acknowledged by 
most of our old dictionaries. With 
many other Ladnisms, it has been 

tOBLECTATION. Taking delight in. 

The third in ohltetation and fruition of pleasures and 
wanton pastimes. Nortkhrooke against Dicing, 1577. 


Ther's not an art but 'tis an obligee. 

NttptiaU* ofFeleut and Thetit, 1654. 

fOBNOXIOUS. Exposed or liable to. 

As I am a man to honour, I have brousht him succes- 
sively off from a hundred of these, to the perrill of my 
life, and jet am dnyly obuoxions to new assaults for 
liini. Marmyon, Fine Companion, 1633. 

0B$ AND SOLS. A quaint abbrevia- 
tion of the words objectiones' et aolu- 
Hones, being frequently so contracted 
in the margins of books of contro- 
versial divinity, to mark the transi- 
tions from the one to the other. 

Bale, llrasmns, &c., explode, as a vast ocean of ob$ 
and toh, school divinity; a labyrinth of intricable 
questions. Burton, Anat. to the Reader, p. 70. 

The Touth is in a wofull case ; 

Whilst he should give us sols and ohs. 

He brings us in some simple liohs, 

And fathers them on Mr. Hobs.. 

Loyal Soings, vol. ii, p. 317. 

Hence Butler has coined the name 
of Ob-and'SoUers, for ificholastic dis- 
putants : / 

To pass for deep and leamra scholars. 
Although but paltrv Ob-aM-SoUers: 
As if th' unseasonable fools 
Had been a coursing in the schools. 

t Minerva does not all her treasures rivet 
Into the semes of obs and sols. 

Wkiting's Albino and BelUma, 1638. 

OBSCENOUS, a. Obscene, indecent. 

Were lu>th obseenous in recitall, and hnrtfull in 
example. Haringt. Apolog. ofPoetr., p. 10. 

Yet with modest words, and no obseenous phrase. 


OBSCENOUSNESS, *. Obscenity. 

There is not a word of ribaldry or obscenousness* Ibid. 

OBSEQUIOUS, a. Belonging to a 
funeral, or obsequies. 

And tlie survivor bound 
In filial obligation for some term 
To do pb»epacm* sorrow. Hml., i, S. | 

Absorbed in funeral grief: 

My sighing breast shall be thy funeral bell, 
And so obsequious will thy father be. 
Sad for the loss of thee, having no more. 

As Priam was for all his valiant sons. 

How many a holy and obsequious tear. 
Hath dear religions love stobi from mine e 
As interest of the dead. Shakesp^ & 

OBSEQUIOUSLY. lu celebratio 

While I awhile obsequiously lament 
Th' untimely fall ofvirtuous Lancaster. 


OBSEQUY, 9, Obseqniottsness. 

Our's had rather be 
Censur'd by some for too much ob se qu y . 
Than tax'd of self-opini<Hi. 

Massing. Baskf. Lm 
Tis true, that sway'd by strone neceasit 
I am enforc'd to eat my careful bread 
Willi too much obsequg, B. Jons. fo\ 

OBSERVANT, *. A person wl 
serves ; an obsequious attendan 

Than twenty silly ducking obsertantSt 
That stretch their duties nicely. L 

OBSTACLE, for obstinate. Int 
as a blunder of ignorance. 

Fie, Joan ! thou wilt be so obstad*. 

I Hen. 

OBSTRUCT, *. Obstruction ; a c 
tural reading proposed by Warb 
instead of abstract, in the foil 
passage, and adopted by the 

Which soon he granted, 
Bang an obstruct 'tween his lust and hii 

Ant. /- Clet 

The emendation, however, has 

doubted, and abstract defended 

fTo OBTEST. To implore ; to be 

Wherein I have to crave (that nothing m<»« 
can obtest than) your friendly acceptance of t 

I humblie obtest your Iriendlie cous 

and be rov strong bulwarke against the 

freates and belching ires of sancie sioophanfa 

Nortkbroote against Did 

Also written obtestate: 

Dido herself with sacred gifts in hands. 
One foot unbound, cloathcs loose, at th' altai 
Beadie to die, the gods she obiestates. 

Virgil, by Viet 

pound metal, meant to imitate ( 
a corruption of the word ale 
Skinner says, "Metallum que 
mistum, colore argenti semului 
vilissimum, corruptum it nost 

Pilchards — which are but counterfets to he 
copper to gold, or ockanue to silver. 

Nash's Lenten Stuffe, Hart. Mise. 
The ten shillings, this thimble, and an oecat 
from some other poor sinner, are all the at 
which is made for the body of sin in Lon 
Westminster. SteeU, Guardian 

See Alchymy. 




SION. Need; business. 

kes hit time an nccomptaBt to hit memorif, 
the hunionrt of men veaves a net for occmsiom ; 
[oititor must looke through hit judgement, for 
eye ouely he it not Tit ible. 

(herbury't Ntw tmd Ckoite Ckaraetert, 1615. 
h *twat the mnltiplidtx of hit oeemnous often 
ed him from eooiing home betimet, thee'd 
, and tay hit drunken conipnniont had made 
ly bovzing in tome tenrvy cabaret. 

Uittory ofFrmnciou, 1666. 

PATION. Trade. Tenure or 
>ation in old leases. 
ANT, 8. (from the indecent sense 
i following word). A prostitute. 

He with hit oeeupant 
ng'd to elote, like dew-wormet in the mome, 
eUl not ttir. Martton't Satire*. 

tentet tome damn'd oecmpmmt bereaTea. Ibid, 

Y, [sensu obsc.] To possess, 


riUatna will make the word captain, at odiona 
w<Mrd oeaipy. i Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

:. come of aice, hit itate told out of hand 
vhore : Groyne ttill doth oecuw hit Innd. 

B. Jons. Ep'tgr.^ 117. 
Ofut of their own obaoeiie appreheniiont, refute 
and fit wordt, at occttfy, nature, and the like. 
Ibid., lJi*€09frie4, vol. vii, p. 119. 

SO used also in Rowley's New 

ler, Anc. Dr., v, 278. 


nade of loote, aueh at printera oeeupU. 

Nomenclator, 1686. 

PIER. A merchant. 

paper, or other ttuffe, wherein oecupien wrap 
nrerall waret. Nomenclator, 1686. 

ITIRINS. A diminutive adjura- 
^orrupted from GocPspity, quasi 
' little pity. 

tikimt ! can it be lix milet yet. Cymh., iv, 2. 

;curs also in other dramatic 
*s, as in Decker and Webster's 
vard Hoe, and the Shoemaker's 
ay, referred to by Steevens. 
ij. The only one. 

r time, the odd man to perform all thinga 
T, whattoerer he doth, and to know the way 
;hem tkilfuUy, whentoever he liat, it, in my 
inion, Joannes Sturmim*. 

Jsckam, SehoUwuuter, p. 124. 

Peerless ; without an equal. 

TRntt al do aobbe and howle with thrill and 

ivy crvet, 

ling /lector thut they tay: On tliit odds 

glitc, aiacke ! 

er sluill »et eye's again. 

A. Hall's Homer, 1581. 77., vi. 
out, env\ ing Virgils prosperitie, who gnthered 
er. tliNi'lie had fallen into the oddest mant 
hat ever Englaitd bred. Ibid., Preface. 

' OADE, *. A peculiar ortho- 
y, for woady the herb used in 
Coles has, '' oad to dye cloth, 

I'-h all eommoditiet alike, and admit no diffe* 
:tween ods and fraukincente. 

B, Jons. Poslastsr, ii, 1. 

ODIBLE, a. Hateful ; from the Latin, 
Exemplified by Todd from Bale. 

ODLING, «. The meaning of this word 
has not yet been discovered, though 
it must have some relation to tricking 
and cheating. It occurs only in B. 
Jonson's description of the character 
of Shift, prefixed to his Every Man 
out of his Humour. He describes 
him as, 

A thread-bare thark ; one that never wna a toldier, 
yet livet upon leudingi. Hit profession it tkeldering 
and odlinjf ; hia bank Panl't, and hit warehonte Pict- 

Mr. Gifford says, ''Of odling I can 
say nothing with certainty, having 
never met with the word elsewhere." 
(EI LI AD, 8. A glance of the eye, an 
ogle; from oeillade, French. Thus 
the commentators agree to write this 
word, which was variously misspelt 
in the early editions of Shakespeare. 
See Eyliad. 

I know your lady doet not love her hutband ; 
I am tnre of that ; and at her late being here, 
She gave itrange ceiliads, and moat tpeaking looks. 
To noble Rdmund. Lear, iv, 6. 

Mr. Steevens found the word in Greene 

Amorout glaneet, tmirking osiliades. 

Disputation between a He and She Coneycateker, 

OF was very anomalously used in some 
ancient phrases ; as, of bless beseech^ 
for "whom I pray to bless." 

I blette thee in hit bletted name, whom I of blesss 
beseech. Warner, Jib. Eng., p. 106. 

So command of: 

Hit ghott. whote life ttood in thy light, eommandelk 
me ofayde. Ibid., p. 67. 

That is, commands me to give him aid. 

I ihall desire you of more acquaintHnce. 

ifui:*. iV. Dr., iii,l. 

See the instances there quoted by 

I humbly do desire your grace q^ pardon. 

Merck. Venice, Iv, I. 

Also the examples quoted at As you 
like it, V, 4. 

And wills me that my mortal foe I do beseke of grace. 

Surrey, on tulse Jffect., ^c, 

" 0/ pardon you I pray" occurs very 

often in Spenser. 
OF ALL LOVES. By all means ; a 

most earnest form of intercession. 

See Loves. 
OFFICES, p/«r. n. The parts of a house 

appropriated to the servants. This 

sense is by no means disused, but yet 

has been disputed by modftxvL ^x^\&- 




xnentators. The lower parts of Lon- 
don houses are always called the 
offices : nor is it confined to London, 
as every advertisement for the sale of 
a mansion will show. 

The king't abed; 
He hath been in unusual pleasure, and 
Sent forth great largess to your office*. Macb., ii, 1. 

This is the original reading, for which 
some have absurdly proposed officers. 
Largess was given to servants, not to 

Alack, and what shall good old York there see, 
But empty lodgings and unfumish'd walls, 
Unpeopled officer, untrodden stones. Sick. 11^ i, 2. 

That is, a complete picture of desola- 
tion. Rooms untenanted and un- 
furnished, offices without attendants, 
and the very stones untrodden. Thus 

When all our offices have been oppress'd 

With riotous feeders. THmon, ii, 2. 

The speaker means to say, that the 
offices below were full of riot, while 
the apartments above were occupied 
with ruinous luxuries. As the only 
doubt respecting this word lias refer- 
ence to the interpretation of Shake- 
speare, it is sufficient to bring his 
several passages together, to clear up 
the meaning of them all. See 
OFFSPRING. Very peculiarly used 
for origin. 

Nor was ner princelv off-wring damnified. 
Or ought disparaged by those labours base. 

Fair/. Ttuto, vii, 18. 

OFTEN, as an adjective, frequent. 

Use a little wine for thy stomach's sake, and thine 
often infirmities. 1 Tim., v, 23. 

His mother's often 'scapes, thougli trulv kuowiie, 
Cannot divert liim. Browne, Brit. "Past., ii, p. 77. 

-f As many brookes. foords, showres ofraiu and springs, 
Unto the' Thames their often tribute brinn. 

Taylor's U'orkes, 1630. 
tFor whom I sighed have so often sithe. 

Gascoigne*s JForkes, 1687. 

tOlL-OF-BASTON. An old jocular 
name for a severe beating. It occurs 
in Withals* Dictionarie, ed. 1608, 
p. 308. We find oil of whip, si mi- 
la rlv used. 

Now for to cure such a disease as this, 
The Off I of whip the surest medicine is. 

Poor Robin, 1693. 

OIL OF TALC. See Talc. 
fOILSTONE. A whetstone. 

All oylestotu, or a barbars whetstone smeared with 
oyle or spittle. Homenclator. 

tOlNTED. For anointed. 

Mis. Thou shalt sit 

Queen of that kingdom in a chair of light, 

And doves witli ointed wings shall borer o*t thee. 
Shedding perfumes. CartterighCs Siedge, IKL 

OLD, «., for wold. So read in the 
original edition of Lear, iii, 4. Spd- 
man also has olds for wolds; and 
other writers. 

OLD, a. In the sense of frequent, 
abundant ; a burlesque phrase, which 
it has been thought necessary to 
illustrate in our early writers, bat 
which is by no means disused at this 

Here will be an old abusing of God's patience and the 
king's English. Merrg Wives ofir.,i,i. 

If a man were porter to hell-gate, he would baTC oU 
turning the key. MaH^ ii, S. 

I imagine there is otd moving among them. 

lAnaua, 0. PL, r, 161 
Here's oU. cheating. R'/aring Girl, 0. PL. vi, 108. 

See also the notes on those passages. 

See Todd, in Old, 9. 
fOLD-RELIGION. So the Roman 

Catliolic religion was called long after 

the Reformation. 
OLD SHOE. To throw an old shoe 

after a person. See Shoe, old. 
fOLD-SHOW. « The play called king 

by your leave, or the old shews" 

Nomenclator, 1585, p. 298. 
ONE, as a substantive. An individoal, 

a single person. 

There's not a one of them, but in his house 
1 keep a servant feed. Macb., iii, i 

Mot a one shakes his tail, but I sigh out apassion. 

Albumazar, O. PI., vii. 15S. 

One was sometimes pronounced, and 
even written, on. Thus the Echo, in 
the Arcadia: 

What salve, when reason seeks to be gone f Oiu. 

V. Not mine, mv gloves are on. 
Sp. Why then this may be yours, for this is but «m. 

Ttco Qeni. Fer., u, 1. 

The quibble liere intended depends 
upon the word being so pronounced. 
The original editions of Shakespeare 
frequently have on for one. Thus in 
King John : 

ir the midnight bcU 
Did, with his iron tongue and brazen mouth. 
Sound on unto the drousy race of night. Act iii, sc. 1 

See the abundant proofs adduced by 
Mr. Malone, in the note upon that 
passage. It is so written in the older 
writers still more frequently, as in 
Chaucer. See Tyrwhitt's Glossary. 
So in Holland's Suetonius : 

He CHUglit Irom on of them a trumpet. P. Ii 

Spenser too has it : 

It chaunced me on day beside the shore 
Of silver-streaming Thamesis to bee. 

Ruines of Time, rer. L 




jn'd pdde, no difference know, 

lu, to reap, and sow. Carlter. Poems, 1651 . 

^£D. A term applied to wine. 

still one-eard, and brisk, though put 
in cask in Rnzlish butt. 

Uo»ell't FcmilUr Utters, 1650. 

NY. A D old name of a game. 

am sortit6 ductus rex facieiida pnrcipit, 
Jussa teneittnr fncessere. quud feriis 
>ris est factitori. fikunXMa, Polluci. The 
onspeniSf #m peuie : come after me. 

Nomeuelator, 1385. 


letl part of the bran be separated by a 
rie ffowrr, or else barlev flower nnd rie 
her, be added to that n hfch is sifted from 
t bran, there will be made a browne 
read, agreeable enough for labourers. 
>nelv the grosser part of the bran is by a 
ated from the meale, and a brctid made 
h is sifted, called in some pinces, one-waif 
some enongh, and with some in very 
J'enner^s Via Recta, 1637. 

, f., or ON-YERS. Accord- 
rlr. Malone, public account- 
To settle accounts iu the 
er, he says, is still called to 
II the mark o. ni, which is an 
ion of the Latin form, one- 
ft habeat sufficientem exone- 
There is the more pro- 
1 the interpretation, because 
)n8 spoken of were supposed 
from the exchequer. This is 
om Coweirs Law Diet. 

ity and tranquillitv ; bnrEomasters and 
'Si such as can hold in. \ Hen. IV, ii, 1. 


the Mew Custome. and he gave the onsay. 

HT, *. The same. 

ber yet that onsltiight, thou wast beaten. 
>efore the baker. B. /* Fl. Mons. Tho., ii, 2. 
a council, which was best 
onslaught to invest 
; and 'twas agreed, 
tid onslaught to proceed. 

Hudihr., I, iii, r. 421. 

Phis stone was thought to pos- 
;ical powers. Thus wrapped 
•leaf it produced invisibility. 

Nor an opal 
a bay-leaf in my left fist, 
heir eyes with. B. Jons. New Inn, i, 6. 

tiful variety of colours natu- 
de it the object of peculiar 

1, *. The early spring, the 
len flowers begin to open ; 
of opening. 

iC'tyde cavscth fasting Lents. 

Ilall, Sat., B. ii, S. 1. 

'B, 8, Operation, effect. 

The elements 
not what or why, yet do effect 
t by their operance. 

FUlcher, Two Noble rtnsm., i, 8. 

OPERANT, fl. Operative, fit for actiou. 

My operant powers their functions leave to do. 

I7am;., iii, 3. 
May my operant parts 
E^ch one forget ilieir office. Heyw. Royal K. 

Who seeks for better of thee, sauce liis palate 
With thy most operant poison. Timon of Atk., iv, 3. 

OPINION,*. Credit, reputation ; t. tf., 
the good opinion held of us by 

Thou hast redeem*d thy lost opinion. 1 lien. IF, y, 4. 

And spend your rich opinion for the name 

Of a night bniwlcr. Othello, ii, S. 

Wiiat opinion will the managing 
Of this affair bring to mv wisdom ? 

B. J' Fl. Thierry and Tk, 

I mean you have the opinion 
Of a valiant gentleman. Gamesl., O. PL, ix, 16. 

fOPPOUTUNOUS. Opportune. 

The oppjrtnnous night friends her complexion. 

Hey wood, Troia iiritanica, 1609 

OPPUGN, V. How Butler pronounced 
this word, which is now softened * 
into oppune, it is not easy to say. 
He certainly made it three syllables, 
as his verse testifies ; perhaps op- 
pug -en, 

if nothing can oppugne love, 

And virtue iuvious wavs can prove. 

IlnJihr., I, iii, 385. 

OPUNCTLY, adv. Opportunely, at the 
point of time. 

And you shall march a whole day until you come 
opunctly to your mistress. 

Greene's Tu ()., 0. PI., vii, 94. 

OR, adv.t in the sense of ere. Before ; 
£cr, Saxon. 

And brake all their bones in pieces, or ever they came 
at the bottom of tlie den. Daniel, vi, 34. 

And, or I wist, when 1 was come to land. 

Mirr.for Mag., p. 19. 
I will be revenged, or he depart awav. 

New Oust., O. Fl., i, 263. 

So in the Psalms, ** Or ever your 
pots be made hot," means ** ere 
ever," or before ever. 
OR ERE therefore means ere ever; that 
is, " before ever." Ere being here a 
substitute for e*er, the contraction of 

I would 
llave sunk the sea within the earth, or ere 
It should the good ship so have swallow 'd. 

Temp., i, 8. 
To schoole him once or ere I change my style. 

Hall, Sat., IV, 4. 

Milton has used it : 

The shepherds on the lawn. 
Or e*er the point of dawn. 

Hymn on Nativity, 1. 85. 

ORACULOUS, though used by most of 
our old writers, and even by Milton 
and Pope, as appears by Dr. John- 
son's quotations, is now completely 
supplanted by oracular; and is there- 
fore becom\iig o\>^o\feV.^. ^"^^^ ^^ 




authorities for it we may add Mas- 
singer : 

We snbmit. 
And liold the counsels of great Cosimo 
OrantuuM. Great D. qfFl., i, 1. 

See Johneon. 
tORANGE- BUTTER. An old delicacy 
of the table. 

The Dutch way to make oranffe-hutter.— Take new 
creani two gallons, beat it up to a thickness, then add 
half a pint of orange-llower-water, and as much red 
wine, and so being become the tliickness ul iniiter, it 
retains both the colour and scent ut an onmue. 

Clo*et of Ruriiiet, 1706. 

ORANGE-TAWNY, *. A dull orange 
colour. This colour seems to have 
been appropriated by custom to the 
dress of some inferior persons; as 
clerks, apparitors, &c. Sometimes 
simply called taumy. See Tawny. 

Thou scum of man, 
XJucinl, orange'tawney-coated clerk. 

B. Jotu. Tale of Tub, ir. 3, to Metaphor, the justice's clerk. 
It is attributed also to Jews : 

They say — that usurers should have orange'Uiieny 
bonnets, because they do judaize. Bacon, Ess. 4i. 

t ORANGE-WATER, seems to have been 
a favorite perfume as far back at 
least as the reign of James I. 

A gentleman seeine a faire genUewoman at a window, 

" " ibi 


me that why asaine, anu aiu as oeiore, anu so 

continued a good wliilc. At last he departed for 

he Tolted and carabettcd upon his horse a good spAce 

' 1 pranced. An< 
he came that WHy againe, and did as before, and so 

iu'fore her, and at Inst away he pranced. Anon after 

eood and all, and being come home, he sent her two 
bott ies of orange-icater by his page, which the eentle- 

■■ 1 1 

wuman accepting, said unto the page: Now I pray 
thee (my iad) thaiike thy maister, and tell him that 
I thought his evening w inde would tume to water. 

Copley's Wits, Fits, and Fancies, 1614. 
Orange-fiower ica/rr.— Take two pounds of orange- 
fluwers, as fresh as you can get them, infuse them in 
two quarts of white wine, and so distil them, and it 
will yield a curious perfumin^spirit. 

Accomplished Female Instructor, 1719. 

ORDINANCE, *. Used for fate. 

Let ordinance 
Come as the gods foresay it. Cymh., iv, 2. 

ORDINARY, *. A public dinner, 
where each person pays his share. 
The word, in this sense, is certainly 
not obsolete ; but it is here inserted for 
the sake of observing, that ordinaries 
were long the universal resort of 
gentlemen, particularly in the reign 
of James I. They were, as a modern 
writer well observes, ** The lounging- 
places of the men of the town and 
the fantastic gallants who herded 
together. Ordinaries were the ex- 
change for news, the echoing places 
for all sorts of town-talk ; there they 
might hear of the last new play and 

poem, and the last fresh i 
sighing for some knight to mal 
a lady ; these resorts were att 
also to save charges of housekeep 
^ But a more striking feature in 
ordinaries shewed itself as soc 
the voyder had cleared the 
Then began the shuffling and ci 
on one side, and the bones ra 
on the other. The ordinary ii 
was a gambling house." Curii 
Liter., vol. iii, 82. 
Hence they were often synonj 
terms : 

Exposing the datngeToas mischiefs that Um 
bowses, oommonlv called ordinsuia tMbles, 
dayley breede within the bowelles of Ute fam* 
of London. 0. Whetstone, cited in Poet. Dec. 

A very exact account of the 
nariei of those days may be fou 
a tract published in the Ha 
Miscellany, vol. ii, p. 108, 8vo. I 

In Shakespeare I find them 
mentioned, and they are freqv 
spoken of by his contemporary 

I did think thee, for two ortUnurics, to be i 
wise fellow ; thou didst make tolerable Ten 
travel. L. L. Lo 

Bein^ barber'd ten times o'er, goes to the feai 
And for his ordinary pays his heart, 
Por what his eyes eat only. Ant. /■ CUo 

It was a part of fashionable 
cation : 

I must tell you, you are not audacious enon 
must frequent ordinaries a month more, to 
yourself. B. Jons. Cynthia's Be 

Mentioned also act ii, sc. 3. 

I'll tell you his method ; 
First he will enter you at tome ordinary. 

Ibid., Jlche* 
Tis almost dinner, I know they stay for you 
ordinary. B. jr Ft. Scornf. J 

In 1608, a common price for a 
teel ordinary was two shillings : 

Wliy should a gnllnnt pay but two shillings 
ordinary that nourishes him, and twenty tin 
for his brothel that consumes him. 

Middl. Trick to catch O. C 

The latter was, doubtless, enorm 


Some ordinaries' were cheaper: 

No fellows that at ordinaries dare 

Eat their eighteen pence thrice out before the] 

And yet go hungry to a play. 

Some were much dearer: 

When you have done, step to the ten crown or 

Ibid., midg. t 

In the numerous writers of charai 
we find the same mention of 
naries : 




rU it lilt [the piinetter't] oratorio, where 
pon the ouunireT niU to feede himtelfe. 
aitus*s WkmM., p. 49. 

t terms among gamblers at 
naries were borrowed from 
ihing; as those of money- 
sharpers were from the 
irren. See Conbycatch. 

lowne sundry proclamations, anthorising 
indins the jnsnces of peace (at or before 
ing M the Lent time) to convent and call 
n all UTcmers, inne-holders, alehouse- 
cpers of ardituinf takUSt and other vie- 
hin the prednet and role of the said 
id to take hoods (by recognisance) with 
oreties of ererr of them, and in good 
money to the kings majesties use, that 
Bot drcaae any flesh in their houses in the 
br any respect, nor to suffer it to be eaten 
Dalion*a Countrey Jtulice, 1620. 

'. The herb pennyroyal? 


having a branch of wgamy, 

.nch ease the adders sting eschew. 

HeywxkTi Troia Bntamem, 1609. 

8. A name for the herb 
fsA ; a corruption of origanum, 
1 this punning epigram was 


! oace a bed of oiyaM set, 
me in, and eat up every whit ; 
lan said, wife, yon your garden may 
on call ; here pigs on otymns play. 

WitUBecreatioui, Efigr., p. 85, repr. 

/ organs was the name for 
now call an organ : 

at work, in which I mean to glory, 

.iting a cathedral church, 

It Hog's Norton ; with a pmr 

rgoMs. O. PL, ix, 212. 


US, a. Proud ; from orgueiU 

Trom isles of Greece, 
I orailUnu, their high blood chafed. 

Sk. Tro. /• Cr., ProL, 1. 2. 

SimMC* ofBieL, quoted by Steevens. 
t most otfueuouM and extreme paincs are 
I vcTT moist and maligue vapour, which 
om tne liver. 

BturwgVi Method ofPkynck, 1624. 

A name given in flattery to 
lizabeth, in a set of madrigals 
d in 1601 to celebrate her 
nd chastity at 68. Jonson 
t to Anne, queen of James I, 
riens Anna. Masque called 
r. See 6ifford*s Note, vol. vi, 

ORIEL, *. • A portico, or 
dso a small room near the 
monasteries where particular 
.dined. Blount's Glossugr. 
;e says, " Oriolum, portions, 
* and quotes Matth. Paris for 

it. Supposed by some to be a di- 
minutive from area, or areola. In 
modem writings we meet with 
mention of oriel windows. I doubt 
the propriety of the expression ; biit^ 
if right, they must mean those 
windows that project like a porch, or 
small room. 

At St. Alban's was nn oriel, or apartment for persont 
not so sick as to retire to tlic inhrniary. 

Fosbroofs Brit. JiouachitM, vol. ii, p. 160. 

I may be wrong in my notion of oriel 
window, but I have not met with an- 
cient authority for that expression. 
Cowel conjectures that Oriel college 
in Oxford took its name from some 
such room or portico. There is a 
remarkable portico, in the further 
side of the first quadrangle, but not 
old enough to have given the name. 
It might, however, be only the sue* 
cessor of one more ancient, and 
more exactly an oriel. 
ORK, or ORG, s. A marine animal, 
the nature of which seems not well 
defined. Poets have spoken of them 
as monsters, and forming the guard 
of Neptune. Orca, Latin. By 
Pliny's description of one stranded 
in the Tiber from its bulk, it seems 
most like the narwal, or monodon 
monoceros of Linnaeus. Pliny says it 
is an inveterate enemy of the whale. 

Mow turn and view the wonders of the deep, 
Where Proteus herds, and Neptune's ork$ uo keep. 

B. JOHS. Masq. o/Nrptuni. 

Drayton makes the orks court the 
nymphs ; thus implying that they 
had something of a human shape: 

Her marble-minded breast, impregnable, rejects 
The ugly orki that for their lord the ocean woo. 

Polifolh., ii, p. 687. 

Ariosto's orJc, which was to devour 
Angelica, is altogether a fanciful 
monster. Harington thus gives him : 

I call him orke, because I know no beast 
Nor fish from whence Cfimparison to take. 

His head and teeth were like a bore, the rest 
A masse, of which I know not what to make. 

Or. Fur., X, 87. 

Milton mentions orks. Par. Lost, xi» 

tWe are here betwixt hosts and marriiiers, which are 
no other but famished orkea, whirle-pooles, running 
cestemes, and greedy liunessei witii alirlpes. 

Passenger of Benveu n to, 1612. 

[It appears here used for a drinking 

tOue bad them fill an orke of Bacchus water. 

Hulorie o/ AlVino and BeWama A^^S^ 




tORNATED. Adorned. 

Had I the skill of Homer, Maro, Naso, 
Or hnd 1 that ndmii'd omated stile 
Of Pi'trark, or the brave Italian Tasso. 
I could not overmuch thy praise compile. 

Taylor's iror*«, 1630. 

ORNDERN, *., the same as ARNDERN. 
An afternoon's meal. By Ray stated 
as a Cambrian word, and explained, 
"Afternoon's drinkings." North 
Country Words, p. 47. This is so 
like undern, that it is difficult not to 
suppose them the same; yet Lye 
explains the latter to mean nine in 
the morning. See Undern. 

tORPHANT. An orphan. 

Hee ne'r provok'd the silly orphants crycs, 
Kor fiU'd with tearcs the woeful! widdowes eyes. 

Tayhr't Worket, 1630. 
To those shec seemes a star most shining bright, 
Whome fortune makes to seeme more darle then 

As maye appeare by those twelve onkanls poore, 
Whome shee relceves at cbarrityes olest dore. 

Collier's AUeyn Papers. 

ORPHARION, «. A sort of musical 
instrument ; doubtless from the name 
of Orpheus. 

Set the cornel with the flute, 
The orpkarion to the lute, 
Tuning the labor and pipe to the sweet violins. 

Drayt., Eel. 8d. 
If I forget to praise our oaten pipes, 
Such music to the muses all-procuring, 
That some leam'd cares prcfer'd it have before 
Both orpkaryon, violl, lute, bandore. 

Uaring ton's Fpigr., iv, 91. 

In both these passages it seems to be 
used as orphari'on. 

The ofj)harion was shaped like a lute, 
but differed in being strung with wire. 
In sir John Hawkins's History of 
Musick is given a figure of it, with 
thin account, from Morley*s Intro- 
duction to Practical Musick : 

The orpkarion is strung with more stringcs than the 
lute, and also hath more frets, ur stops ; and whereas 
the lute is strong with gut stringes. the orpkarion is 
strung with wire stringes, b\ reason of which manner 
of stnnginge the orvkarion doth iiccessanlie require 
a more gentle and drawing stroke tlian the lute. 

Hist. IIus., iii, p. 344. 

An instrument called Orphion, cannot 
be the same as this, being said to be 
invented by Thomas Pilkington, who 
died in 1660, at the age of 35. He 
was thus celebrated by sir Aston 
Cokaine : 

Mast 'ring all music that was known before, 
He did invent th' orphion, and gave mure. 

JIairkiits, Uist., iii, p. 345. 

tOKPHELlN. An orphan. Fr. 

They all love presents, they all secke for gifts, they 
do not right to the orphelin, and the widduwcs com- 
plaint commeth not before them. 

The Theatre or Rule of Ike World, n. d. 

ORT, s, A scrap, or trifling fragment 
of anything; of obscure derivation. 
It is sufficiently illustrated by Dr. 
Johnson, and his last editor, who 
mark it as obsolete. I think, how- 
ever, that it is not quite disused. It 
is seldom used in the singular, but 
examples may be found ; as, 

Where should he hn%'e this gold? It is Mune po« 
fragment or slender orl of his remainder. 

TimoH of Atk.^if,l. 
Let him have time a beggar's oris to cra\-e. 

Skakesp. Rape of Lucrue. 6Sl. 
Sancho had in a short time choakeu himself with tks 
ingurgitated reliques and oris of the canon's provinw. 

Gayt. Fest. Notes, p. !84 

OSPREY, «. The sea eagle; which 
name seems to have been given both 
to \\\Qfalco ossifraguSy and i\i^ fako 
halicetiis of Linnaeus. See Shaw's 
Gen. Zoology. Besides its destructiTe 
power of devouring fish, it was sup- 
posed formerly to have a fascinating 
intiuence. Both these qualities are 
alluded to in the following pas- 
sages : 

I think he'll be to Rome 
As is the osprey to the lish, who takes it 
By Bovereigntv of nature. CorioUmu, b, f 

But, oh Jove, your actions. 
Soon as they move, as ospreys do the fish, 
Subdue before they touch. 

Fletcktr, Ttro Noble Kinsm^i,^ 
The osprry, oft here seen, though seldom hers ^ 

Wliich over them the fish no sooner do espy, 
But, betwixt him and them bv an autipatiiy, 
Turning their bellies up, as though their death tbey 

They at his pleasure lie, to stuff his gluttonous naw. 

Drayton, PoJyolb., Song in. 
I will i)rovide thee with a princely osprey. 
That, as she flyttli over fisli in pools, 
The tish sliall turn their glittering bellies up, 
And thou slialt take thv liberal choice of all. 

Battle of Alcazar, 1591 

[Chapman (Hom. II., xviii, in fin.) 
calls it the osspringer.] 
fOSSE. Some sort of omen, from the 

Were permitted to seeke after the answers given bj 
oracles, and the science of peenng into beasts bowebt 
which now and then discover future events: yea. and 
the faithfull information, whore ever it might be 
found, of birds by singing, of fowlea by flying, sad 
of ojses let fall from the mouth, were «'ith stndioai 
affectation of vnrictir sought tor. 

Holland's Ammianvs MarceUinus, 1609. 
Behold (quoth he') my sonne Gratiaii. thou bastnpos 
thee imperial I garments, as we all hoped for, cos* 
ferred with luckie osfes and acclamations by the 
judgement of my selfe and our (ellow aouldiors. /Ki. 
As It they were to be led unto the place of executitn, 
or, to ftpeake without any evill presaging osse, gatltf^ 
ing their armor together, where an host is gone Wore. 


Behold (quoth hee) your fellow citizens and conntrry- 
nicn, who shuU endure (but the gods in het^o 
forfend the osse) the same liard distresse together 
with vou, unlesse some better fortune thine upon oi. 





. Prodigy; from the Latin 

Prepar*d t* eflfect these black events, 
ore by proud Spaine's sad ottentg. 

Mirr.for Mag., p. 818. 

show or appearance : 

U studied in a sad osUnt, 

I grandam. Merck, of Venice, ii, 3. 

rophy, sifrnal, and ostenl, 

timseif to God. Henrv V, h. Chorus. 

author's epitaph and tomb. 

, ambitious pyles, th' ottenU of pride 

1 faU. RoMdolph'i Poems, 1648. 

'UL. Prodigious. 

^ther are indeed oilentfuU. 

ByroiCi Tragedy. 

TES, adv, Otherways; as 
all-ways : sometimes made 
e. Both more recently cor- 
to other guess, which has no 
5e, or derivative meaning. 
Letters, first edition, have 
«, I, ii, 2, which is nearer 
, though still wrong. 

loi been in drink, he would have tickled 
l« tlian he did. Twelfth N., v, 1. 

I Hudibras, alraut to enter 
au otkergates adventure. 

Hudib., P. I. C. iii, 1. 43. 

lould he printed; or else 

ateSi in one word. 

ilS, for Ottomans, t. «., 

And do undertake 
t war against the Otiomitee. Othello, i, 3. 

• OWCH, s. A jewel, hrooch, 
or necklace ; but which is 
ary signification cannot be 
till its etymology shall be 
hich is at present very un- 
Mr. Tyrwhitt, in his Glossary 
cer, inclines to think that 

word is nouche, from the 
tcchia, which means any kind 
, also a clasp, or buckle. 

he says, is the reading of 
MSS. at V. 8258, and nochia, 
d nusca, are certainly shown 
ange to be used in English 
ts, in the senses of monile, 
!e ; fibula, a broche, &c. In 
an ouch will have been sub- 
for a nouch; in the same 
as an eyas, for a nias ; a 
3r an ideot, &c. See those 
In Exodus, xxviii, 11, &c., 
em to be used for the setting 

precious stones were held : 

e two stones, with the names of the 
Israel} thou shalt make them be set in 

See also several succeeding verses, in 
that place; and chap. x.xxix, 16, &c. 

Your brooches, pearls, and oicchei. 2 He», IF, ii, 4. 

Pope says, on that place, that owches 
were bosses of gold, set with diamonds. 

What gold I have, pearl, bracelets, rings, or ouehet. 
Or whHt she can desire, gowns, pettuoats. Soc. 
I am to give her for't. B. ^ Fl. Woman's Prize, iv, 1. 
His jewels he thus disposed ; to his daughter Stafford, 
an ouehe called the eagle, which the prince guve liim; 
to his daughter Ahce Tiis next best ouche. 

Dugdalf, quoted by Steevens. 
Insteed of silkes I will weare sackcloth ; for owches 
and bracelets, leere and caddis. 

Lyly's Euphnes, H 1 b. 

Baret calls it a collar that women 
used about their necks. Aivearie. 
Skinner explains it a jewel, but doubts 
of the derivation ; Minshew a broche, 
&c. Bacon, quoted by Johnson, 
seems to use it for a spangle. Holing- 
shed has ouches or eare-rings, vol.'i, 
c. 8. In Fleming's Noraenclator 
(1585), monile is rendered **a Jewell 
to hang about one's necke; a neck- 
lace; an ouch;^' and monile baccaium, 
**a necklace, owch, or tablet beset 
with pearles." Also, metaphorically, 
a tumour in the skin, such as are 
usually termed carbuncles, and occa- 
sionally gems. 

Up starts as many aches in's bones as there are 
ouches in his skin. 

Chapm. Widow's Tears, 0. PL, vi, 145. 
tGods ouches, look, your eyes are out. 

You will not bird, I trow : 
Alas I goe home, or else I tliinke 
The birds will laugh at you. 

Wit Restored, 1638. 

OUCHE R. An artist who made ouches. 

Owchers, skynners, and cutlers. Cock LorelUs Bote. 

To OVERCRAW, v. Licentiously used, 
for the sake of rhyme, instead of over- 
crow, or crow over, in triumph. 

Then gan the villein him to overcrow, 

And brought unto him swords, ropes, poison, Are. 

Spens. F. Q., I, ix, 50. 

To OVERCROW, v. The same word, 
in its regular form. 

A base varlet that, being but of late grown out of the 
dunghill, beglnneth now to overcrow so high moun- 
tains. Spenser, View of IreUiiui 

This passage is well adduced, by Mr. 
Todd, to prove that Warton was mis- 
taken in changing the word above 
cited in the Faery Queen, to over-aw. 
Hist, Engl. P., iii, 262. 

Shall 1, th' embassadress of gods and men. 
Be overcrow d, and breathe without revenge. 

Brewer's Linaita, cited by Todtl. 
tBoth these noble men labourcu, with tooth aiol 
nayle, to overcrowe, and consequentlv to overthro^v 
one anoUier. Uolinshed, 1577- 





Item, X. peces of woode callyd overleen, xx.d. 

ifSS. at Stratford-on-Awm, 1614. 

fOVERLIVE. To outlive. Used by 

Bacon, Essay xxvii. 
OVERLY, a. Slight, superficial; so 

interpreted by Coles, and translated 

levis, perfunctorius, Holioke also has 

" overly^ vide superficiall." 

Tlie courteous citizen UHde me to his feast, 
With hollow words, and o»€rln request. 

ilaW$ Satires, \\l/w,\. 
So have wee seene an hnuke cast off an heronshaw 
to luoke and flie quite other way, and after many 
carelesse and werhf fetches, to towre np unto the 
prey intended. Ib'id.^ Quo Vadii? p. 59. 

See Todd, for other examples. 
To OVER-PEER, v. To peer over, or 

The pageants of the sea 
Do mer-peer the petty traffickers. Merck. Ven.f i, 1. 
And mountainous error be too highly lieHp'd 
' For truth to over-veer. Coriolanus, ii, 3. 

O Rome, that with thv pride dost over-peer 
The worthiest cities of tne conquered world. 

Kyd*t Conulia, O. Fl., ii, 281. 
We will not thus be fac'd and uver-peer'd. 

Edw. If, O. PI., u, 326. 

Johnson has also illustrated this word. 
OVER-SCUTCHED, parL Whipped, 
probably at the cart's tail ; seems to 
be a corruption of overstcitched, much 
lashed with a whip. 

And sung those tunes to the orer-tcutehed huswives, 
that he heard the curmeu whiMle. 2 Hen. IF. iii, S. 

Ray has " overswitched housewife;'* 
probably with allusion to this passage. 
He explains it thus: **A whore; a 
ludicrous word." North Country 
Words, Mr. Steevens seems to be 
mistaken in deducing it from over- 
scotched^ to scotch being rather to score 
or cut with a knife or sharp instru- 
ment, than to slash with a whip or rod. 
fOVERSEEN. Deceived; drawn into 

cut. Mnrke this: thou goest n1>out varlct, to get 
thyselfc praise by the hnxr.Hrd of my life ; where if 
thou be ovrrseene in anything, be it never so little, I 
shall utterly perish. IVrrnee in EngVt$h, 1614. 

Grt-Ht Julius Ctesar was much ovrrseene 
With Cleopatra, the ^Cgyptian nnciiie. 

Taijlor't ITortes, 1630. 
item, he hates nf all humane things to be arerseme in 
bread ; for he had nither the bn wer should thrive 
than the baker. Uarry V'^ite's Ilumtmr, 1659. 

The truth is, one of us is much o'rsrm: Hmhs a most 
improvident thing, whoe'r 'twas did it, to go and 
beget a fair daughter, and ncrc uske the advice of 
the common councel before hand. 

CartPrright's Siedge, 1651. 

tro OVERSILE. To cover over. 

Ere I my malice cloke or orersiU, 

In giving Izac such a counsell vile. Du Bartas. 


Yea many of them are of this mind, that the time of 
their youth ii infamoiuly otersUpped, when they do 

not rash into their viriniitiioas and 
demeanor, at what time the liistte prime of their s|l 
doth somewhat enable and support them. 

That is, upper stockings: haut A 
chausses, an old name for breecbei. 
Baret has "Breeches, or men'i 
overstoekes, femoralia, wtptS^ifmra^ 

Thy upper-ttocit, be they itafft with ailke or Hocli^ 
Never uecome thee like a nether miire of stoda. 

See Netheu-stocks. 
OVERTHWART, a. Cross, contraiy, 
contradictory. It is rather extn- 
ordinary that this word, which ap* 
pears to have been in great favour 
with many of his contemporaries, ii 
not once used by Shakespeare. 

Never in my life had 1 more oMrtkwrt fortune ia «w 
dav. Meiutckmi, « Plajt, i, lA 

I'll make thee corse thy overthietwt deniaL 

George a Grteat, O. PL, iiit A 
Ever more, Philologe, you will have some oterthmmk 
reason to drawe forth more communication withilL 

Jsck. Toxtfk., p. 106^ fcpt 
He seemeth so iealous of us all, ana oecomea ao^w^ 
thwart to all others. Iy(y'< Court Com,, T l,i 

It occurs in Butler, tor across, bat 
contracted : 

For when a giant's slain in Aght. 

And mow'd o^erthwart^ or deft downright. 

iOssa transversa in temporibiu, qtUB aura eoa^■I^ 
tuiitur. The overthtcart bones in the tfmples wndl 
compaese the eares. KomemeUlm. 

Many other compounds of over- occur, 
which are not now commonly in use; 
but in general they are sufficiently 
intelHgible by knowing the meaning 
of the other part of the word. 
OVERTHWART, as a substantive. 
Contradiction, quarrelling. 

Wliai have we here before my face these nnseMil; 
and nialepart orerthtcarls. 

Lyiy's Court Com. Endim.^ act iii, sc I 
Thy dull head will bee but a grindstone for my qaid 
wit, which if thou whet with oeerthvarts, penislL 

Ibid., Alex, and Camp., act iu, scl 
t A gent riding; on the wav ask'd a poore coantrie b(f 
whose pigKes those weref he answered: MvmothcA 
Who is thy mother ? mv fathers wife. Who is thy 
father? he answered: i!}oe askc my mother? Fa 
these witty orerthtcarti the gent ent'ertain'd the bof 
into his sen'ice, and gave him good wages ever aAtf. 
Copley*s Wits, fits, and FancUt, 161i 

tOVERTHWARTLY. Obstinately. 

Obstinate opernm dot. lie deules orertkwariJy wil^ 
me. He yecldcs not an inch. He stands to Idi 
tackling. Terence in Ettgliik^ 16U 

tOVERTURE. An opening. 

Near the cave's inmost overture did lark 

A tortoise. Ckapm., Hum. Hymen to Herma- 

OUGHT. Used as the preterite of H 
owe, in the sense of to own. 

But th' KItiii knight, which ought that warlike wag<b 
Disdaiu'd to loose the meed he woune in fray. 

iipetu. F. Q., I, hr, Ii 

Also in the modern sense of owed: 





) otukt me, mad* me tnut him lo. 

Mirr. for Mag., p. 420. 
»a : its eurnnt, there wnnu not a penie 
fkt you. T4r$ue« im Bngiisk, 1614. 

E. Uely. 

<tmm o«rle Joves bird doth bete. 
KendrntTt FUnptrs tf Bfigrmmmet, 1677. 

See Wold. 

airy, or sprite; said to be 
r ~ 

the TeiitODic word for 

I, wpk€9, and (kiries. green and white. 

M.tfTJf W^m "»t l^i 4. 

laor caaile, elves, within and oat : 
lucll. o^ket, on erery sacnd room, 
stand u> the perpetual doom. Ibid., v, (. 

probably the proper reading 
ne of the Comedy of Errors : 

h goblins, owpTu, and elvish sprights. 

Act ii, se. S. 

the first folio reads owlet, 
^mpany in which it is found, 
as doubtless the word, as 
I conjectured ; but later 
or the sake of contradicting 
I, as it seems, denied. Capell 
ends Theobald. 
a. Belonging to oupha, or 

eira of fixed destiny. Merry W. IT., v, 6. 

the conjectural reading pro- 

jT Warburton, and certainly 

>bable. The first editions 


e now use ours. The form 


lire ; the dead are none of car. 

Daniel, Civil War, vi, 61. 
f spirit, that lost us what was onr. 

/iii/.. 76. 

sometimes similarly used. 
The liquor in a tanner*s vat. 

the aunciente lawes and ttatutes of tlie 
bould let a hyde lye in the oute at least 
s, you can nmke good leather of it before 
IS. Oreen^t Quip, Uarl. Mtic, v, 410. 

OUZEL, s. The blackbird ; 

1 KQT* €jox»)»'- Oisel, or 

Id French ; or osle, Saxon, 
nch derivative is not correct.] 

\fl cock, BO black of hoe, 

raoge tawny bill. Mid*. N. Dr., iii, 1. 

writes it woosel, but evi- 
eans the same bird : 

near at hand, that hath a golden bill. 

Foljfolb., Song xiii, p. 914. 

t also 09eL Sheph, Garl, 
passage of Hamlet (act iii, 
rhere some modern editions 
d ouzhy for ousel ; the old 
all read weasel^ which is now 

The on»el shrills, the ruddock warbles loft. 

Spent. Bpitkal., 1. 89. 

fOUT. Tipsy. A cant term mentioned 
with others in the Workes of Taylor 
the Water-poet, 1630. 

OUT, adv. Full, or completely. 

For then thou waat not 
Oui three years old. Temp., i, 9. 

OUT, ALAS! A common exclamation 
of grief, where we should now say 
alas only. 

Out, alas I 
Ton'd be to lean that blasts of January 
Would blow you through and through. 

JTint. T., iv, 8. 
Ha! let me see her: out, alas! she'i cold. 

Rom. and Juliet, iv, 6. 
And out, he cries, aUu, worthy wight. 

Harr. Ariott., xviii, 90. 
0, O, defend us, out, alaa. Puritan, iv, 8. 

THE WARM SUN, prov. From 
better to worse. See Burton's Pro- 
verbs, No. 3833. Hey wood, &c. 
Therefore it is said of Lear, who had 
deteriorated his own condition, 

Good king, thou must approve the common saw ; 

Thou out of heaven's benediction comest 

To tie warm tun. Lear, ii, 9. 

Holinshed also has it. Deser. of Brit, 
Sir John Harington, who was always 
on the watch for a quibble, applied 
it to bishop Marks, who was re- 
moved from a real bishoprick here, 
to a nominal one in a warmer cli- 

Marks — removed from Carlisle to Samos in Greece ; 
viz. out of God's blessing into a warme sunne, as the 
saying is. Cutal. of Bishops, CartyJe, 1608. 

See God's Blessing. 
To OUT-BREAST, o. To out-vo ce, or 
surpass in power of voice. 

I have heard 
Two emulous Philomels beat the ear of night. 
With their couteiitious throats, now one the higher. 
Anon the other, then Egnin the iirst, 
And by and by out-breasted. 

B. /• Ft. Two Noble Kinsm., v, 3. 

See BfiEAST. 
OUT-CEPT, adv., for except. 

Look not so near, with hope to understand, 
Out'Cept, sir, you can read with tlte left hand. 

B. Jons. Vnderw., vol. vii, 60. 

OUT-CRY, s. An auction; because 
such a sale was proclaimed by the 
common crier. 

Or else sold at out-crys, oh, yes 1 
Who'll give most, Uke her. 

Parson's Wedd., 0. PI., xi, 441 
The goods of this poor man sold at au out-cry, 
His wife turned out of doors. Mass. City M., i, 3. 
Their houses and fine gardens given away, 
And all their goods, under the spear, at c/»'' cry. 

B. Jons. CutiltHe, ii, 8. 
That titles were not vented at the drum, 
Or common oul-cry. Ibid., New Inn, i, S. 




fOUT-FALL. The mouth of a river. 

Riven with needier speed run neere 
Their out-faUi, than at their springs. 

Chapman's Revenge for Honour, 1654. 

tOUTLANDISH-MAN. A foreigner. 

Advena. A stranger, outlandish man, or forrener. 

Queen Anne left a world of brave jewels behind, but 
one Picro, an outlandish man who had the keeping ot 
them, embeazled many, and is run away. 

Howell's Familiar Letters, 1650. 

OUT-WARD, *. Outside, external. 

I do not tliink, 
So fair an outward, and such stuff within, 
Endows a mnn but him. Cymhel., \, 1. 

To OUT-WELL, v. To pour out, as 
from a well. 

His fattie waves do fertile slime out-well. 

Spens. F. Q., I, i, 31. 

tOUTRANCE. Extremity. 

By reason that on both parts they were so stiffelv set 
to fight to the outrance. Ammianus Mareell., 1609. 

OUTRK-CUIDANCE, s, A complete 
French word, but occurring now and 
then in our authors ; the same as 
SuRQUEDRY, and from the same root. 
Overweening, presumption. 

It is stranee outrecuidanee I your humour too much 
redoundcth. B. Jonson, Cynthia's Rev., v, 2. 

God doth often punish such pride and outrecuidanee 
with scorn and infamy. Eaxttc. Hoe, O. PI., iv, 274. 
Some think, my lurd, it hatli given you addition of 
pride and outrecuidanee. Chapman's M. D'Olire, iv. 

The verb cuider was used in a similar 
sense in old French : " Que le trop 
cuider ronge les os de I'esprit ;" thus 
rendered by the English author, 
"That too much presumption [literally, 
presuming too mucK] gnaweth the 
bones of the spirit.*' Ulysses against 
AjaXf sign. C 8. 
tOUTRODE. An excursion. 

But as for Alricke, ever since the beginning of Valcn- 
tininn hisraigne it wns all in conibnstinn thron«:h the 
outnige of barbarous enemies, wholly set upon slaugh- 
ter and spoile, that tbey m»dc by bold and adven- 
turous outrodes. Jmmianus Marcellinus, 1609. 
For the Isauri, with whom an usuall matter ii is, uft 
times to rest quit-t, and as often with suddaine out' 
rodes to disturbu und confound all. Jbid. 

fOUTROPE. A sale by auction. 

As at common out ropes, when housholds-stuffe is to 
bee solde, they cry, who gives more ? 

Dekker's Dead Tearme, 1608. 

fTo OUTSHOW. To exhibit. 

He blusht to see another sunne below, 
^'e durst ag:uu his ficrie face outshcnr. 

England's Helicon, 1614. 

OWCII. See Oucue. 
To OWE, r., in the sense of to own, 
have, or possess. 

This is no mortal business, nor no sound 

That the earih OKes. Temp., i, 2. 

If now the beard be such, what is the prince 

That oves the beard ? B. A- Fl. Brgg. Bush., ii, 1. 

1 will be heard lirst, there's no tongue 

A subject owes, that shall out-thunder mine. 

Massing. RcnegadOt iii, 8. 

I pray you tell me how come Ton by tiua utnonrfir 
if It be by the death of him wiio owd it, then luTtl 
more to say unto you. Ftmb. 'Jrc, p. J7. 

And by these marks I will yon show. 
That only I this heart do o»e. Dray I. Ode$, p. ISJL 

This sense is extremely common in 
Shakespeare, and all his contempo- 
raries. So in the authorised trausli- 
tion of the Bible, in Acti>, xxi, 11. 

So shall tlie Jews at Jenualem bind the man tkk 
ouieth this girdle. 

This, and many other old words, hsTe 
been tacitly changed in the modem 
editions ; but I find oweth here as 
late as 1708. 
T£R. A legendary tale respecting i 
baker's df^ughter transformed into aa 
owl, is alluded to in the following 
passage ; 

Well, God 'ield you I They say tkeowlwmt « kIcrV 
daughter. Hetml.^ ir, S. 

The tale which Steevens and Johnson 
imperfectly recollected, has been re- 
covered by Mr. Douce ; and the sab- 
stance of it is, that a hdker^s daughter^ 
who refused bread to our Saviour, 
was by him transformed into an ovi> 
as a punishment for her impiety. 
ULEN-SPIEGLE. The hero of a 
very popular German tale, often 
alluded to by various authors. It 
appears that Owl-glass was a Saxon 
jester, or buffoon. 

1. Or what do vou think 
Of Owl glass instead of him? 

"2. No, him 
1 have no mind to. 

1. O but Ulen-spiegU 
Were such a name. 

B. Jons. Masq. ofFort.^ Ti,19(>. 

Jonson also calls him Owl-spiegle : 

Thou should'st have friven her a madgtsowl, and thct 
Tliuu'dst made a present of thyself; Ihelspiegle. 

S*d Shepherd, u,l 

This tale was probably translated 
into English. There is an old 
book, in black letter, without date, 
entitled, **A merj'e Jest of a Man 
that was called Howle-glas,'* In 
Jonson's Poetaster, Tucca calls His- 
trio Owleglas, Act iii. He i» 
alluded to in the humorous poe0 
called Grobianus : 

Fecit idem quondam vir famigeratns ubiqne, 
Nomina cui specula noctua juncta dedit. 

That is, ule, owl, and spiegel, t 


I extracted the following accoant 

I an old book of travels 
Kccideatally omitted t 

ntnBlatioD of the German 
-glasa. in Latin verse, 
octuee Speculum ; by 
pears that ha liistory 

of baffbon advciitures, 

real name »-«« Ti/tus. 
tie run* thus : " Noctuie 
Omnea res nieniornbiles 
idmirabiles Tyli Saxoniei 
« complecteus, pliiiie 
unc primitm ex idioiiiale 

Latinitate duiiaitim, 
iper elegaDttsflimis lco- 
t omnium historiarum 

vivum adumbrantibuB, 
ii^uBm viais aut cditis. 
idio Periandro, Bruxei- 
ntino." Franco/, ad 

nd peDtametcra of the 
; M coarae as the cuts, 
inity of a piece wuh 


i5 OYS 

When itnlghl we ill leBp-darer-bnanl in huts, 

VtMn tnduoetT 'tviit wlr-liakl inil the duke, 
W« nliuk'd the b«t beiond biirh-ntti mtAt. 

Urlnr-i JTorta, lOa 

tOWN. Phrase. 



Tiiii rdiow 

•, 1«1S. 

oflii HW HH. TAi ifa io lU Mixini. ISO*. 

Nl lad; Qijiong, alio, ncrer hiriitg hid lar diild 

to me. Fif),' Diurs, 1M3. 

■fOWSELL. A alougb. 

And tiirelf 1 em lehlj pemnded thet Deither the 
loach of CDnAcianco, nor Ihe lecue hjii] vxioa of may 

DnlwicnUl; tnioe end maiSal ptiOition. 

Ucilm-i SisrfnU Fol.tilia; ISOS. 

HIS FOOT, prov. That is, be has 
fallen into decay or misfortune. In 
the following passage it seems tu 
imply age : 

When Ihe blicke enn'i foote ibell eppuie in their 
eic, 01 ibe kltei on trad cin their IpaK^who irill 

' ""* " ' i'n/iAwj, e'i. 

Ray explnias it of misfortune: 

n< ilsa 01 MTta In4 an ih fool, i. I., he nnv 


wiHuh her. "" ' " Xlfcr'7lW Tm 

OX-LIP. The greater cowslip. 

Wberv Bx-lipt, and the aodding fiolet ^rov 

meet. iw,..Ps(y=ll„ Sonj IS, 

Vh, cHKp-ii ntj like ui tlie c»w.)ip ef^r^J. 

leriilm, uoepntcili-IJiii.-, 

UTing tint bil leifee be rreiUi and iugtr, and }iii 
Ooarei lie of ■ pule orTiint jelo« colour, elmaU 
■hite. and witbwt wniut. Doioau, f. \3i. 

copy of verses entitled, 
a obitum Tt/li Saxoniei." 

tOYSTER-PlE. The following may 
serve as an example of the com- 
plicated mixtures our forefathers 
brought on the table. 

To mile in Ov«.f-iV>— Thii ii verj cnrionj wheu 
oietaiinfaQinuiuoni thuefare tike IbelniEHl. 
ud p.r-boi[ them in the nter or lienor that comei 

the numerous books 

rinled at the expense 
Feyrabendt and Simon 

' colophon and device is 

froD them, ita>h them duM from anj graul ot 

nrenlion lih* id euc. 

put! or the ihelb that mit atick lotliem. aad bai-ing 

of achOwlitloi: 

■Ell^iaionn] tliem wltlt iiuten pE|ipEr, grated nuL- 


b^on'ea pnaerTHl or pickled, ones in bladei, and 

Uyi^j r„t,j, leso. 

Seems to be equivalent 

^th Iboul a dorfi. aoehoru iD h^tt. the bone, t«l. 
Ud Hal heinj UkcD iway, and when It il b.ltrd, 

■our in hulUrbattn np with white wine. >u«ar. ud 

w* UK in Pud'e. i.ul nir litiM 





PACE, V, Corrupted from parse, that 
is, to resolve a word into its parts 
and circn instances ; pars^ Latin. 

I am 110 I^tiiiist, CHndius,you must conster it. Can. 
So I will, and face it too : tlion shalt be acquainted 
with case, gtiuuer, and number 

Lyly'M Mother Bomhie, i, 3. 

For the right word, see Johnson. 
Also Corderius, by Hoole, col. 4 and 
P \CK, for pact. An agreement, or 

It was found straight thnt this was a grosse packe 
betwixt Saturninus and Manus. 

North's Plut. Lives, 459 B. 

In Daniel the two words follow each 
other in two succeeding lines : 

J. Was not a pack agreed twixt thee and me? 
C. A pad to make thee tell thy secrecy. 

/ten. ITorks, K k 5. 

To PACK, seems to be used in a similar 

Go vack with him, and frive the mother gold, 
Auu tell them both the circumstance of ail. 

Tit. Andr., iv, 2. 

But it is also used metaphorically, 
from packing the cards, or putting 
them together in an unfair manner : 

What hath been seen 
Either in snuffs, and packings of the duke's. 

L<ar, iii, 1. 
With two gods packing one woman silly to cuzen. 

Stojit/k. Virgil. 

Thus Antony says of Cleopatra, sus- 
pecting her to have betrayed him : 

She, Eros, has 
Pack'd canls with Ciesar. and false play'd my glory 
Unto an enemy's triumph. Ant. ^y CIroji., iv, 12. 

PACK, *. Familiar appellation. See 

Naughty pack. 
fPACK-PAPER. Another name for 


Paeke paper, or cap paper, such paper as mercers 
and other occupiers use to wrappe their \v<ire m. 

Nomrnclttlur. \oSa, p. G. 

PACK-STAFF, s. A pedlar's staff, on 
which he carried his pack ; often 
introduced by way of proverbial simile. 
" As plain as a pack-staff ;' but pike- 
staff x^ now more common, alluding 
to the staff of a pike. Both staves 
being equally plain, there seems little 
reason for preference between them. 

^ot riddle-like, obscuring their intent, 
"Bvil packstaffe phune,utteririe what thing they ment 

Hall's Hat., Prol. to B. iii. 

So Marston : 

A. pnclst(\f cpiihei and scorned name. 

Scourge of Villunie, ii, 5. 

And : 

O packs t^ffe rhimet. Sat. 1. 

song, the air of which is adapted in 
the Beggar's Opera to the words, 
**The Gamesters united in Friendship 
are found.*' B. Jonson mentions it 
as PaggingtofC s pound : ** To the 
tune of Paggington^s pound." Bart. 
Fair, iii, 1. And W. Barley, who 
published The Guide of the Pathway 
to Mu?ick, in 1596, gives a lesson for 
the orpharion, which he calls Bock- 
ingtorCs pound ; but still the same 
tune. Hawk. Hist. Mus., iii, 344. 

PACOLErS HORSE. An enchanted 
steed, belonging to Pacolet, a charac- 
ter in the old romance of Valentine 
and Orson. Thus introduced in the 
old black letter edition, printed by 
W. Copland, without date : 

In the casteil of plcasaunce of the fayre lady Cleir* 
nionde was i\ dwerfe that she bad nouryahed from 
his chyldhotle, and sette unto the scolr. That same 
dwerfe was entiled Pacolet. He was full of grece, 
wvtte, and undersiondyngc, the whiche at the scot* 
of Toilette had lerned so much of the arte of nygro- 
muncyc that above all other lie was perfx-te, in sack 
manere tbat by unchauntemente he hail made aad 
composed a Ivtell horse of wodde, and in ilie liede 
was artyfycyelly a pynne that was in suche wyae s^t. 
that every fym'e that he mounted upon the horae for 
to goo soiinvhere, he tcrnnl the pynne toward the 
place that he wolde go to, and auonc he founde htv 
111 the place without narrac or duunger. tor the bon 
was of suche facyon that he weute thorougbe the 
ayre more faster than ony byrde coude flee 

Chapter nxi. 

His horse and himself are thus de* 
scribed, in n modern edition : 

Within this castle where Cleriraond resided, dwelt i 
dwarf named Pacolet, who was a necromancer, sod 
constructed a wocrthn horse, in the head of whicli he 
affixed a pin. that by turning; round to the way Ite 
desired, would go through the air, swifter than'nf 
bird. Chap, ax 

As for exam'jile, T may speake, though I am here, rf 
Peru, and in bpeech dijfressc from that to the descry 
tion of Oilccut ; but in action I cannot represent it 
wit licit PaC'jlrt's horse. Defence qfPoesic^ p. 536. 
PncohCs hurse is fur their lords, and the ni^t-Btn 
or ephiallts fur their viragos. 

Gayton, Fest. Sotes, p. 19i 

The name of Pacolet was borrowed 
by Steele, for his fnmiliar spirit in the 
Tatler. See a curious note on similar 
fictions, in Dr. Henley's Notes to 
Vathek, p. 299. 

f His muse it seemes, with all hit load inrocatioa, 
could not be wak't to lijurht him a snuffe to read tJie 
statute, fori would let his raHlirioutipionaceiiBdtf* 
stand that rogues are not to be imptoide u naiBt 
ornaments to his miijesties revels ; but the itch 0/ 
bestriding the pres^e. or getting up on this wwUo 
Pacolet, hath detil'd more innocent paper, tlicn eref 
did laixative physicke. 

Orrrhtlry's New and Choiis CkstrmtUn, 161^ 

fPADDER. A highwayman. 

W^ell niiirht tiny be so. since the ladder 
Has turii'd off many a handiom padder. 




And left tlie wretches past all hope 
^ " ercy, to the fatal rope. Hndibr 
month hedgrs will fmve ih( 
BY will be the leachcr's Imwdj 
ambuscade; the v^abond's todjcing; the tmvulier's 

Of mercy, to the fatal rope. Hndibrtu Rfditicus, 1707. 

igrs will li« ' 
they will be the leachcr's Imwdy-house ; the padiUr's 

This month hedgrs will have these uses in imrticular. 

house of oflloe ; the cattle's umbras^e ; and the fiinuer's 
aecttnty. London Brtrilehfd, \im, p. 6. 

Mercury and Yenus are in conjunction this niunth, 

but vou will say , what does that thii'f Mercury do 

and paidtn do with ladies of pleasure. 

with' Venus? 

even the very same that hectors 

Foor Rubin, 1746. 

PADDOCK, s. A toad, used by Dryden ; 
but perhaps not since. 

Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gili. 
Such dear couceniin^ hide. Hnml., iii, 4. 

No certainly; a Mnrch [marsh] frog kept tliy mother, 
Thou art but a monster>fMt(/</oci^. 

yiastinger. Very Woman, iii, 1. 

Sometimes a frog : 

Paddoekti, todes, and watersnakcs. 

C^sar and PoMpey, Chaptn, 

Iz. Walton talks ot* ** the padock^ or 
frog-padockt wiiich usually keeps or 
hreerls on land, and is very large, and 
boney, and big." Part I, ch. viii. 
By Shakespeare it is made the name 
of a familiar spirit; 

Paddock calls; Anon. nnun. Macb., \, 1. 

PAGLK, or P.AIGLK. «. A cowslip. 
Gerard particularly applies the name 
to the double cowslip, and marks the 
figure of it, "double paigles,^^ He 
describes it, **D()nble paigle, called of 
Pena, primula hortensis Anglica, 
omninm maxima, &c." 

Bine harebells, fagUs, panels, calaminth. 

B. Jons, ifasq. 

PAINTED CLOTH, as a species of 
hangings for rooms, is very frequently 
mentioned in old authors, and has 
generally been supposed and explained 
to mean tapestry ; but was really 
clothy or cnuYM, painted in oil, with 
various devices and mottos. Tapestry 
being both more costly and less dura- 
ble, was mAch less used, except in 
splendid apartments; nor though 
coloured, could it properly be called 

In the accunnts of Corpus Xti. Gild, 
•yoventry, 1 Hen. VIII, is a charge 
.'or painting part of the hall, "and 
:or the clothe, and the peyntyng of 
ihe hyngyng that hongs -at the hy 
(leys next the seyd cupburd." 
This, and the following information 
were supplied by the kindness of Mr. 
T. Sharp, of Coventry, a most accurate 
jiiid diligent antiquary. "The old 
council house, at St. Mary's Hall in 

Coventry, exhibited (says Mr. S.) till 
1812 a very perfect specimen of the 
painted cloth hangings. The roof of 
this curious room is of oak, orna- 
mented with carved figures, of no 
mean workmanship. Benches, with 
wainscotting. surround the room to 
a convenient height, and the space 
between the wainscotting and a rich 
cornice of vine-leaves gilt was covered 
with painted cloth. The arms of 
England and of the city, with the 
princess plume (which has a peculiar 
reference to Coventry), formed the 
principal subjects of the painted cloth, 
and the whole was surrounded with 
an ornamental border. At certain 
intervals, in the upper border, scrolls 
were painted, inscribed, in black 
letter, with various texts of scripture, 
applicable to the de.siination of the 
room. This painted cloth was put 
up early in reign of Eliz., and is 
still preserved, hut was removed from 
its situation in 1812, by the corpora- 
tion, being much decayed." 

Muyster Thomas More, in h}s youth, devysed in hys 
father's houAe in IxjihIdii. n <;oo(lly li.iugyu^ of fyng 
paynted clothe, with nyiu; pa^cuuntcs, and verses 
over every of tliost^ |);i;;r.»uni«'s. 

:<ir Th. Mores En^l. ir,jrh. b;/ Ra.ttelL 

The verses, uiottos, or proverbial 
sayings, interspersed on such clothe, 
are often made the subject of allu- 
sion : 

/. You arc full of pretty answers : Have yoa not been 
acquuiiited with ^oldsiiiith's wives, and conned theni 
out r)f rings':' O. Not so; but I answer vou rizht 
paintrd cloth, iVoni whence you have studied your 
quetitions. As you I. it, i'li, 2. 

So in the Match at Midnight, when 
Bloodhound says that he will have a 
poesy ** which shall savour of a saw** 
(or proverb), he is answered, 

Whtn then 'twill smell of the painted cloth. 

0. PI., rii, 36a 

It was considered as a cheap and 
vulgar hanging. In Wye Salstonstall's 
Picturse Loquentes, a country ale- 
house is thus described: 

Tlic inward liangines is a painted cloath with a row 

ot biilkts pasted on it. Pict. i22d. 

{?. But what buys the painted cloth f 

" Trust nut n woman when she cries, 
Fur she'll pump water from her eyes, 
With a wet tiiiijer; and in faster show'rs. 
Than April when he rains* dnwu llowers." 

ir. Aye h>ir. (Jeor^T''. Unit painted cluth is worthy o 

be hoMyed up lur lyinj;. 

Hon, irkoTe»^.'^\.,\!^,'^.^ A. 




WIm) fearM a sentence, or an old man's saw. 
Shall by a painted eloth be kept in awe. 

Sk. Bape ojLuerece, Snppl., i, 487. 

Other authorities are quoted by 
Steevens, in the note on the passage 
from As you like it. 

And Nature's paintmenU, red, and yellow, blew. 
With ooloars plenty round about hint grew. 

Good Newes and Bad Nevei, 1623. 

PAIR OF CARDS. What we now call 
a pack of cards; though pack was 
sometimes used. As for instance: 

then ! that gentlemen would be so proud to dis- 
dayne thease basemynded shifts and ooaenages, and 
to skome that gayne that is got with hpacke ofearia 
and dyce. Sir J. Earinaion, on Blajie, Nitgm, 

vol. 1, p. 212, Park. 
I ha' nothii^ but my skin. 
And elothes ; my sword here, and mysdf ; 
Two crowns in my pocket, two flair qfeardi ; 
And three false dice. B. f- ^, Sea Fa^offe, i, 1. 

Ha' you ne'er a son at the groom-porter's, to beg or 
iiorrow a pair qfcardt quickly. 

B. Jams. Jfasfue qfZt., vol. vi, 6. 
A pair of aatdt, Niclas, and a carpet to oorer the 
table. Wtman k. with X., 0. PL, Tii« 894. 

1 ran shift the moone and the sun, and know by one 
eardt, what all you cannot do by a whoit poire. 


The price was not ruinous at that 
time : 

He sayd Kpayre of cards cost not past ttoo-paiee. 

Ateh. Toxoph^t p. 48, repr. 

** Fasciculus foliorum, a pair of 
cards.** Higins and Fleming's No^ 
mencLy p. 294. 
PAIR OF SHEERS, prov, "There 
went hut a pair of sheers between 
this and that ;" a proverbial metaphor, 
implying that the things were as much 
alike as if cut from the same cloth. 

There went but apaire ofthteres betweene him [an 
appamtour] and the pursuivant of hell. 

Ova-b. Char., I, S. 
These goes but a pair of sheers between a promoter 
[inomier] and a LnaTc. 

Match at Midu , 0. PL, viii, 367. 

PAIR-ROYAL, 8. (now^ corrupted into 
the unmeaning word priali) Three 
cards of a sort, at commerce, and 
some other games. 

A pair is a pair of any two, as two kings, two queens, 
&c. A pair-royal is of three, as three kings, three 
queens, &c. Complete Oamester, p. 106. 

Howell dedicates his particular Voca- 

To the pair-royal of peers, WMiam lord marquis of 

Hartford, ike., Thomas earl ol Southampton, &c., 

John earl of Clare, flu;. Letie. Tetra^lotton. 

On a pair-royal do I wait in death } 

My sutereign, as his liegeman ; on my nUstress, 

As a devoted senrant ; and on Jthoeles, 

As if no brave, yet no unworthy enemy. 

Ford's Broken Heart, ▼, 8. 

It is well illustrated by Butler: 

Strickland and his loii. 
Both cast into one, 

Wat meant tar • tin^ baro&i 

But when Uiey came to ait. 
There was not wit 

Enough In both to serve for on 
Wherefore 'twas thought good 
To add Honey wood ; 

But when they came to trial. 
Each one prov'd aVool, 
Tet three knaves in the whole. 

And that made up a pair'-royaL 
BaiUJon the BarL j 

As it rhymes here to tn 
perhaps fair to conclude thi 
already spoken prial. The 
matist, Owen, has a quaint 
on what he calls a pmre- 
friends, which, in a foreig 
now before me, is blunderec 
paire of royal friends !** The 
are England, Scotland, an 
then united under James I. 

Hoc in amidtia mihi peu- regaU videtur, 
Tres inter quoties eistitit unus amor 

Scilicet ut ^emino tit pax iu amore tuor 
Unna quiaqne tuum bis numerandoa 

With this conceit, he writes 
to it thus . 

r Cambro-Anglo- -« 
Ad J Anglo-Scoto- iBritan 
L Sooto>Cambro J 

Epigraat. liber. I 

The par regale must pus: 
reader who knew not the U 
royal; particularly foreignei 
In one place I find it printed ^ 

Fl. Why two foolea? Fr. la it not past 
not come neere three, siaterf [meanin 
one]. Pa. Shew perryall and take it. 
/. Bay's Hwsumr out of Bret 

This was a step towards prii 

f Hath tliat great pair-royal 
Of adamantine sisters [the fates] late mt 
Of some new trade P f^tuui 

To PAISE. To weigh, or po; 

Thoueh soft, yet lasting, with Joat bttlai 
Distributed with due proportion. 

rietch. But 
To the just scale of even paieed thoughti 

Marston, What y 

PALABRAS, *. Words ; pure 
It seems to have been curi 
for a time, even among the 
probably, therefore, importe 
seamen, as well as the corrup 

Comparisons are odorons : palahrtu, neigl 

Much Ado 

We have it also in a corrup 
elsewhere : 

'Rivniort paMoas paUahris : lettbeworli 


For pocas palahras. Thus : 

Bocas palabras, mild as the lamb. 

^poii. Tragedy, 

A ^BlfifBB ihiD bfl cmHed, nlatnti Utr^ ; illagnu 
■u Dot) fMWffl/Alnr, 1 will coojurr for too, Tbtc- 
well. Bamns tiiil, fl. PI . li, lli. 

Mr. StecTeuB quotes also the Wi«e 
Woman of Hogsdeii for it, nud remarks 
that it ia uanally given to low people. 
In Hieronymo it is introduced, I 
presnme.BS being a Spanish tragedy. 
PALE, I. A division, a place set apart 
from another ; as the BngliBh pale, 
the pale of the churcli, &c. The 
Bagliah pole, in Ireland, compre- 
hended four coantiea ; namely, Louth, 
in Ulster, vith Meath, Dubl'.t, and 
Kildare, in Leinster ; which were 
particularly poiseased by the English, 
while the rest of the country was 
chiefly in the power of the native 

Tlu wild O'unla. wilb •wnmu of Iitih kcnt, 
Una BBcsBtnd'd within Uw Englii)i imJi, 

Bi». if, 0. PL, ii, 3(1. 
For in tlu lut eonipinejr of the EiiglUta fMlt. think 

Cuat Uut then wcR nunj more tuilliE, tban Iboie 
fait Ihg puniihniint. 

Spfv. Fine aflrii, Todd'i ed., liii, 131. 
Whf tfatn nmn in li.e i»ce( o' the yw, 


This seems to be the sense, but the 
commentatora dispute upon it. I 
have no doubt that n quibble was also 
intended upon red and pale. 
PALE, V. To inclose, as with a pale. 

Behold, the Engliih beach paUi in the Hood 

2. To make pale, in colour : 

WUcli th; Bheek blubelh. when it ■ 

BafiM with the newi hercaT. 

Tmurtd and Ginn., O. FL, ii, 2116, 

Also in page 226. 

'e pale, to outstrip one's 

f 7b lean the f 

tlew taDlMini wi 

ISO BB* kntthai will Uke all bsdth from ran, tour 
I(H*w tttfalt will aua yon l«>ke laJe, 

Ti4 Man J* hi Uomi. ISOt. 

PALEBMO RASORS. Formerly cele- 
brated for their excellence, before 
Britain had learnt to excel all the 
world ia catler;. 

It la • ratm-, and Uml a Teir cood oob. 

It cue lately fmB Fabnu [Pillutime, i(o] it cort 

0.ii. ^I*i(*.O.Fl, t, SS7. 

TWt jva vordci may ihare iike the raxort ot 

r^vme. LoigiU IFonKiUofai. Wtt. I, 4. 

PALL, «. A rich mantle ; from paUa, 

h triple < 

eath, I 


In tiie old ballads ;)urp/e and pall, is 
a frequent phrase for " purple robes." 
See Percy, vol. i. 
PALL-MALL. A game, of which the 

the street once appropriated to iliiit 
use, as was afterwards the Mall, in 
St. James's park. It is derived from 
pale maille, French ; at which word 
Cotgrave thus describes the game: 
" A game, wherein a round box bowle 
is, with a mallet struck through a 
high arch of yron (standing, ateitlier 
end of an ally, one) which he that can 
do at the fewest blowes, or at the 
number agreed on, wins." Properly, 
I believe, the place for playing wa* 
called the mall, the stick employed 
palemail. So at least it appears in 
these quotations given by Todd : 

If one had paiUcmiili it w.te gi»d lo play in lliia 
•llej, for il ii of a jTBionable ffioi leniih, itniitihl, 
anderen. Fr.airJnfotBnglIjid..\6a. 

By fiom a. iii^ht/ oM i*f Svii. 

See Todd in Pail- mail, and Pall-mall. 

Evelyn, however, more than oiu-rt 
speaks of a Pall-mall as a place for 
playing in : 

^onday,^ein J May-day, iro willied np into the Ft:!. 
■hU; very iao%, end » nobly iliadnl with tall Ire i 
(beion in the Enidit of n |-reaCe ni>o<l) that unleiaj 

Yet at Tours he calls It ilfa//only ; 

The Mall withont comparlion ia the nohleit is 
Europe for Icntth and ihade. Here we play'd m 

At Lyons he finds a Pall-mall again. 

P. 68. 

See also p. 228. 

fOthcnl'l knock f>efl.>u.I(. 

Csrlviri;tl'i Ladj Srriall, lOEt. 

PALLIAMENT, e. A robe; the white 
gown of a Roman candidate. Affected 
as a classical term by the author of 
Titus Andronicus: 

Titu AndronicD*, the people ef Rome,^ 
Send thee by me, their tribune, and tlicii tnut, 
Thii pailianniJ, of ohile and inollnt hue. 


PALLIARD, «. A vagabond who lin 
upon straw. Paillarit, French. 

I do rememhet vet. 




A c1n))per dudgeon is a beggar born, some call him a 
palUard. Lfcker, f'il. Disc, O 2. 

PALM, *. The broad part of a deer's 
horns, when full grown. 

Nailing it up amoug Irish heads of deer, to shew the 
mightincsB other palm. B. A' f^- Scomf. L., iii, 1. 

tXhe forehead of the goat 
Held out a wondrous goodly palm, that sixteen 
brought. " Ckapm. 11., iv, 124. 

PALM-PLAY. Tennis ; jeu depaulme, 

The palme-flay, where, dispoyled for the game, 
With dazed vies, oft we, by ^leanies of love 
Have mist the ball and got sight of our dnnie. 

Surrey's Poans, Prison, at Windsor, j-c. 

PALMED DEER, is a stag of full 
growth, that bears the palms of his 
horns aloft. 

The proud, palmed deer. 
Forsake the closer woods. Drayt. PoJyolb., 1114. 

In the same sense high-palmed is 

Willie still the lusty stag his high-palm*d head up 
bears. Ibid., xiii, p. 917- 

When thy higk-palmed harts, the sport of bows and 
hounds. thid., xxvi, p. 1169. 

And where the goodly herds of high-palmed liarts did 
gaze. Ibtd., H. vii, p. 792. 

Hii/h-palmed harts amidst our forests run 

Drumm., \>. 183, Lond., 1791. 

Hence, " the most high and palmy 
state,'* may be so understood. See 
PALMER,*. A wandering votary of 
religion, vowed to have no settled 
home. Supposed from gaining the 
imlm, or prize of religion, or from 
carrying r palm branch. 

1 am u pamer, as ye se, 

Which of mv lyfe mucli part have spent 

lu many a lay re and farre countric. 

The difference between a pilgrim and a palmer was 
this. The pil^nii) had suiiic hutnc vv (iwclting place, 
but iliup<i/»i^r lind none. The pilgrim tnivi-lled to 
soiiii- rcrtain d(isi};ncd place or places ; but the palmer 
to all. The pil^im wt-nt at his own charges; but 
the f«i(fmtfr professed will nl poverty, and went upon 
alms. Slatel'y's KomisH Iforseleach, p. 9S. 

Johnson has copied this account. 
PALMING DICE. One of tlie nume- 
rous arts of cheating, which seem to 
have flourished much among us, at 
the end of the sixteentli century. 


Full directions for the practice of this 
branch of art, may be found in the 
Compleai Gamester (a book often 
quoted for the ancientgames), page 1 0. 
As we no longer hear of these tricks, 
it is probable that having been long 
exposed, they have ceased to be prac- 
ticable ; or the players are grown too 
ctmuing to be so deluded. In a later 
^ book, a major Clancy i8 celebrated 

for all these arts. When he wat not 
furnished with high and low fullums, 
it is said. 

Why then his hand supply'd thote wants, by palming 
tlie (lie; rlint is, having the box in his hand, lie nimbly 
takes ui) both the dice as they are thrown, within 
the hollow of his hand, and putt but cue luto the 
box. reserving the other in the pa/m, and obser>'iDg 
with n quick eye what side waa upward, he Hccord- 
inicly confurnis the next throw to his purpose. de> 
livering: iliat in the box, and the other in Itis hand 
smoothly together. Memoirs of Oameilen,n\^,f- 87- 

The expression of palming anything 
upon you, evidently comes from this. 
So Jonson : 

Well said, this carries palm with it. Poatasttr, aclr. 

And Mr. Gifi'ord's note on it, p. 522. 
Soon after the expression occurs of 
"a work of as much palnu^ 
P. 524. 
PALMY, a. Grown to full height; in 
allusion to the palms of the stag's 
horns, when they have attained their 
utmost growth. 

In the roost high and palmy state of Bom?, 

A little ere the mighty Juhus fell. Haml.X 1. 

It might, however, mean no more 
than glorious, in allusion to the^a/fif« 
of victory ; and it must be allowed, 
that a contemporary of Shakespeare 
has so employed it : 

Tlicse days shall be 'hove other far csteem'd. 
And like Augustus' ca/my reign be deem'd. 

DrummonJ^s Forth Feasting, p. 181, ed. 1791. 

See Palm, above, and Palmed. 
fPALPED. Palpable? 

And bring apalped darknesse ore the earth. 

Beyicood's Brazen Age, 161S. 

fTo PALT. To pelt. 

Tell not tales out of achoole. 
Lest you hepalted. 

Ballad on D. of Bmekiugkau. 
However, 'tis no shame to use 
A weiip«)n which our foes tirsi chuse, 
Or to return, when once asiutuUed, 
That dirt with which we tirst M^erc pamltetL 

Hudibras iZMmm«,part L 

PALTER, r. To shuffle, or speak con- 
tradictorily ; probably, to act in a 
paltry manner. 

Be these juggling fiends no more beliered. 
That palter with us m a double sense. Mmtk., t, 7- 

What other bond 
Tlian secret Romans, that have spoke the wmd. 
And will not palter. Jul {7«f., ii, I. 

Now I must 
To the voung man send humble treaties, dodge. 
And palter in the shifts of lowness. 

Jut. and Cleop., iii, •. 
One whyle his tonge it ran, and palter'd of a cat. 

Gamwur Gurt., 0. FL, ii, 8S. 

PAMPESTRIE, 8. A word which I 
have only found in the following pas- 
sage, where it evidently means some- 
thing of the magical kind. 




That comet by magicke uia of imagerie. 
By vile inehaantments, charms, vna pmmpestri*. 

Mirr.for Mag^ p. 58. 

Can it be a corruption of palmistry ? 

f Darke dreames devisde for fooles are fit, 
Aiid such as practise MMpef//^^. 


PAN-PUDDINGS. Perhaps Yorkshire 
puddings, which are baked in the 
dripping-pan ; or else fritters. See 
Flap- JACK. [Shropshire appears 
formerly to have been celebrated for 

To devour their chease^^Uces, apple-pies, cream and 
custards, flap-jacks, and ptm-vuadingt. 

^ocM Crew, O. PL, x. 353. 
f The fum-jmdJingt of Shropshire, the white pudding 
of Somersetshire, the hasty-puddings of Hamshirc. 
and the pndding-pyes of any shire, all is one to him, 
nothing comes amiise. Taylor^t Wcrhs, 16.H0. 

tAiid so, noble Tritons, erery one to his command ; 
stand to your vanjmdding, let's not lose our herring- 
pond for a broken shin ox two. 

Tk» Fagmm Prime*, 1690. 
f Nothing will surfeit a man sooner than lore and 
panpitddmf ; but if poor people get surfeits now at 
nch men's tables, I will forfeit all my skill in astro- 
logy. iW Robin, 1715. 

fPANADE, or PANADO. A bread 

But praT what pottage ? such as a small cottage 

Afbrded only to the country swains. 

From whence I'm sure, though none the place 

It was no Christmas-dish with pruens made. 
Nor white-broth, nor capon-broth, nor sweet psmade, 
Or milk-porrage, or tliicic pease-porraga either. 
Nor was it multon-brotii, nor veal-broth neitJier. 

Satyr mgainst Hypocrites, 1689. 
To make petnado after the beat fashion. — Take a quart 
of spring-water, which being hot on the fire, put into 
it snccs of fine bread, as thin as may be ; then add 
half a pound of currans, a Quarter of an ounce of 
mace, boil them well, and then season them with 
rose-water and fine sugar, and serre them up. 

Clotet ofBariOa, 1706. 

PANARY, *. A storehouse for bread ; 
from panis, Latin. In the preface to 
the Church Bible the translators, 
speaking of the excellence of scripture, 
sum up their eulogy by saying, 

lo a word, it is a panmry of wholesome food, against 
fenowed traditions; a physician's shop (as S. Basil 
caJb it) of preaenratives against poysoned heresirs; a 
pandect of profitable laws, against rebellious spirits ; 
a treasury of most costly jewels, ^[^ainst beggarly 
elenenu; finally, a fountain of more pure water, 
spriaging I^> unto everlasting life. 

The TranslaUnt to the Reader. 

FANCEIDGE. A corruption of Pancras, 
a parish dose to London. The earl 
of Pancridge was one of the ridiculous 
personages in the burlesque procession 
called Arthur's Show. Jouson men- 
tions him : 

T. Next our St. George, 
Who rescued the king's dHiighter, 1 will ride; 
Above prince Arthur. C. Or our Shoreditrh duke. 
Jf. Or PoAcridtje earl- P. Or Bcvis, or sir Guv. 

TaU of a ThC, iii, 3. 

Also in some lines against Inigo Jones, 
he says : 

Content thee to be Pancridge carl the while, 
An earl of show, for all thv worth is show. 

To Jniffo Marqvie W'juld-be, 

The duke of Shoreditch was another 
mock nobleman of that company. 
PANDORE, 9, A musical instrument, 
something resembling a lute ; proba- 
bly the same as bandore, but nearer 
to its original, pandura, Italian. It 
seems by these lines to have been 
strung with wire, not catgut : 

Some that delieht to touch the sterner wiery chord. 
The cythron, the pandore, and the theorbo strike. 

Drayt. PoJyolb., iv, p. 7-6. 

See Bandore. 
PANE, s. An opening or division iu 
parts of a dress; pan, or panneait, 
French. "A pane of cloth, paniii- 
culus." Coles. 

He (lord Mountjoy) ware jerkins and round hose— 
with laced patus of russet cloath. 

Fynes Jforyson, Part ii, p. U>. 
Strikes off a skirt of a thick-laced satin double: I 
had ;— cuts off two panes embroidered wii h pearl. 

B. Jons. Ev. M. out of U., iv, ■;. 
The Switzers weare no coates, but doublets and h< >.c 
oi panes, intermingled with red and yellow, and so u 
with blew, trimmed with long puffea of yellow ai i 
blewe sarcenet rising up betw ceii the panes 

Coryat, vol. i, p. 41, ruj .-. 

In fact, a pane of a window is per- 
fectly analogous, and of the same 
[Also, a pane of stone. J 

tAnd one wall particularly I observ'd of a church- 
Yard, which totjk up the whole length of a street, 
built of pains of this stone about a foot square, look 
very particular and handsome. 

J Journey through England, 1734. 

PANED HOSE. Breeches ornamented 
with cuts or openings in the cloth, 
where other colours were inserted in 
silk, and drawn through. Such 
breeches were usually made full, and 
stuffed out with cotton. Minshew, 
in his Spanish Dialogues, has, " Give 
me my |>aiiMf velvet hose," and ivdiW^- 
\Kted paned by acuchilladas i which is 
cut, slashed, &c. 

Hunger, begotten of some old limber courtier, 

In paned hose. Reference forgotten. 

With an old pair of jaaned hose. 
Lying in some hot chamber o'er tlie kitchen. 

B. and Fl. Wit at set. W., iv, I, 
Our diseased fathers 
Worried with the sciatica and aches, 
Brought up your pan^ J Ao^r first, which lad ies luught at. 

Mass. Old Law, ii, 1. 
My spruce ruff, 
My hoo<led cloak, long stocking, and paned hose, 
Mv case ot touihpicks, and my silver fork. 

nil, Gr.Ihtke of Fl., iii, I 

Bulwer says, *' Bombasted ptnieU hose 

PAN 6; 

were, since I can remember, in 
fHshion ;" nnd the nc companding 
woodcut exbibits breeches striped trnd 
stuffed ns above described. Artijieial 
Changeling, p. 540. Other pnrts of 
dress were paned also ; and Mr. Todd 
has cited a passnge from Warlon's 
Life of Sir Thomas Pope, in which 
certain altsr clothes are directed to 
be made of "blew bawdkyn, poind 
with red veWet." P. .339. 

*Thi« brMch H'upucJ in ths Inietl wjm. 
And wilh Tight Battan Terr coflUf Ijned. 


u^ia'ii hall. ul HlUeMcn, 

Who ofl. 


Cntl'J m 

-'■'™heble. it. ' 

kold tbU HI 

U RrfrealUmtt ISM. 

PANNIKELL, «. The crown of the 
hesd, or skull ; called by some the 

Tbit'tn'lij'e'ebiii he'cklt bii^J?e!S ^ toiin. 

Spow. J'. «„ III, T, S3. 

PANSY. *. Pens^e. French. The viola 
tricolor ; called also heart't-eate, Ac. 
TLis may be considered as a poetical 
name, not vet disused. See Jolmson. 

PANTABLE,'*. A sort of bigh sboe, 
or slipper; perhaps corrupted from 
panlofle. [Said to be Ger. Ta/eln, 
hoards, and band-XtXt\, a clog made 
of a sole of wood fastened by a 
strap. See ScbmeUer.] 

I cr; <our nutronihip mcrrie ; beauK i/imrfmlMH 
be hi eW with corLi, IbErerort jour fnte mnal nesii 

Lyff. EndmUm. Court Om.. C S i 

Anr^ii»M«. B. ajidFl-'oinmSiat, iii, 

Lsl Ihi thambrr be pfifuin'd. mi ret you. luTsb. 
1<iiciipui<lr><u(°lfciK>id)i. Jfuj. CiCyJfi^.im, 
ClunnK ind iwnring b; the fanMli or FiIIicf. ar 
>ucb olbu gaUio It liii nulical bniciic can 
imntiiDe. Femtr. Jraid., p. » 

PAN TACLE, *. Of uncertain significi 
tion. Mr. Steevens supposes it might 
be put ioT pantofle ; but there seems 
no reason for such a corruption, 
tloe* it particularly luit die sense. 


It occurs twice in the play of Damon 
and Pitbias: 

irjmplnjJacte mpea in mocking mj mafUrail 
£TeD hera wjlb a paittteU I vjll ^on diKnca. 

And soon after, another speaker says, 

'loon, Ihd^ p. lU. 

It is more likely to be a mistake for 
tPANTALOONS. A later name for 
what had before been called hote. 

In ttmatt timet, wida MAm, nfi, •iMb'd *k«n% 
Did ibow bnt i^plou of th« (bol'i diaaaaai 
Qat linlnn, landT wa it aia ti , ftuMtnt, 
Bcndo'd Ihem but Jack Paddeni and boffooaa. 

Tkta—itim a ITetd. -iu, liDL 

PANTLER, «. The servant who hsd 
the care of the pantry, or of the 

good paittUr, he irouJd 

Tbii duj. il 

ro chipped bread nIL 

I mj old wife liTcd. npoa 
■ tKith jwaiffr. bulicF, cook i 
ccvant ; wdcom'd all ; aenM all 

and butler, [ormT woDicdallowiuicsta tbapaec. 


A roffUD tfait bath frd upon me — like poUea mn ■ 
(antfcr". chippingl. JCr.. 0/ Jaf. Jfarr, O. PL. t, M. 

PANTOFLE, s. A slipper ; pantouJU, 
French. One page was considered as 
attached to the pantofle, it being his 
office to bring tbem. One of tbete 

JfajMf. Ummtt. Ctmt., iii, 1 
Aa jour papi, 
I can wall on tou trencher, Bll joo wina, 
CuTT vour vMtt^Lu, aad be lomeiliDea ble^d. 
In aU humilitj, to toudi jrour feet. 

B. ind Fl. Sr*n. CmTmU,it,l- 

They seem to have been at one time 
reckoned smarter ihan pumps ; for 
UaringtoQ says of one Sextus, that 
having lost hapantofiet wben drunk, 

In Higins's Nomenclator, crepida i> 
explained, " PantouJU, a slipper, or 
pantofle." P. 170. So Holioke, "A 
panlofie, or slipper." See also the 
authority in Jobnson. 

tWh;, and what leue wai that other, who beiat ia > 
threadbare cloalLe, hie eaafc^ and itockinga dovs^ 

FaaanscT of Bnumtt, lUl 


Ld lime ID pAHtqStt of 




he golden pantqfU, bat feele not how 
Bchetli the foote. 
Braithwttift Survey of History, 1688. 


roverbial phrase for doing 
ig in an unkind manner; 

be to feed an infant with 
ble an instrument. So is 
d by Mr. Park, in a note 
ond passage quoted here, 

seen no interpretation so 

ip vitha spoone before we can speake, 

ipeake for that wee love, pd» witk a 

Lyly'M Court Corned., Z 13 b. 

Lve it, is to obtain a perni- 

ir ; bwpop ahufpoy, 

sedu for a nurse bo young, shall have 

chet for Iiis comfort. 

fMarr., Harl. Misc., ii. 171, Park's cd. 

vidently, shall find more 
. good in it. It has been 
i to be the true reading in 
ng passage of a play attri- 
hakespeare : 

a hempen cnndle then, and the fMtp 
] of a hatchet. 2 Hen. VI, Iv, 7. 

iture is Dr. Farmer's, and 
e at least. Pap with a 
well known to be the title 
hash's tracts against Martin 
. See Beloe's Anecdotes, 

A papist. This word I 
met with. Mr. Todd has 
1 it from Herbert's Travels, 
on the Church of England. 

To set down in a list, on 
the following passage of 
re, in which alone it occurs, 
)rrupt (of which there is 
iarance), it should be thus 

He makes up the file 
mtry; for the most part snch 
at gr^t a charee as little honour 
lay upon ; and his own letter 
rable board of council out) 
him in, — ^he papers. Henry VUl, i, 1. 

t is not very intelligible. 

innen of a IVbnme slave, 
then a mighty monarch have : 
le dyed a traitor most disloyall, 
' be transform'd to paper-royall? 

Taylor's ITorkes, 1680. 

lBLE. a paste-board for 
entomological specimens. ? 

k, upon X\ij paper-tables, 

lias, (Bata, Sees, and all the rabbles 

Of other insects (end-less to rehearse), 
Limn'd with the pencill of my various verse. 

Du Bartas. 

PAPEY, or PAPPEY. A fraternity . i 
priests, formerly established in Aid- 
gate ward, London. 

Then come yon to the jMpp«y, a proper house, wherein 
some time was kept a fraternitie, or brotherhood ot 
S. Charitie, and S. John Evangelist, calleil the pap -y, 
for poore, impotent priestes (for in some langu;ii;e 
priestes are called papes) founded iu the yeare 14:i0, 
lu:. Stowe's London, p. 110. 

It was suppressed in the reign of 
Edward the Sixth. See also Stowe, 
p. 124. 

tPAPISTS'-CORNER. A comer in 
old St. Paul's so called, because it 
was believed the papists made ap- 
pointments there in the time of 
queen Elizabeth. 

fPARAGON. A curious pattern in a 
garden. Still retained as applied to 

Gardens and groves exempt from paroffous. 

Chapm., Hymn in Cyntk. 

fPARAGON. As an adj., equal or 
rival to. 

In counsel fon^on 
To Jove himself. CJuipm. R., ii, 834. 

To PARAGON, v., from the substantive. 
To excel ; to be considered as excel- 

We are contented 
To weare our inortall state to come, with her, 
(Katherine our oueene) before the primest creature 
That's paragon^l o' th' world. Henry VIII, ii, 4. 

This reading has been doubted ; but 
it is that of the first folio, and is 
confirmed by the following : 

If thou with Ceesar paragon again, 

My man of men. Ant. #* Cleop., i, S. 

He hath achieved a maid 
That paragons description. Othello, ii, 1. 

Exemplified also from Sidney and 
Milton. See Todd. 
fPARANYMPH. Usually signifies a 
bridesmaid. Gr. 

Our blessed ladies parammphe saint Gabriellel 

Watson's quodlibets cf BeligUm, \^)i. 

PARAQUITO, *. A perroquet, or 
parakeet: a small kind of parrot. 
Used, in the following passage, by 
way of playful endearment : 

Come, come, yon paraquilo, answer me 
Directly to the question that 1 ask. 

I Hen. IT, ii,S. 

This Italian form of the word is not 
peculiar to Shakespeare : 

With a close ward to devour thee, 
My brave paraquilo. Dumb Kn., O. Pl^ vi, 4<S3 

tWhat doe v' else 
But set perfidious wiles for simple flyes 
To keep game ready for the parakeetof 
^ Cartwriyht's Sieige, 1651. 





How mean vou, sir, quoth sliec? Marry thus, mis- 
tris, quoth George, that if it vere not for printing 
and painting, my — and yoor face would grow out 
of reparations. At which shee biting har lip,in a 
9arat fiuy went downe the staires. 

JesU ofOeorye Petit, n. d. 

tPARATOR. An apparitor. 

He scapes occasion unto lusts pretence. 
And so escapes the poxe by consequence. 
Thus doth he scape the parator and proctor, 
Th' apothecary, iurgeon, and doctor. 

Taylor's JTarkes.iesa. 

tPARAVAIL- COURT. An inferior 

lint tlioueh there lie writs from the courts panmount. 
To stay liie proceedings of the courts parataiU. 

Beaujttont's Poewu. 

PARAVANT, adv. Before-hand, or 
first. French. 

But that faire one, 
That in the midst was placed parovavnt, 
M'as she to whom the ehepheard pvpt alone. 

Soms. F. Q., VI. X, 15. 
Tell me some markes by which he may appeare, 
If chance I him encounter vararann/. 

/W4f.,III,ii, 16. 

In the following passage Mr. Todd, in 
hi^ notes, has explained it publicly; 
but I think it clearly means first and 
foremost, above all others : 

Yrl fo nuch jtrace let her vouchsafe to grant 

To siniplf swain, silh her 1 may not love, 

yet that I iniiy her honour rhonour hur] pararan/, 

And praise her wit. Colin Clout's Come H., v. 989. 

To PARBREAK, r. To vomit; sup- 
pi sed to be for to break forth. 

Y(<u shall see me talk with him, even us famih'arly ns 
it 1 should parbreak my mind and my whole stoniHrli 
ujion him. Grim Ihr CJlir'r, (). PI., xi, 256. 

And when he hAih par breaJc'd his grievtrd mind. 

Hall, Satires, 1. v. 
And virulently disgorged. 
As though ye wold parbreak. Skfltun, p SO. 

Qome parbreak heer your fuul. black, banefull gnll. 

Stilr. Du Bart., Ill, i, 2. 
iWhen to my griat annoy aiu-e. uid almost pnr- 
brruking, 1 have scene any of tlit-Hc billy crcninrcs. 

I'tiaemjer of liencenvlo, lOlfl. 

PARBREAKE, *., fromthe verb. The 
matter thrown from the stomach in 

Her &\iiiie parbreake all the place defiled hath. 

Spefis. F. q., I, i. 20. 

PARCEL, *. A part ; a law term, 
often used conjointly with part ; as, 
*' part Hud parcel.*' 

Dners philosophers hold, that the lips is parcel of 
the mouth. Merry U . W , i. 1. 

T«» make it fMireel of my empery. Tumburlaine. 

ll is a binnch and parcel of mine oath. Com. Err., v, 1 . 

In composition with almost any won), 
it implied being partly one thing, 
partly another. 'Ihus parcel-bawdy a 
person, one part of whose profession 
was being a bawd : 

lie, sir, a tapster, parcel-hatal. Mens, for Meas.^ ii, 1. 

Pareel'^ilt, partly gilt : 

Tlioa did'st swear to me upon zpareel^U g 

Or changing 
His pareeUgiU to massy gold. B. Jons. At 

I find also partial-gilt^ which ii 
haps the origin of the other ; oi 
at least, supposed by the autli 
be so: 

He can distinguish of your guilt by your gui 
makes him ever goe|MU-/ia/{^il/. 

CUtus's CaUr^karae 

In the following passage parcel 
alone for parcel-gilt : 

And flowers for the window, and the Tnrky c 
And the great paretl salt. B. /* Fl. Cozen 

Parcel-poet occurs frequently i 
Jonson : 

He is a gentleman, parcel-poet, you slave. 

And as such prescribes, kc. &:c. ; parcel-poet^ 
And sings encomiums to my virtues sweetly. 

Massing. City Modi 

So also in various other and arb 
modes of composition : 

He's parcell-statesman, parcrll-priest, and so 
If you observe, he's parcell-poet too. 

U'itU Hecreat., Ep 

See the confession of the joint-e< 
of Beaumont and Fletcher (of 1 
of their long-continued m 
respecting this word. Vol. x, p 
The examples might be mult 
without end, but I trust the 
are sufficient. 
PARDONER, 8. A person whc 
licensed to sell papal indulge 
Such a character appears in tb 
play of the Four Ps : 

p. Truly I am a pardoner. 

Palmer. TrvHy h pardoner! that may be 

But a trcw pardoner doth not ensue. 

Kight selde is it f ecne, or never. 

That trueth and pardoners dwell togethe 

PARDY, or PERDY, adv. A very 
mon corruption of par-Dieu, Fi 

I'or if the king likes not the comedy, 
Wliy then belike he likes it not, perdy. 

In that yon Palmer, as deputie 
May cleerly discharge liim pardie. 


PARELS. A doubtful word ii 
same play ; it may either sig 
similar event, or may be a corn 
of perils. 0. PI., i, 96. It see 
be equally doubtful here, thoi 
will bear the sense of peril ; 

Constant I was in my prince's quarrell 
To die or live, and spared for no parrell. 

Mirr.for Mag 

tPARENTS. Used for father, g 
father, mother, or grandm( 
Femey Papers, p. 90. 




\ V. To plaister, a« a wall. 
^rench word for plai^tered is 

which Cotgrave explains by 
etied^ rough cast,'* &c. Some 
lerived it from paries^ a wall ; 
If. Todd has found it written 

in bishop Hall. But I con- 
^ariet as intended to be spoken 
/ the t vowel being almost as 
>niy put for the t consonant, as 
we\ u for the v. 

d metaphorically to female 
linting, as we now say some- 
.hat a woman plaisters: 

le't abo\'e fifty-two, and pargets. 

B. Jons. iAUnt Ifbm., t, 1. 

Cynthia's Revels, Phantaste 
in their mock Litany, 

rgelting, pointing, lUckinfr, g^latinf, and 
; old rirelled faces, good Mocnrj defend na. 

Act V. ad fin. 

a conjectural reading in Antony 
leopatra, where the heroine 

Sole sir o* the worid, 
mot frojet mine o«n cauac so well. 

Act r. sc S. 

>mas Hanmer reads, 

not forgrt mine own cause so welL 

, I cannot hedawb, or gloss it 
which is tbe more probable, 
' the pargetting was the fine 
g plaister. "Opus alba- 
fthite liming worke, or par- 
worke." Abr. Fleming, 
/., p. 198, b. 

ing is still not uncommon in 
un tries for plaistering upon a 

elj it was oonrenient that he whieha was 
Ty€tU and cloae np !>oth the broke walles, 
say. was come t>< juiunt: nud knit the 
he*Jew<^ and the ceople of the 
tber into one profe^tion of the 'zh^tpfl. 

Parmohrase of EnnMut. \hKh 
laid, that he conla not endure the sineli o.' 
amber newly daul>ed or pargetted witlj 
le of lime. 

HoUamPs Ammianus Marcdtitnu. 1G09. 

9, Plaister laid on a wall. 

the parget ; and the seeling bn:;ht 
dl tcaly with great plates of ^rold. 

So€%s. VisiuHS of H'Uay, \. 23. 

e Mr. Toad's note. Minshew 
parget by mortar. Skinner 
res that it is from an old 
irord ; but it does not appear 
ictionaries of old French. 
VRDEN. The famous bear- 
on the Bankside in South- 
ntiguous to tbe Globe theatre. \ 

So callpil from Robert de Paris, who 
had a house and garden there in the 
reign of Richard II. Blount, Gloss. 

Oo von take the court for fans ga'den, ve rude 
slavi;.. Unu^ rUl, V, 3. 

.Vnd crifd it was a thre^itning to the tears. 
In thitt actunrd sp>i:ind thr. Fanso'trJem. 

B Jfis ExecT. to fulcmM. 
So was he dr\-uursM b» aV'ir. ttrU him «itu tlic- p-irchHs'd prey 
Of iiiauv .1 nt-rre ami I)|ikm1v ;rav: 

• • • 

littu up wtiru- uifc.iti iif uius' mre is, 

In Tuiliui V jtrdem Paris. Hudihr., I, ii, 1. 168. 

PARISH TOP. A top bought for 
public exercise in a parish. 

IIf'« a cowanl imd a Ci>,«<trit. tint will not drink to 
my uici'e, 'Uil hid bnuus turn Uke a parish Ivp. 

Ttel/tk S., i, «, 

On which Mr. Steevens savs, ** This 
is one of the customs now laid aside. 
A large top was formerly kept in 
every village, to be whipped in frosty 
weather, that the f)easants might be 
kept warm by e.xercise, and out of 
mischief while tliev could not work." 
Loc, eit. 
Ben Jonson : 

A mern Greek, a*id ranta in Latin comply. 

Spins Iw c the panth top. Sew lim, ii, fw 

Evelyn, speaking of the uses of 
willow wood, among other things 
made of it, mentions "great town- 
toppsJ* Sylva, xx, 29. 
The custom seems to want further 
illustration, but it is alluded to aUo 
bv Beaumont and Fletcher : 

ru hHzard 
My life opon it, that a tK^i v <>r . 
S-.iuld sc/urj^e him h.ti.«-r .ike uparuk lop, 
And make bun daoce t^l'ir*: \ou. 

Thterry and Jkeod , act li. p. li». 

In another play we have a town-top 
mentioned : 

And daucr* like a t /vn-t p »'•'! rr*-\%. and h'lfiblefl 

Hi- H Sight ITalker.i. I. 

Sir W. Black Stone assert* also, that 
to sleep like a town- top was pro- 
verbial, yole on Shukesp., \. c. 
tPARITY. An equality. 

Sr/ ftha..t ti.'/U |»»t :u *r<jus»Ii yir%ti/. 
No iK^tit lu KUiblATf. ii'/f .11 <J.yiiity. 

yinjil Iff hilars, Wi'i 

PARLE, s., the sam** as parUy. From 
the French. ilowUtrtucA: between 
enemies. This word is hsrdiv obso- 
lete ; it ban ht't'U ii»ed mi lat«ly «s by 
Kowe, and j><*n.;i(>H iiioih later . Kee 
Johnson. St«'<'V<-i»ii on flainht, i, I, 
calU it an aH-rwd word, introduced 
bvLvlv; but It \\\\*. W-^'w u»vm\ \\^ *»n\t 
beKt'a'uthorw, uoi ixc*\>nv\v^ ^\\Wa\. 





How mean vou, lir, quoth sLce? Marry thus, mia- 
tris, quoth (xcorge, that if it were not for printing 
and painting, my — and your face would now out 
of reparations. At which shee hiting har lip, in a 
9arat furv went downe the stairea 

Jats of George PeeU, n. d. 

tPARATOR. An apparitor. 

He acapes occasion unto lusts pretence. 
And so escapes the poxe hy consequence. 
Thus doth he scape the parator and proctor, 
Th' apothecary, aurgeon, and doctor. 


tPARAVAIL- COURT. An inferior 

lint ihoueh there lie writs from the courts paramount. 
To slay the proceedings of the courts parataiU. 

Beaumont** Foewu. 

PARAVANT, adv. Before-hand, or 
first. French. 

But that faire one. 
That in the midst was placed paravauut. 
"Was she to whom tlie shepheard pypt alone. 

SbCHs. F. q., VI. X, 15. 
Tell me some markes by which tie may appeare. 
If chance I him encounter cararattn/. 

7W«f.,III,ii, 16. 

In the following passage Mr. Todd, in 
hi'' notes, has explained it publicly; 
but I think it clearly means first and 
foremost, above all others : 

Yf t f>o n:uch jtrace let her vouchsafe to grant 

To siniplf swain, silli her I may not love, 

let that 1 niHy her honour [honour her] paratHHt, 

And praise her wit. Colin Clout's Come H., v. 939. 

To PARBREAK, ». To vomit; sup- 
p« sed to be for to break forth. 

Yi'U shall see me talk witli him, evt n an familiarly ns 
it 1 should far6rrdi(- my mind and my uh<>le stonrMch 
upon him. urini the CuHir'r. (). PI., xi, 250. 

Aid when he hath parbreak'd Ins grievnl niiud. 

Hall, Saiir<i, 1. v. 
And virulently disgorg'd. 
As though ye wold parbreak. Skdlon, p 8G. 

Qowxc parbffak hcer vour foul, hlnck. hanefull jrall. 

Stilr. Du Bart., Ill, i, 2. 
iWhen to my gnat ann(.>aiite, ami aliiiost p»r- 
Irrttking, 1 have setnc any of tlu'sc silly rreainres. 

Fassenqer of lieuvniulo, 10l2. 

PARBREAKE, «., from* the verb. The 
matter thrown from the stomach in 

Her ^\\^i\t parhreake all the place defiled hath. 

Spnis. F. q., I, i, 20. 

PARCEL, *. A part ; a law term, 
often used conjointly with part; a», 
'• part and j?arce/.'* 

DAers philosopliers hold, that the lips is parcel of 
till! mouth. Merry II . 11'. i, 1. 

To niakf it parcel of my emp^ry. Tamhurlaiue. 

It ia a brunch and parcel of mine oath. Co.n. Frr.,\,\. 

In composition with almost any word, 
it implied being partly one thing, 
partly another, 'ihus parcel- bawd, a 
person, one part of whose profession 
was being a bawd : 

He, sir, a tapster, pureeUbavcd. Meas. for JUeas., ii, 1. 

Parcel-gilt, partly gilt: 

Thou did'st iwear to me upon a pttre$l-mU goi 

Or changing 
His pareel-giU to masay gold. B. Jons. AU 

I find also partial-gilt, which is 
haps the origin of the other ; or 
at least, supposed by the auth( 
he so: 

He can distinguish of your guilt by your guilt 
makes him ever fgot partiaXPgtt^, 

Clitus'e CaUr-Ckaraeit 

In the following passage parcel i 
alone for parcel-gilt : 

And flowers for the window, and the Torky ea 
And the great parcel salt. B. /* Fl. (kateom 

Parcel-poet occurs frequently in 
Jonson : 

He is a gentleman, pareel-poet, you alare. 

And as such prescribes, &c. &c. ; pareel-poet. 
And sings encomiums to my virtues sweetly. 

Matnng. City Madea 

So also in various other and arbi 
modes of composition : 

He's parcell'Statesman, parcell-yriest, and so 
If you ob8er>'C, he's parcell-poet too. 

mtt4 Hecreat.. Epii 

See the confession of the joint-ed 
of Beaumont and Fletcher (of l] 
of their long-continued m'u 
respecting this word. Vol. x, p. 
The examples might be multi] 
without end, but I trust the a 
are sufficient. 
PARDONER, s. A person who 
licensed to sell papal indulge; 
Such a character appears in th( 
play of the Four Ps : 

p. Truly I am a. pardoner. 
Palmer.'Tmly h pardoner f that may be ti 
But a trcw pardoner doth not ensue. 
Right sclde is it f ceno, or never. 
That trueth and pardoners dwell together, 

PARDY, or PERDY, adv. A very 
mon corruption of par^Dieu, Fre 

For if tlie kin^ likes not the comedy, 
Why then belike he likes it not, perdy. 

In that you Palmer, as deputie 
May cleerly dischar<;e him pardie. 


PARELS. A doubtful word in 
same play ; it may either sign 
similar event, or may be a corru] 
of perils. 0. PI., i, 96. It seei 
be equally doubtful here, thouj 
will bear the sense of peril : 

Constant I was in my prince's quarrell 
To die or live, and spared for no parrell. 

Mirr.for Mag., 

tPARENTS. Used for father, gi 
father, mother, or grand mo 
Vemey Papers, p. 90. 




T, V. To plaister, as a wall. 
French word for piai>tered is 
i, which Cotgrave explains by 
^etied^ rough cast," &c. Some 
derived it from paries^ a wall ; 
Mr. Todd has found it written 
f, in bishop Hall. But I con- 
pariet as intended to be spoken 
t ; the t vowel being almost as 
loniy put for the t consonant, as 
3wel u for the v. 
ed metaphorically to female 
>ainting, as we now say some- 
that a woman plaisters : 

She's above fifty-two, ttxtdparpels. 

B. JoHS. mifnt Worn., r, 1. 

1 Cynthia*s Revels, Phantaste 
, in their mock Litany, 

pargetting, painting, slickinfr, glazing, and 
Dg old rivetled faces, good Mercury defend us. 

Act V, ad fin. 

e a conjectural reading in Antony 
Cleopatra, where the heroine 

Sole sir o* the world, 
«iinot projel mine own cause so well. 

Act X, so. 3. 

bomas Hanmer reads, 

annot parget mine own cause so uell. 

is, I cannot bedawb, or gloss it 
whicb is the more probable, 
se the pargetting was the fine 
ing plaister. **0pu8 alba- 
— white liming worke, or par- 
g worke." Abr. Fleming, 
ncl., p. 198, b. 

»tting is still not uncommon in 
countries for plaistering upon a 

artely it was oonrenient that he whichs was 
tpergette and close up both the broke wuUes, 

to say. was coiue t<' juiunc and knit the 
of the'JewfS and the i>eopTi; of the Gentiles 
Dgether into one profef-Nion of the ^hospel. 

Paraiihrtue of Erunnua, 1548 

is said, that he coulu not endure the smell o^ 
l-chaniUer newly daubed or pargetied with 
made of lime. 

SoUoHtPi Ammanus Marcetlinus, 1609. 

T, *. Plaister laid on a wall. 

ras iht parget; and the seeling bright 
DA all scaly with great plates of gold. 

^ens. VisioM of Bfliay, 1. 23. 

lere Mr. Todd's note. Mmshew 
ns parget by mortar. Skinner 
;tures that it is from an old 
h word ; but it does not appear 
' dictionaries of old French. 
GARDEN. The famous bear- 
n on the Bankside in South- 
contiguous to the Globe theatre. 

So called from Robert fie Paris, who* 
had a lionse and garden there in the 
reign of Richard II. Blount, Gloss. 

Do you take the court for Paris aarden, ve rude 
slaves. Htenry Vtll, v, 3. 

.\nd crifd it was a tlire>itning to ihc hears, 
lu that accursed grunnU the Paris garden. 

B JuHs Bxecr. to Vulcan, 
So was he dry-nursM by tihear, 
Th:it ted him with the piirchas'd prey 
Or many a tierce and hhioily tray ; 
Bred up where discipline must rare is, 
In niiliiary garden Paris. Hudibr., I, ii, 1. 168i 

PARISH TOP. A top bought for 
public exercise in a parish. 

He's a coward and a coy^tril, that will not drink to 
my niece, 'till his bratiis turn like a parish toy. 

Ticelftk K, i, 8. 

On which Mr. Steevens savs, " This 
IS one of the customs now laid aside. 
A large top was formerly kept in 
every village, to be whipped in frosty 
weather, that the peasants might be 
kept warm by exercise, and out of 
mischief while they could not work.**^ 
Loc, cit, 
Ben Jonson : 

A merry Greek, atid ranU in Latin comply, 

Spins like the parish top. New Irm, ii, S» 

Evelyn, speaking of the uses of 
willow wood, among other things 
made of it, mentions "great town- 
tapps,'* Sglva, xx, 29. 
The custom seems to want further 
illustration, but it is alluded to also 
bv Beaumont and Fletcher : 

rii hazard 
My Ufc upon it, that a body of luelve 
Should scourge him hither like & parish top. 
And make him dance before you. 

Thierry and Theod., act ii, p. H9. 

In another play we have a town-top 
mentioned : 

And dances like a totrn-top, and repis, and hobbles. 

B. 4- Fl. Night fFalker, i, 1. 

Sir W. Blackstone asserts also, that 
to sleep like a town-top was pro- 
verbial. Nole on Shakesp., 1. c. 
fPARlTY. An equality. 

So shalt thou part in equall parity. 
No lesse in number, nor iu ui^nity. 

Firgil] by Vicars, 1632. 

PARLE, «., the same as parley. From 
ti^e French. Conference between 
enemies. Tliis word is hardlv obso- 
lete ; it has been used as lately as by 
Itowe, and perhaps much later. See 
Johnson. Steevens on Hamlet, i, 1, 
calls it an affected word, introduced 
by Lyly ; but it has been used by our 
best authors, not excepting Milton. 




So that the decision of Mr. Steevens 
may fairly be overruled. 
PARLOUS, adj. A popular corruption 
of 'perilous; jocularly used for alarm- 
ing, amazing. 

A parlous boy ! — go to, yoa are too shrewd. 

Bich. Ill, ii, 4. 
Oh, ti> a farUmM boy, 
Bold, quick, mgennons, forward, capable. IHd^ iii, 1. 
Thon art in Aparkmt state, shepherd. 

As you hie tt, m, 2. 

Parlous pond, a pool so called, meant 
perilous pond, now corrupted to 
Peerless pool. 0. PL, vi, p. 41. It 
is near Old-street, London. 
PARMACITY. A mere corruption of 

And telling me the sorerei^'st thing on earth 
Was parmaeity, for an inward bruise. 

I Hen. ir, i, 8. 
For an inward bruise, Inmb-stones and sweet-breads 
are his onely spermaceti. Overbury, Char. 46, L S b. 

PARMA SENT. *. Evidently for Par- 
mesan cheese, in the following pas- 
sage, the scene beine at Parma. 

Forsooth, my master said, that he loved her slmost 
as well as ne Io?ed Parmasent, and swore, 1*11 be 
sworn for him, that slic wanted but such a nose as 
his to be as prettv a youo^ woman as any was in 
Parma. *Tis Pity Ske*s a W., 0. PL, ?iii, 28. 

But Decker has twice used it, as if he 
took it for a liquor. In an address 
to Bacchus, he mentions, 

The Switzer's stoop of Rhenish, the Italian's Parmi' 
fant, the Englishman's healths, Su*. 

Gul's Homh., Procem., p. 27. 

And in his Seven Deadly Sins : 

They were drunk according to all the rules of learned 
drunkenness, as Upsy-freeze, crambu, PartnuoHt. 


Can this have been ignorance? or 
was there such a liquor? 

iCaseu* Parmensis, Plin. Fonrmage Parmeian. 
Cheese of Parmon, or Italian cheese. 

Nonunclator, 1586. 
tOn the contrary, vour coach-makers trade is the 
most gainefiillest about the towne, they are appa- 
relled in sattens and velvets, are masters of Uieir 
Ttnrish, vestrymen, who fare like the emperors 
HcliotKabalus or Sardauapahis, Acldome without their 
ni:ickroones, ParmisanU, jellyes, and Idcksliawes, 
with baked swannes, pastit-s hot, or cold red deere 
pves, which they have from their debtors worships in 
the country. Taylor's Workes, 1«30. 

fPARODE. A parody. 

All which in a pantde, imitating Virgil, we may set 
(lowne, but chiefely touchiue surfet. 

Optick Glasae of Humors, 1639. 

fPAROLL. By word of mouth. 

Sal. You hear your mother P she leaves you to me, 
By her will paroU, and that is as good 
1'o all intents of law, as 'twere in writing. 

The Slighted Maid, p. 58. 

fPARTAGE. A share. 

I know mv brother in the love he beares me. 
Will not denye me portage in his sadnesse. 

Ford, 'Tis Pity she's a Whore, 1633. 

PARTED, a. Endowed with parts, or 

A strange fellow here 
Writes me, that man, how dearly ever parted. 
Cannot make l)oast to have that which he tiati 

Tro. and Crest 
A youth of good hope ; well friended, well eoW 

Eastuf. Hoe, O. PL, 
Whereas, let him be poore, and meaudy clad 
Though ne're so richiy parted. 

B. Jons. Bs. M. out of h 

So, well-parted. Ibid., v, 2. 
Also for departed, or dead : 

But scarce their parted fath^s ghost to he 

hell was sent, 
Wlien that his hieres dia fall at odds. Jli. Bn^ 

Hence the compound term ti\ 
parted, for lately dead : 

Oft have I seen a timely-parted ghost, 

Of iishey semblance. 3 Hen. V 

PARTIAL, a. Used for impartial 
at least it seems in the folk 
speech, unless the speaker, Hi 
was intended to make a blunder 

We must prefer the monsieur. We courtie 
be partial. B. Jons. Cynth. B< 

We have seen impartial similarl; 
for partial. 
See Impartial. 
san, French. A pike, or halbei 

I had as lief have a reed that will do me senri 
partisan I could not heave. jtnt. and CUt 

Let us 
Find out the prettiest daizy'd spot we can. 
And make him, with our pikes and partisans, 
A grave. Cym 

The hills are wooded with their partisans. 
And all the vallies overgrown with darts. 

B. and Fl. Bondt 
tA partisan, or hunters stafife. Nonu 

PARTLETTE, *. A ruff or band 
by women. 

As frontlettes, fyllettes, partlettes, and bracel 

Four Ps, O. P 

" Amictorium — a partlett, n 
kercher, or gorget." Flen 
Vocab., p. 1G4, 12mo. 

One province for her robe, her rail another, 
Her parllet this, her pantofte the t'other; 
This her rich mantle, that her royall diain. 

Syls. Uu Bstrt., I 
tHee wooeth by a particular, and his si 
argument is the joynture. Uis observatioi 
al>out the fashion, and he commends partis 
nire devise. 

Oterbury's Netr and Choise Chantetsi 
^Partlet, an old kind ot band, both for m 
women, a loose collar, a womans ruff. 

Dunton*s Ladies Dictiomsa 

Hence early used as a namefon 
wliich frequently has a kind of 
or ruff of Feathers on the neck. 
Ruddim. Gloss, to G. DougL 
Partelot. Used by Chaucer 
others, down to Dry den. I 
jocularly applied to women. Fi 
says to the Hostess, 

How now, dame Partlet, the hen 1 1 Hen. 1 

And Leontes, in the Winter's 




says to Antigonus, speaking of hiB 
wife : 

Tboa dotard, tbon art woman-tyr'd, unrooited 

By thy dame PmrtUt here. W. TaU, ii, 8. 

PARTRIGH, for partridge. 

Of moat hot eierdie, more than a partriek 

Upon record. B. Jmu. FoSy iv, 6. 

PASCH EGOS; that is, EaBter eggs; 
from pascha, the passover. The 
ciifttom of giving eggs at Easter has 
been laboriously traced to many times 
and countries. See Brand's Pop. 
Ant., vol. i, p. 142, 4to ed. Suffice 
it, at present, that it prevailed among 
our ancestors before the Reformation, 
being considered in the Romish 
church as a tort of sacred observance. 
The egg was doubtless considered as 
an emblem of resurrection; and it 
was usual to colour the eggs for the 
purpose; which, I presume, was 
merely for ornament. " Paschale 
ovum nemo ignorat," says Erycius 
PuteanuB, " ubique celebratur ;*' and, 
in another place, "Candidum ovum 
est, et tamen omnes colores admittit ; 
et nunc flavum, nunc rubrum, nunc 
caeruleum, patrii ritus faciunt." 
Encom. Ovi, Coles, in his Dic- 
tionary, has "Paseh egg^, eggs 
given at Easter, ovum paschaie, 
eroeeum aut luteum.*' These eggs 
were blessed by the priests, and 
thought to have great virtues. 
Thus Egg Saturday concluded the 
eating of eggs before the fast of 
Lent, and Easter day began it 
again. We find this form of bless- 
ing the eggs in an old Roman 
Ritual : " Bless, Lord ! we beseech 
thee, this thy creature of eggs, that 
it may become a wholesome suste- 
nance to thy faithful servants, eating 
it in thankfulness to thee, on account 
of the resurrection of our Lord," 
&c. Rit. Pauli Quinti, Paris, 1657. 
Paste eggs are mentioned as used 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne ; but that was 
probably no more originally than a 
corruption of pasch eggs. See Eoo 

There is a curious book of emblems, 
well known to collectors, adorned 
with 100 beautiful engravings of 

cggs» with devices within them, and 
entitled, *' Ova Paschalia, sacro 
embleraate inscripta descriptaque, k 
Gborgio Stengelio, Soc. Jesu Theo- 
logo.'* Ingolstadii, 1672. 
Ray has a proverb, " FU warrant 
you, for an egg at Easter,^' p. 56; 
which evidently alludes to these 
practices. A further illustration of 
it may be seen in Matin^s Seno- 
noises. No 10, p. 68; where the 
author cites a French proverb, 
"Donner un oeuf, pour avoir un 
boeuf," as giving an egg at Easter 
to have more substantial food in 
PASH, V. To strike violently, or 
dash in pieces. 

If I go to him, with my armed ftst 

I'U path him o'er the face. Tro. ^ Crui., ii, 3. 

A flrmameut of dooda, bemg fill'd 
With Jove's artillery, ihot down at once. 
To fash your goda in piecea. Mau. Virg. Mart., ii, 3. 

Where see Mr. Gifford's note. 

When yoM do fall. 
Ton ptuh yooraelves in piecea, nere to rise. 

B. Jam. Sfjauus, conclns. 

Drayton also used it, and even 
Dry den, in whose writings many 
words since disused are to be found. 
See Plays, vol. iv, 411. 

fThat can be cut with any iron, or poshed with 
mighty stones. Chapm. II., xiii, :2tf7. 

PASH, s. Supposed to mean a skin, 
in the following passage. From 
the context it seems to mean some- 
thing belonging to a calf or bull : 

Thou want'st a rough posh, aud the shoots that I 
To he full like me. W««/. T., i, 8. 

Mr. Steevens pretends to derive it 
from pas, a kiss, Spanish; but 
there is neither proof nor probability 
for it, and he seems diffident of 
the interpretation himself. It is pro- 
bably a provincial term, not yet 
traced out. 

Grose and others mention ** mad 
pash" as meaning madcapy in 
Cheshire; but Coles has it as an 
established word, aud Latins it by 
eerebrosuSy &c. 
PASLING. a. An obscure wo>cl, 
which I have found only in the 
following passnge. 

Surelye 1 perceive that sentence of Plato to he true 
which sayeth. that there is nothingc better in anye 
common wealthc, than that there should he alwayes 




one or oti er excellent pasViige man, whose life and 
vertue shoulde plucke forwards the will, diligence, 
labourc, and hope of all other. 

Aseham*t Toxoph., p. &7. ed 1788. 

Qu. Is it anything like the feugel 
man in our modern regiments, iitrho 
gives example of the motions to the 
PA SS, V, To care for, or regard ; 
usually with a negative. 

As for tliesf silken-coated slaves, Ipatinot; 
J t is to yuu, good people, that I speak. 

2 Hen, JI, iv, 2. 
Transform me to what shape you can. 
1 pau not what it be. Drayt. Quest, of Cynthia. 

Coles, in his Dictionary, has ^^io passe 
[care] moror, I passe not for it ;" 
which he renders hy qnitt med? 

This imthankfuliiesse — hapneth by rr.iso.i tlmt men 
due not paue for their sinues, doe ligliily re^ird 
them. LatiiHfr, Ser. Ued. 

"I- Whether these our writings please all men or not, 
we think we ought not topast much. 

litter of Henry VIll 1538. 

Also for to exceed wliat is usual, to 
he extraordinary : 

'I he women have so cried and shrifk'd at it that it 
ptissed. Mer. W. W., i. 1. 

\Vlty this passes, master Ford, you are not to jro loose 
nnylongcr. ffii'i . iv. '2. 

And Helen so blush'd, and Paris so (-Inu'd. and all 
the rest so laugh'd. that i^ passed. Tr<,. 4' Cr., i, 2. 
Vuur travellers so dote upon n>c, as passes. 

Lingua, O. PI, v, 147. 
Yra, and it posset h to see what s|)urtf and jmssetyme 
the gudds themselves liave, at surhe folic of these 
stlic niortall men, Chalaner\\ Moiite Kncon., K -. 
Vou buth do love to look yuurselvcs in glasses. 
You both love your own houses, as il pasfs 

Uaringlon, Epigr., iii, 24. 

PASS ADO, s. A pass, or motion for- 
wards ; a term in the old art of 
fencing. Passata, Italian. See Stoc- 


A duellist, a duellist; a gentk-tnan of the very first 
house ; of the tirst and si-cund cause ; ah ! the immur* 
tal passadu! \\\c punto rrrerso. Hum. J- Jul., li, 4. 
'i^Ui: passado he [CupidJ respects not; the duello he 
r< .Mfds not. L. L. Lost, i, '2. 

The translator of Vincentio Saviola, 
the great authority in this art, pre- 
serves the Italian form, passata : 

If your enemy be first to strike at )ou, and if .it 
ir-»aut you would make him a pnsmta. or rtniovf, it 
liflioveth you to be very ready wiili \our tVrt :uiil 
hand. Practise uf'thf DtieUo, i:)5i.i, H :>. 

You may with much sodaincuesse make a passata 
with yuur left foote. IIU., K 2 

All the other terms may there he 
found. See the passages selected in 
(/apell's School of Shakespeare, vol. 
PASSAGE, s. The name of a species 
of game, played with dice ; in French 
passe-dix, from the chief law of the 

Pafsatfe is a eame at dice to be played at but by two, 
aud It is pcrlunucd with three dice. The caster 

throws continnallv till he hath throwB dabblets snder 
ten, and then he is out and loseth, or dabblets above 
ten, and then he passeth and wins. 

Compleat Oamegter, 1680. p. 119. 
For passage carried away the moat part of it. a phznt 
of fortune. Hog katk lost Us P., O. PI , ^i. Sbl. 

It appears that it is atill a military 
game, under the same name, for a 
modern author thus deacribes it: 

A camp game with three dice: donblets making tip 
ten or more, to^a^ or win ; any otlier chancea lose. 

Grose*s Classic. Die'.. 

That author has also PasS'bank, for 
the place where the game is played ; 
also the stock or fund. 

2. Also apparently used for passing, 
Cassio, when wounded, exclaims : 

What ho I no watch ? no pasMge T OtieUa, v, 1. 

3. Passage also meant event, circum- 
stance, or act : 

Thif young gentleman had a father (0 that hmi), how 
sad a passnue 'lis. Mr$ Well, i, 1. 

Ourself and your own soul, that have beheld 
Your vile and most lascivious passagei. 


In this way it was currently u?ed as 
late as SwifVs time; since which it 
seems to have fallen into total disuse: 

It will not perhaps he improper to take notice of some 
passages, wherein the pubUc and myself were joiiitlr 
coucei ned. 

Memoirs relating to the QueeuU Ministers. 

Where it very often occurs. It may 
be found also in the very first paper 
of the Tatler. 
fPASSENGER. A vessel for the con- 
veyance of passengers, a pas.sage boat. 

My taste is to hear from you as ofte as may he, and 
to take onire lor your ordynary passen^/rr oii tha; 
syde, and to lell me hear how hir majesty accrptnof 
my doinges and wrvtinges. 

Letter of the Earl of Leicester, 156* 

PASSING, adv. Very much. 

Fur Ohcron is passing fell and wrath. 

Mids. N. Dr., ii, 1. 

Thus in Shakespeare, and other 
authors, continually ; so frequently 
that it is universally known, though 
tew persons now would write, or say 
PASSION, r. To feel passion, or express 

And shall not myself, 
One of thnr kind ; that relish all as sharply. 
Passion as they, be kindlier mov'd than thon art? 

Temp., V, 1. 
Madam, 'twas Ariadne passioning 
For Theseus peijury and ui^ust flight. 

Two Oent. Vtr., iv, .1 
Wliat art thou passioning over the pirture of CIca?- 
thcs ? Blind 2iegg. of Jlex., 16W. sign. ]) ♦ 

PASSIONATE, p. To express passion, 
or complain. 

Thy niece and I. poor creatures, want onr hands, 

And cannot passionate our tenfold grirf 

With folded arms. TU. Jndr., iii, 2 




e, mix'd with pitiful re^rd. 
dug and quveu did passionaU. 

Spent. F. q., I, xii, 16. 
! this amorous hermit, to passionate and 

Palace of Plrasure, vol. ii, L 1 5. 

Lerms variously corrupted 
imezzOy the Italian name of 
fashionable in the time of 
ire. Sir John Hawkins 
5 account of it : ** From 
K^alk, and mezzo ^ the middle, 
I slow dance, differing little 
action of walking. As n 
3nsists of five paces or bars 
Bt strain, and is therefore 
ique-pace ; the 'passa mezzo ^ 
. diminutive of the gal Hard, 
ilf that number, and from 
iliarity takes its name." 
Music, iv, 386. Florio 
be Italian passa-mezzo by 
measure, in dancing;'* to 
a cinque pace," 



sir John's galliard. Mr. 
aks of two passar/ieze tunes 
in Instructions for the Lute, 
liist. o/ Shakespeare. 

igue. and r pasty -mrasures paiiyn, 

ken rogue. 

Ticelf. N., V, 1. 

le reading of the first folio, 
jpect it to be nearly right, 
ng merely a misprint for 
". e., pagan. The second 
I pavin. See Pa van. 

tiU, you must dance iiuthiu<r but the 
res. Lingua, 0. PI., v, 188. 

, *. A pastry-cook, or con- 
one^ who deals in paste ; 
}ressly inserted in HowelFs 
^etraglotton : ** A pasterer, 
3U pastier, pastissier, pasti- 
ticciero; paslelero." All 
;an the same ; but Mr. 
.0 introduce it inlo a corrupt 
f Shakespeare, interpreted 
-, in the following example : 

fore lie fell into tin- Persian delicacies, 

cooks and paster ers tluit Ada quet'n of 

\. Greene's Fareicrll to Folie, 1017. 

confectioners certainly suit 
e better. Coles explains it 

as Howell ; but he adds 
A another form, translating 

iYiexxi hy pistor crustularius, Minshev 
has it, pastier. 

The passage meant to be illastratt d 
is one in Timon, iv, 3, which is 
perhaps best read thus : 

Raise me this bee:<irar, and deject^ this lord. 
The senator shall bear contempt hereditary. 
The beggar native honour. 
It IS the pasture* lards* the browser's* sides, 
Tlie want that makes him lean. 

In the original ^denj/^t, modern edition 
denude; ^pastor; ^ lords ; ^brothers. 
Much has been written upon it, and 
after all it is doubtful ; there is, indeed, 
great coufusion in the speech. 
fPASTRY. The apartment occupied 
by the pastry-cook. 

Yet he got clearly down, and so might have gon to 
his horse which was tied to a hedg hard by, but he 
was so amazed that he missd his way, and so struct 
into the pastry, where thuu<j:h the cry went that som 
Frenchman had don't, htt thinking the word whs 
Felton, he Iwldly confessed twos he that had don the 
deed, and so he was in their hands. 

Howell's Fatniliar Letters, 1650. 

PATACOON. A Spanish coin, worth 
4s. 8d. sterling. Kersey. " Patacon, 
monetee genus Portugalliae." Min- 
shew, Span. Diet. 

This makes Spain to purchase peace of her [England] 
with his Indian |Mito«ooiu. HoweWs Lett., iy,i7. 

PATCH, s. A fool : perhaps from the 
Italian pazzo, or from wearing a 
patched, or parti-coloured coat. As 
in this pa.ssage : 

But man is but a patch'd fool, if he will offer to say 
what methought I had. Jlids. N. Dr., iv, 1. 

A crew of patchrs, rude mechanicals. Ibid., iii, 3. 
T!\\c patch is kind enough, but a huge feeder, 
Snail-slow in profit. Mer. Ven., ii, 5. 

Wolsey we find had two fools, both 
occasionally called Patch, though tliey 
had other names. Douce, i, '2,')S. The 
name of one of them was Sexton, 
who yet is called Patch by Heywood 
the epigrammatist. See Warton'a 
Hist. Poet., iii, 89. But one old 
author seems to have thought that 
Patch was originally the proper name 
of some celebrated fool. See Cowl- 
son. Queen Elizabeth also had a 
Patch. Ibid. 

The ideot, ihe patch, the slave, the booby. 
The property, fit only to be beaten. 

Mass. New W., v, 1. 
Come down, quoth you, nay then you might count 
me n patch. 0. PI., ii, 18. 

1 do (It-serve it, call mt patch, and puppy. 
And beat me if you please. 

B. and Ft. Wildg. Ch., iv, 2. 

The term cross-patch, still used in 
jocular langua<;e, meant therefore 
originally "ill-natured fool.*' 




PATCHES. Ladies long continued to 
ivear these fantastical ornaments ; 
but it seems that men also used them, 
that is, coxcombs, at an early period. 
This is addressed to a man : 

No, nor your visits each day in new snita, 
Hor yoar black patches you wear variously, 
Some cut like stars, some in half moons, some 
lozenges. B. and Fl. Elder Bro., iii, 5. 

Bulwer complains chiefly of female 
patching : 

Our ladies here have lately entertained a vaine custom 
of spotting their faces, out of an affectation of a mole 
to set off tiieir beauty, surh as Venus liad; and it is 
well if one black patch will Ber\'e to iiiHke their faces 
remarkable ; for some fill their visages full of them, 
varied into all manner of shapes and figure«. 

Arttjieial Changeling, p. 261. 

But he mentions also their male 
imitators : 

Tliey behold the like (prodigious affectation in the 
faces of effeminate gallants, a bare-headed sect of 
aworooi idolaters, who of late have begun to vve 
fatehes, and beauty-spots, nay painting, with the 
nott tender and phantasticall ladies. Uid., p. S63. 

[This ridiculous custom is very 
severely handled in a rare tract by 
U. Smith, entitled, "A Wonder of 
Wonders, or a Metamorphosis of Fair 
F.Mces voluntarily transformed into 
fuul Visages, or an Invective against 
black-spotted Faces, by a well-wilier 
to Modest Matrons and Virgins," 4 to, 
n. d., with a curious frontispiece. In 
the course of it, at p. 31, the author 

tHelfgate it open day and night 

For inch as in black-spots delight ; 

If pride tlieir faces spotted nuike, 

for pride then hell their souls will take. 

If folly be the cause of it. 

Let simple fooles than learn more wit ; 

BUde spots and patches on the face 

To tobor women bring disgrace ; 

Lewd harlots by such spots are known ; 

Let harlots, then, enjoy their own. 
f How! providence ! and yet a Scotiisli crew ! 
Then, madam, nature wears black patches too. 

CUatf land's Poems, 1651. 
tPainting now not much in use. bein); almost justled 
out bv washes, is not the only thins that is censured 
and objected againet ; but if a lady nappens to have a 
wart or pimple on her face, they woud not, by their 
good wills, have her put a black patch on it, and if 
she do's, thqr point at it as a mark of pride, though 
we see nature herself has adorned the visage with 
moles and other marica that reaemble them, and in 
imitation of which we snppose tiiey were first used. 

DmUom*s LUict Dictionary, 1694. 
fHe knovi each knack and myit^ of the fair. 
To crimp and curl, take off, and put on hair ; 
To deanie the teeth, wash, jmUcA, or paint ; 
Look pert, or else demure as any saint. 

Mmcndsjbr Parrots, 1708. 
f Nay, he deflnea 
Whither white or buck's your soul 
By the dimenaion of the mole 
That's on your face, not your black patch, 
Which if yon leave not, tnc devil will fetch. 

Saunders' Phjfsiogno'nie, 1653. 
♦From' henceforth, I blot all former fares out ol my 
heart; I am tir'd with these daily btuuties of the 

town, whom we see painted vaApateJ^d m the afti^j 
noon in the plav-house, in the evening at the pai^ 
and at night in the drawing-room. 

ScdUfs B0rUmin,iai' 
f first draw an arrant fop, from top to toe. 
Whose very lo<^ at first dash ahew him to; 
Give him a mean proud garb, a dappw fisce, 
A pert dull grin, a black patch eron hia face. 

BuckistghamfM Poems, p 90l : 

fPATCH-GREASE. "Is that tallow 
which is gotten from the boyling of | 
shoomakers shreads." Markkmns 
Cheap and Good Husbandry, 1676. 

PATENT. One of the great oppressions 
complained of under Elizabeth, Janes, 
and Charles I, was the granting of| 
patents of monopoly. James, of liis 
own accord, called in and annulled all] 
the numerous patents of this kind, 
which had been granted by his pre- 
decessors; and an act was passed 
against them in 1624. Bat they were 
imprudently revived by Charles, in 
1 63 1 . See Hume. They were begged, 
as places, by persons in faTour at 
court, noblemen, and others. 

Ther's nouglit doth me to neeri^ 
As to see great men wrong the state ao mneh; 
For ther's no place we hear not some of these 
Tax'd and reprov'd for their monopoUet, 
Whirh they will beg that they theur turns may men. 

Honest Ghost (ISU), p. SL 


All ^t<i^^n,patetU'gatherers, or ooQeetonrs for gaolfl^ 
prisons, or hospitals, wand ring abroad. 

Dalton's Cottutrey Justice, 1690L 

PATH, V, To zo on as in a path. 

For if thou path, thy native sembhuioe on, 
Not Erebus itself were dim enough. 
To hide thee from prevention. Jul. Cess., &• 1* 

Where, from the neighbouring hiUa, her paaaace wiff 
doth path. Bntyi. P9fy«lb.,i. 

Also to trace or follow in a path : 

Pathing young Henry's unadvised waya. 

Duke Hmfr. to BL CMm. 

PATHETICAL seems to have meant, 
jocularly at least, ^ected ; or affect- 
ing something falsely. 

And his page o' t'other side, that handfal of wit! 
Ah hcHvens, it is a most pathetieal nit £.£.£., iv,L 
I will think you the most pathcHeal break-proBOMb 
and the roost hollow lover. At pom Ukt i/, iv, L 

verbial expression, when some evil 
which cannot be remedied it to be 
borne. The whole proverb is properly 
this : ** Patience per/ore^ is a medi- 
cine for a mad dog.'* Ray*s Prov,, 
p. 145. Also Howell, p. 9 b. Or 
mad horse. How., p. 19 a. 

Wall wreath of grasse my royall browes abnade. 
Patience perforce, it might not be refosde. 

Mirr.for Mo§^ TSOi 

S^nu.F, ?„II,iU,S. 

coii(ne hns a poem entitled 
^/orew, wliich begiDnthus r 

trot ifDot Uul tirn hli hanc. 
ITimat X. K. KM~., 0. SI., i 

Arra ni Ptrr., O. Pl.i, 147. 

reUnd, the object for mnnj' 
lUgrimngea, and various 
IB. It VM situated in the 
irt of the county of Done- 
r Jamea Melnll deicribea 
ng "like an old coal-pit, 
taken fire, by reaBon of the 
: came oat of tlie hole." 
). 9, edit. 1683. It ia 
ill the Four Pa, 0. PI., i, 

Honeat Whore, Part 2 ; 

iTi« ud ^DTD jug, u if he hid coma 

paaini' an, or Saixl fttriittfurfa- 

Br^jm- Pr^H ofFoUt, aini. A. 

IS. A cant term for atroll- 
who marry under a hedge, 
standing on each aide of 
t, were bid to live together 
thetu does part ; and so 
ida the wedding was ended. 
>DtBnd Fletcher'a Beggar"* 

luiish dance. The editor 
Barle's Microgmphia (Mr. 
given the figure of the 
tia there called), from one 
linaon'B MSS. in the Bod- 
xy ; but I fear the terms 
inical to give much infor- 
he present day; 

u>. ij linilet, 1 duble fomnnls U 
dnble ronrBrd; rcpince liiicko once. 
ible ronrud.uginfki •jdccepnoce 
nnilM tjdc, 1 dublc rocrirU, nnirinn 

■Til Fil) Sir's a in., O. Pl„ Tiii, li, 
VoDT Spaniib ruITi arc the bat 
Weu-i jonr SpiDiiJi fMriii the beit rltnn. 

woaid be^ipatn. Pembr. Jrc-,ii2. 

Sir John Hawicins derives it from 
pavo, a peacock, and says that, "Every 
pavan had its galliard, a lighter kind 
of air, made out of the former." HUt. 
of Mtu., ii, 134. See him also ir, 

This leads to the suspicion thatpatiy- 
meature pavan, and paitif-meantre 
galtiard, were correlative terms, and 
meant the two different measures of 
one dance. If so, the reading of the 
aecond folio of Sliakespeare may be 
preferable to that of the first, in the 
passage above quoted from Twelfth 
Night; and it should be read — 

That is, a strange solemn fellow. 
Pasiy-meature galtiard occurs in 
various places. 

MiiUlrliin't Mart Diaint . c. b; StaeveDI. 

Ligon, in his History of Barbadoes,is 
quoted as using n similar expression. 
Voltaire tells us, tliat in the youth of 
Louis XIV, the French hnd only 
Spanish dances, "eomme la sara- 
bande, la coursnte, la paeanei" and 
he says that Louis himself "excellait 
dans les danses gTave^ qui conve- 
naient k la majesty de sa figure, et 
qui ne blessaient pas celle de son 
rsng." Sieele ile Louis XIV, ch. xxv. 
Such was the pavan. It is mentioned 
with the galliard by Ascbam : 

Thcte EfeUardo. pdHivj, uid dueu, w iiycelj-e 
Iniend, uid u ivcctlTt timed. 

Jrl •^Areitry. p. £4. 

Sometimes it is simply used for a 

Mr irhiiUe nt once, 

PAUL'S, ST. The body of old St. 
Paul's church in London waa a con- 
stant place of resort for business and 
amusement. Advertisements were 
fizedupthere, bargains made, servants 
hired, politics discussed, &c., &c. 




I t)ought him [Bardolph] in Panrs, and he'll bu;r me 
a hurse in Sniithtield : it 1 could get me but a wife in 
the stews, I were mann'd. liora'd, and wiv'd. 

2 Hen. IV, i, 2. 

Alluding to some such proverb rs this : 
** Who goes to Westminster for a wife, 
to St. FauVs for a man, and to Smith- 
field for a horse, may meet with a 
whore, a knave, and a jade." Ray, 
p. 2/j4. 

In Ben Jonson's Every Man out of 
\m Humour, the scene lies in PauVs, 
through the chief part of the third 
act, and there the fnshion of the 
times, in that matter, is more fully 
displayed than anywhere else. They 
walk and chat, and stick up advertise- 
ments, and expect to meet variety of 
company, &c. The usual resort may 
he explained by this passage: 

It is agreed npon, that what day soever St. PauVs 
church liath. in the middle isle of it, neither a broker, 
masterless man, or a penny less conipauion, the usurers 
of Loudon shall be sworn by oath to bestow a steeple 
ui>on it. 

Per.r.ylfst Pari, of Threadh. Poets, cited by Wballey. 
flmarvell how the masterlesse men. th:it sette up 
tlieir bills in PauVs for services, and such us paste up 
their papers on every post for anthmetique and writ- 
ing scnooles, scape etemitie amongst them. 

Nash, Pierce PeniUue, 16»2. 

And this of bishop Corbett: 

W hen I pass PauVs, and travel in the walk 

When- hII our Brittish sinners swear and talk. 

Old htiiry ruttins, hankrupts, soiithsayers. 

And voutli wlio:ie couscnt.^e la as old as theirs; 

And iliere heholil the body of my lord 

Irud under fo«jt by vice, wbicli In- alihorr'd, 

It wounded me. Elegy on Dr. Rttvit, Bp. of London. 

Public business of a more solemn kind 
was also transacted there. Thus the 
indictment of lord Hastings was to 
be read in that place : 

Here is the indictmc nt of the tfood lord Hastings, 
Wluch in a set bund fairly is ensross'd. 
That it may be to-d.iy read o'er in Paul's. 

Rick, in, iii, 6. 

Another writer describes it ri.*, 

The laud's epitome, or you may call it the lesser lie 
of Great Bnttaine. It is more than this [continues 
he], the whole world's map. which you may here 
discern in its perfect'st motion, JuatUng and turning. 
It is a henpe of stones and men. with a vast confusion 
of languages; and were Uie steeple not sanctified, 
nothing liker Babel. The novse in it is Uke that of 
bees, a stntnge humming or buzze. mixt of walking, 
tonjg;ueB and feet. It is a kind of still roare, or loud 
whisper. It is the great exchange ot all discourse, 
and no business whatsoever but u here stirring and 
afoot. Earle's Mieroeosmographie. 

Bliss's edition, 1811, page 116. 
See PouLES. 

[*'As old AS PauPs steeple.'* Howell, 
1659. ** Paul's cannot always 8tand," 
lAifl?., alludinp:, says Howell, "to the 
lubriciiv of ail sublimarv things."] 

Probably a hat-maker, or n f 
maker, by his blocks being 
tioued : 

They measure not one's wiadooM by his ■ 
so may one of John of PauUs ckurek-fetu 
prove wiser than he hiraselfe, but by the cfa 
position and deliverance of good and gncefu 

I>iieo». of New Wor 

But the place waa most celebra 
booksellers* shops and stalls : 

It were too long to set dovne the catalogu 
lewde and lasnvious boolces, which have 
themselves of late yeeres in PmmP* dtmtc 
chosen souldiers ready to fight under th 
bHnners. Frmek JcnJemtf, Epistle prefixed t 
il. Wheie lies this learning, sir? 
5. In Paul's churchyard, forsooth. 

B. and n. Wit witkt 

A PAUL'S MAN. Why Bobadi 

styled, in the dramatis perso 
Jonson's Every Man in his Hi 
may be perfectly understood fro 
passage of bishop Earle : 

The visitants [in Paul's walk] are all mat 
exceptions, but the principal iiihahitanUmaA^ 
are stale knights and enptains out of tertu 
long rapiers and breeches. Mterocos. 


But I must dispatch, for 1 see he's malm 
work on' I Hlready, and here's as many leav 
as there are windows and doors in Sahsbur 

Stoo Aim Ba 

tPAULTERLY. Paltrily. 

Ph. Thou lewd woman, can I answer thee t 
thou dealing thus pauUerly with roe. 

Terence m Eng\ 

PAUNCE, 8. The pansy, or I 
ease. See Todd. Used by S 
and Jonson. 

fThe pretty paunce. 
And the clievisaunoe. 
Shall watch with the faiie flower-delace. 

BngUmd't EeH 

fTo PAUNCH. To fill the beUy 

J. If you did but see him after I have om 
mv back, how negligent he is in my proti 
what sort be useth to glut and panelk himael 

Passenger qf Benaen 

PAVONE, s. A peacock ; pavone, 1 
Spenser u.<es it, but no other 
that I have seen. 

And wings it had in sondry colours dighi, 
More sondry colours than tht proad patome 
Bcares in his boasted fan. F. Q^ I 

PAVY, «. The hard peach, as 
guished from the melting kind. 

1 mean those which come from the ston* 
properly so called, not those which are har 
termed pavies. 

Sir W. Temple, on Gardening, tq 
Of paties, or hard peaches, I know none ( 
but the Newington, nor will that easily has 
full ripe. 

He says that this sort requires a 
warmer climate than the i 
PAWN, s. Peacock. So the ] 
2)aon is pronounced. 




as py*d and garish as the patm. 

Dtayt. Jfoone., p. 482. 

for palm, of the hand. 

lach safe travelling; in SpitiD, that one may 
>ld in the pawn of his hand. 

MoweWt Lett., I, S 3. let. 39, 1st sd. 

t later editions it is changed to 
Here the Pawne seems to be a 
[See next article.] 

I, kind oouaae, my comming's Arom the Pawnst 

protest I lost my labour there; 
»Mn j^romist to give me lawne 

not meet me. 
l%i vurry when Goitips wutt, 1609, repr. 1818. 

A part of the Burse or Royal 
uge, which, on Elizabeth's 
g it. Stow describes as ** richly 
hed with all sorts of the finest 
in the city." Survey, p. 151. 

onn np-bolsters, haberdashers, homers ; 
othecaries, grocers, taylonrs, toarners; 
loe-niakers ; there ioyners, coopers, ooriers ; 
Twers. bakers, catlers, felters, farriers ; 
-eet is full of drapers, that of diars ; 
jp with tapers, that with womens tyars i 
A J toys, silk stockings, cambrick, Uwn, 
efaoice-foll plenty in the cnrions Paien : 
's bat an Exchange, where (briefly) no man 
ought, as private; trade makes all things 
amon. Duburtas. 

ift to the Pawm to bay lawne. 

Weitwari Hoe, 1607. 

whom these that hare lived with greater 
tie t)ian others a ]xm^ time, even to satietie of 

use oftentimes to arte oat along the Burses, 
ds, and Pawnes, that the commonwealth and 
: lost, if at the tames and trials of masteries 
ig, he that each one taketh ^rt with, per- 
1 not his race formost^ and eaineth the goale 
HolUuuTs Amwuemus MarcMinmt, 1609. 

. A pledge. 

em sweete friend, and set them all to sale, 
n^ts, pendents, and my chaines of pearles. 
ies. saphires, and my diamonds all, 
-e for ladies, and for wives of earles, 
for strampets, and for light heel'd girlet. 
tty Unoen, cambrieket, and my lawnea, 
m away, and pat them off for pawnee. 

OremUtf** Amanda, 16S5. 
rhy gentlemen ! I hope yoa will not ase me so, 
>ar brother, why gentlemen I 
tiere. drawer, tuce him for a pawne, tell him 
e has no money he mast be serv'd so, tis one 
hiefe articles. 

Marmifon, Fine CompatUon, 1633. 

k symbol of peace, which, in 
^remony of the mass, was given 
i kissed at the time of the 
ig. Du Cange says, ^'Instru- 
im, qnod inter missanim solem- 
»opiilo osculandum preebetur.*' 
tpt. Stevens's Spanish Diction- 
e are told that it was the cover 
e sacred chalice. He expresses 
If rather indignantly : ^'La paz, 
irch'Stuffi is the pax tliat covers 
lalice at mass, and is sometimes 
to the people to kiss ; so called, 
se then the priest says, pnx 

Domini sit semper vobiscum, the peace 
of the Lord be always with you." 
FJorio, under pace, has '* also a pax^ 
The fullest account of the pax is in 
Kelham'd Norman Dictionary, which 
I transcribe : 

Portf'paix, the pas for the holy kiss. In the primi- 
tive times, in the eastern countries, a ceremony « as 
osed by the Christians after Divine scr\-ice ended, to 
kiss one another, as a token of Diuiual nmity aitd 
peace; lo continue and perform which custom, with 
more convenience and decency, in aftcr-times tliis 
invention was devised, viz. a piece of wood or metal, 
frith the picture of Christ upon it, whs solemnly 
tendered to all the people present to kiss; this was 
called osculatorium, or the pax, to sij^nily the peace, 
unity, and amity of all the faithful, who in tlai 
manner, and by the medium of the pax. kissed i>ne 

Mat. Paris tells us, that during the 
great difference between Henry II 
and his turbulent archbishop Thomas 
Becket, '*Rex osculum pacis dare 
archiepiscopo negavit.*' Mat, Par., 
117. And Holinshed says that th? 
king refused to kiss the pax with the 
archbishop at mass. Holinsh., 1171. 
"Stately, 191. 

Modern authors and commentators 
have often confounded it with the 
pix, in which the sacred wafer was 
contained ; but for that see Pyxis, in 
Du Cange. In the following passage 
of Shakespeare it was pax in the old 
editions ; in the old quarto it is spelt 
packs: but altered by the modern 
editors, not only without reason, but 
with much impropriety, the pix being 
generally too large to be easily 
stolen : 

Fortune is Bardolph's foe, and frowns on him. 
For he hath stol'n a pax, and hang'd must be. 

Hen. F, iii, 6. 
But Exeter hath given the doom of death 
For pax of little price. Ibid. 

Mr. Steevens has shown, by two 
quotations, that paxes and pixes were 

Pnlmes, chalices, crosses, vestments, pixfe, paxes, and 
such like. Slowest Ckron., p, 677. 

Had he been present at a masse, and seen such 
kissing of paxes, cmcifuces, fcc. 

Burton, Dtm. to Reader, p. 28. 
Wlio make the pax of their mistresses hands. 

Speeches o/R'tcort, Progr. of Eli:., vol. ii. 
A cup. and a sprinkle for holy water, a pix, nnd a pax, 
all of excellent crystal, gold, and amber. 

Our Lady of Loretto, p. 505. 

Kissing the j)ax is mentioned by 
Chaucer in the Parson's Tale : 

He waiteth to sit, or to %o above him in the way, or 
ki»se the pax, or be encenscd, or gon to offring 
Iteiure his neighbour. Vol. iii, p. 182, Tyrwh 




The above-cited Capt. John Stevens 
has also, 

ToD)4r la paz de la igl^sia, to kist the fMur, as above. 

This probably is all that is meant 
when the pope is said to have ordered 
the kiss of peace to be given at the 
conclusion of the mass. Fox says, 
" Innocentius ordained the pax to be 
given to the people: Pacis, ait, oscu- 
lum dandum est post confecta mys- 
teria.** Fox's Martyrs, vol. iii, p. 9. 
It was only that they should kiss the 
pax; wliich was, in that sense, 
"pacis osculum." The custom being 
obsolete after the reformation, the 
pix and the pax were soon con- 
founded. The pixt or pyx, containing 
the consecrnted wafer, might also be 
kissed on other occasions. See Pix. 
A genuine pax was produced at the 
Society of Antiquaries in London, in 
the spring of 1821, by favour of 
Dr. Milner, which, by the kind com- 
munication of Mr. Ellis, one of the 
secretaries, I am enabled correctly to 
describe. It is a silver plate, about 
two inches and a half in height, by 
two in breadth, and about an eighth 
in thickness ; square at bottom, and 
bluntly pointed at the top ; with a 
projecting handle behind, against 
which it may rest, nearly upright, 
when put out of the hand. Its 
general form may therefore be com- 
pared to that of a flat iron, for 
smoothing linen, except that it is so 
much smaller. On the surface is 
represented the crucifixion, in em- 
bossed figures ; with the Virgin and 
some others, standing at the foot of 
the cross. 

It was called sometimes osculatorium, 
or oscular e; but we are informed 
that it is now disused, on account of 
the quarrels which often arose about 
precedence in having it presented. 
The relique is therefore the more 
curious, as it is not now to be seen 
in the congregations. See also 
Staveley's Hist, of Churches, p. 191. 

fPAX. A corrupted mode of spelling 
pox, common in old plays. 

PAX-BREAD. E. Coles has this word, 

which he Latinizes panis oscula 
i.e., bread to be kissed; by i 
must be meant the host itself. 
tPAY. To pay for all, to ma 
general clearance of one*s debts. 

By some device or other which may fall J 
Occasion ahe will fiude to pay for alL 

FasqwVs Night Ca 
It la three to three now, said the king. 
The next three paysfor all. 

Robin Hoc^s Reploits before Qiiem Ca 

To pay home, to punish severeh 

To conclude, be sore you crosse her, pap L 
with the like, and that will %ttvrt and pinch 
the heart. Terence in cnglii 

Lue. Well, farewell fellow, thou art now paid . 
For all thy oounceUing in knavery. 

Raff man, a Traced 

To pay old scores, to acquit a d( 

Keep. I have been in the country, and have I 
wherewith to pay old scores^ and will deal h< 
with ready niouy. Sedley's Bellamir 

PAYNIM, or PAINIM. A pagan. 

For in that place ihe vaynimt rear'd a post. 
Which late had Berv'a aonie gallant bIiid for m 

Fairf. Tasio, i 
Ah dearest dame, q^uoth then the paynim bold 
Pardon the error ot enraged wight. 

Spens. F. Q., I 

This word was perhaps intends 
the difficult passage quoted o 
Passy-measure : 

Then he is a rogue, and a passy-measure payu 


That is, "A pagan dancer of sti 
dances." But this is by no n 
certain. See also Pavan. 
PEA, s. The beautiful eastern 
distinguished as pea-cock and 
hen ; but the simple name is 
disused. We have also pea-fow] 
jp^a-chick. The English trans 
of Porta's Natural Magic, uses 
simple word pea; but I kno^ 
other instance. He says, 

A cock and a pea gender the Gallo*pavu9. « 
otherwise called the Indian hen, beine mixt 
cock and a pea, tiiough the shape be uker t 
than a cock. B. ii. 

Pea, in this compound, has yet f 
no nearer etymology than j 
Saxon, which is not very satisfac 
PEACOCK, s. Said to be used 
fool; but, as Mr. Douce pro 
observes, only for a vain fool, 
bird being at once proud and 
This is plainly proved by the co 
of the very passage which is qi 
by Mr. Steevens to support the • 
sense, which runs thus : 

For thon hast cauzht a proper parairon, 
A theefe, a cowaide. and a peaeocke fooie. 
An aMe, a milke-sop, and a. minion. 

Ge4€oigHe, Weedes, p. 381, e* 




not, therefore, suit the pas- 
Hamlet, into which it has 

empted to introduce it, in the 
the unintelligihle reading of 

rto and first folio, which is 
or of the subsequent folios, 
The lines in which it occurs, 

larly spoken by Hamlet, and 

ke a fragment of an old 

oa dost know, Damon dear, 

. realm dinnaDtled was 

e himself ; and now reigns here 

iry, very, pajocke. Haml.t iii, S. 

answers, ''You might have 
;" meaning that "ass" 
lave filled up the place con- 
Peacock clearly is too 
;nd little suits the murderous 
who was no dandy, Padock 
jfore a better conjecture; 
V as Hamlet had once before 
at very name to his uncle. 

padock f and pajock, very 
in sound, though not very 
he eye. 

3SE, s. A term of reproach, 
or peaking goose. 

e thrall to none of these, 

od peakffoose, away, John Cheese. 

Jsek. SehoUmk., p. 48. 

78€ is not peculiar to Ascham ; 
's also in Beaumont and 
, though the modern editors 
mged it to pea-goose: 

'Tis a fine peak-poos* I 
. one that Tools to the emperor. 

Propk€leu, iv, 3. 
kon, cr what canit thou be, thou pM-goou, 
give me the lie thus ? 

Little ?V. lawy., ii, 3. 

so it should he peak-goose. 
jrave, in Benet, certainly has 
p; and Sherwoode, in the 

part. The authority of 

however, is decisive. 
. a. Simple, rude. 

lim in a peakitk er.iuni^e, within a forest 
Warn. Alb. Bngl, p. 2U1. 

le place is afterwards called 
mple grauuge.*' P. 203. 
is also to look or act sneak- 
Miich is well illustrated in 

kin as soft as Lemster wooll, 
te as tUMW on peukisk hull, 
nne that sm ims lu Trent. 

Drayton's Shepherd's Garland^ 1593. 


For, ill this war, H-itliout n lirn^g. 
He's the best peare in ail our bagtf. 

Homer a la Mode, 1665. 

strument of torture mentioned in 
Pathomachia, 1630, p. 29. 

fPEAREANT. Apparently for piercing. 

Thou canst not fly me I 

There is no caveru in the earth's vast entntiles 

But I can through as peareant as the litcht. 

Sampson'x Vote Breaker, 1636. 

PEARL, *. Anything very valiiable, 
the choice or best part ; from the 
high estimation of the real pearL 

I see thee compass'd with thy kingdom's peart. 

Macb., V, 7, 

That is, the chief nobility. 

Black men art pearls in beauteous Indies' eves. 

Two Gent. 'Ver., v, 2. 
He is the very pearl 
Of courtesy. Shirley's Gent, of Venice. 

An earl. 
And worthily then termed Albion's ocaW. 

Endymion s Song and Tragedy, 

See Makgarite. 
fPEARLED. Formed like pearls. 

For how can Ajca weepe' 
Or mine a brinish shcw'r oi pearled tcitres? 

Selimus, Emperor of the Turks, 1594. 

fPEARMAIN. A species of apple. 

The oearemaine, which to France long ere to us was 

Wtiich carefuU frut'rers now have dcuizend our owne. 

Drayton's Polyolbion. soug 18. 
Venus is in a trine with Sol, thertforc it » ill be very 
dangerous to eat roasted apples, because old Thomas 
Parr the Salopian wonder (who lived till he was un 
hundred and two and flAy years old) eut u ruusied 
apple, and died presentl;^ after it ; and yet I think 
Without scruple of conscience, a mun may venture to 
eat roasted apples, especially if tliey be Kentish 
pippins, or pear-mains. Poor Kubin, 1694. 

fPEART. Brisk, or lively. 

Accointer. To make JoUie, peart, quaint, comely, 
gallant, gay. Cotgrave. 

PEASCOD, «. The shell of pease 
growing or gathered; the co^ being 
what we now call the pod. 

I remember the wooing of a peascod instead of ht'r. 

Js you I. it, ii. 4. 
In pescod time, when hound and home, 
Gives ear till buck be kill'd. England's Helicon. 

Hence a **sheal'd |)tf<MCoe/," (Xertr, i, 4) 
means an empty husk. The robing 
of Richard the Second's imnijre in 
Westminster Abbey, is described to 
have been adorned "with peascods 
open, the peas out." Camden 9 
Remains^ ed. 1674, p. 4.53. 

fWere women as little as they are good ; 

A peseod would make them n gowu and u hood. 

Witts Recreations, 1654l 

PEASE, V. To weigh. See Peize. 

PEASE, «. Dr. Johnson I think is 
right in stating peas to be the regular 
plural of a pen ; and pease when 
spoken of colUclvwiV^ \ ^-a/' «^ v^v^V ^1 






pease ^ or ^^ pease are now in season. 
It is not, however, much observed; 
but in old writers, pease is often sin- 
gular. Mr. Todd gives two examples, 
which, as they are decisive, I shall 

The Vaunting poet's Tonnd not worth a js^^uf. 
To put iu preace among the learned troupe. 

Spens. Shep. Col., Oct., 69. 
A bit of mannalade no bigger than Ajtease. 

B. /■ Fl. DoubU Marriofft. 

To which we may add — 

The gi-ayiies whereof [of Indian com] are let in 
manevluus order, and are in fourme somewhat lyke 
hpeat'f. R. Eiien's Hi*t. of TravayU. fol. 10, b. 

f Whervm I am not unlike unto the onakilfuU painter, 
who having drawn the twinnes of Hippocrates (who 
were as like as one pease is to another). 

Ljfli^s Bupkuet and his BngU 

PEASON, «. Formerly the collective 
or general name for pease. Gerard 
makes the general title to his whole 
account of that vegetable and its 
various species " Of Peason.** B. ii, 
ch. 510, ed. Johns. The chapter 
begins — 

Tliere are different sorts of peason, differing Terr 
notably in many respects. P. 1319. 

But he also uses pease almost indis- 

In so hot a season, 
When ev'ry clerk eats artichokes and peason, 

B. Jons. Bpigr^t 134. 

But an older writer speaks of single 
peas by that name : 

Daneerons to deale with, raine of none availe, 
Costly in keeping, past, not worth Vwopeasoti. 

Ld. Surrey, Fndlly, fe., ofBmmHs. 
A green goose series Easter, with gooseberries drest ; 

And July affords us a dish of ereen peason ; 
A collar of brawn is new-year*8-tiae feast ; 
But sack is for ever and ever in season. 

H. CrompUm. 

iee Restituta, i, 274. 

♦Now comctli May, when as ihe enstem mom 
Both Willi her summer robes the fields adorn; 
Delightful month, when cherries and green pemson, 
Custards, cheese-cakes, and kisses are in season. 

Poor SoHn, 1706. 
fNow, cheesecakes, custards, flawns, and fools; 
With syllabubs, and drink that cools ; 
Cherries, gooseberries, and green ptasen^ 
Are meats and drinks that are in season. 


PEAT, *. A delicate person ; usually 
applied to a young female, but often 
irouically, as meaning a spoiled, 
pampered favourite. Our modern 
word pet, is supposed to be the 
* same ; petit has been conjectured 
as the origin of it. 

A pretty psat I 'tis huX 
Put finger in the eye, — an she knew why. 

Tam. of SknmXl. 
Of a little thing, 
You are a pretty peat, indifferent fair too. 

Mass. Maid qfHon^ M, 8. 

Also City Mndam, ii, 2. 

God's mj life, you are a peal indeed. 

kastward Hot, O. PI., 
To see that proud pert peat, our youngest sist 

Old Ptmy of Kit 

'PEAZE, r. Contraction for appe: 

Their death and myne must *peaxe the angrie 

Fsrrex, ^c, O. PI. 

So also pages 138 and 140. 
Thus ^peare is aUo used for appi 

It shall as level to your judgment *p*ar. 

As day does to your eye. Ham 

See Peer 
tPECCANT.* Sinning ; offensive. 

And 1 confess there are some things in it nu 
bitter, and &harp to some, and thougli they be 
budy many times requirrs such niraictnes, U 
and check thv peccant humours. 

Wilson's Jmnes 

f PECK. A peck of trouble is a p 
of considerable antiquity. 

Our friend, little Joliu More, is in a peck of 
likewise, in that court, about a JugsUng deed 
as is pretended. It hath been heanl two days : 
and this day sennight is peremptorilv set ao\\ 
he shall know his doom. Letter dot* 

Did hnn^ upon the Gnsdani, doable 
Foure or five hundred j^edht oftronbU. 

Homer k la Mod 

PECKLED, part. a. for speckled. 

Jacob the patriarke, hj the force of iniag 
mHde peckled Umbs, hiyuig peekUd roddes t>ei 
sheep. Burl. Annt. of Mri 

It is used also by Izaac Wi 
See Todd. 
PED, s. A basket. 

A haske is a wicker ped, wherein they use u 
fish. Orig. Gloss, to Spens. Skep. Kal. yore.t > 

It occurs also in Tusser. See 1 
Johnson derives pedler I'rom p 
dealer, by contraction ; it is 
probably from carrying a ped. 
shew from alter au pied, still w< 

fPEDESCRlPT. A ludicrous 
introduced into Shirley's Honori; 
Mammon, 16o2. "1 have it i 
pedescript,^* referring to the mai 
kickiugs he had received. 

euage, used by vagabonds, thi 

I'll eivc a schoolmaster half-a-crown a we« 
teach me this pedler's French. 

Roaring Girl, O. Pi., 
Twere filler 
Such honest lads as myself had it, tliat insie*( 
Of pedlar's I-rt.i,'k gives htm plain Uitiguagc 

Stand and dehver. B. and Fl. Faithful i 

Grose inserts it as still in use, C 
cal Diet. 
PEEL'D. Stripped or bald, wh 
by shaving or disease. V 
applied to monks and other < 

FeeVd\ir\c9\. ! dost lliou command me to l>^ sli 





' dm?e8 pill-garlick from 
^riick, a person whose bend 
lootli, like peeVd garlick; 
orbo Aliqno, prsesertim e lue 

:0W, or PILCROW, *. The 
or a paragrnph in printing. 


8 A board with a long 

with which bakers set things 

oTen, and take them out. 
Witkins explains it, "A 
staff with lamin." Univ. 

Paelfe, French. 

it is certain that George 
ird, the scholar, in the comedy 
Puritan, is meant to represent 

Peele, a well-known writer ; 
; to allude to the pie, or rule of 

as some of the commentators 
^ancied. Mr. Steevens first 
red the true allusion. See 
t's'Suppl., vol. ii, p. 587. To 
he matter more clear, a trick 
yrge Peeie's, related in his 

Conceited Jests, p. 9, reprint, 
ibnted to Pyehoard in the 
r. Act iii, Sc. 5, with very 
lange in the circumstances. 

s those [fluhet] of his oren ; a notable hot 
len he plied XYitpeel. 

B. JoM. Bart. Fair, iii. 1. 

. A contraction of appear ; 
en written in this form. 

xlily the sun begins to peer 
n buiky hill. 1 Hen. TV, v, I. 

» himself on Uie forehead, crying peer-out, 
[That is, appear out, meaninir Ins homs.l 

Merr. W. W., iv, 2. 

is, however, peer, in the sense 
>eep. See Johnson. Nor are 
ways very distinguishnble. 

nmaps for porta, and piers, nnd road. 

Merch. of I'en., i, 1. 

teevens savs that one of the 
I reads peering; but he has 
mtioned the first and second 

He prefers prying, to avoid 
^le, which I fear Shakespeare 
t wish to avoid. 
., *. An abbreviation of peter- 

a name for some kind of wine, 
has not been described, though 
oentioned. I suspect, from the 
9as kind of name, that it was 
ions wine, and that Britain, in 

the following mock invocation, is 
equally in apposition with that and 
metheglin : 

By old claret I enlarge thee, 
By eanar^ I charge tiiee, 
By Britain, metheglin, and peeter, 
Appear and ansver me in meeter. 

B. and PI. Ckanees, v, 3. 

See Peter-see-mk. 
PEEVISH, a. used as a term of con- 
tempt. Foolish, idle, trifling. For 
the etvmolosrv of this word, which is 
very uncertain. 8ee Todd. 

W1i»t a wretched and peevish fellow is this king of 
£n};land. to mope with his fHt^braiii'd followers so 
far out of his knowledtte. Hrnnj I', iii. 7. 

There never was anv so peevish to iniHgine the nioone 
either capable ot affection or shaptr of a mistris. 

Liflu'f Endliniou !, 1. 
Before that peevish lady 
Had to do with voti, women, wine, and money, 
Flow'd in abuncuince witli you 

Mass. f'iry. Marl., iii. 3. 
This is jttnr peevish chattt^rin*.', wenk old luiiu ! 

'Tis Pity She's. Jr.. t>. PI., vi i. H?. 

Yet it was also used in the coinnton 
sense o^ pettish, irritable. 

The name of an old sonir ainuitMl to 
by Sir Andrew in Twelfth Night, li, 3. 
Percy says it was an indecent hallad. 
Sir John Hawkins has given the tune 
of it, in the notes to the above [)as- 

PEGASUS, THE. A tavern in Cht^ap- 
side, London. Pegasus, Mr. Steevens 
says, became a popular sign in Lon- 
don, from being the arms of the 
Middle Temple. 

Meet me an hour hence at the sign of the Fegnsus in 

Return from Parnassus, Or.qfEnql. Drama, vol. iii, 

p. 217. ' 
A pottle of eli.Yir at the Pegasus, 
Bravely carous'd, is more restorative. 

Randolph, Jeal. Lorer. 

Shakespeare has taken the liberty to 
suppose a tavern with the same sign 
in Genoa : 

Near twenty years ago, in Genoa,* 
Where we were lodgers, at the Pegasus. 

Taming ofShr.,'\\, 4. 

Mr. Steevens inadvertentlvsavsPa^ywa, 
which is contradicted by the very line 
PEIZE, V. To weigh down, or oppress ; 
peter, French. 

Lest Iraden slumber />me me down to-mnrrow. 

Richard HI, v, 3. 
I apeak too long, but 'tis to peise the time. 

Mer. of Ven., iii, 2. 

To weigh, or esliniate : 

'Rnipeasing each syllable of each word by just pro- 
portion. i>lf /*A. S»>(a. Ikf.ot' Po»»\*,\>-^5#J^. 
How all Uet speecXxea ptUed V^t. Pt»A\» . Ai c il. A^- 




Written also, and spoken paize : 

No wtistcfull u jj()it. noprreedy groom is praizd; 
Mand laryrtsse just in e^ual baUnnce cotcJ. 

Grimoald, in Uartun'sEut. Toctry, iii, p. dS. 

Also to poise : 

Comniodity, the bias of the world. 
The world that of itself is peited well. K. John, ii, 3. 
Nor was lier schooleg pels d dowu with golden 
waights. Middl. Lff/end, Harl. Misc., x, p. 169. 

PEIZE, or PEISK, s. A weight. 

Was iu his mind uuw well apaide, and ^huii 
That such a peize he from his necke had shaken. 

Barringt.Ariott., xliv, 34. 

Used also for a blow, implying there- 
fore a heavy blow : 

Yet when his luve was false, lie x\ ith a p^azf it brake. 

>>f«*. F. Q., 111. ii. 20. 

To PELT, V. To be in a tumultuous 

Another smother'd seems to pelt and swear. 

Sh.Rupeo/Lucrece, Mai. Suppl., i, 554. 
The young man, uU iu a pelting chafe. 

U'ita, Fits, and Fancies. 

Also in the sense of to submit. 
Me.inin^, I suppose, to become paltry 
or contemptible : 

I found the people nothing prest Xopeltt 
To yceld, or hostage give, or tributes pay. 

3Iirr. Mag., p. 166. 

fPELT. 1. A great rage. 

Tliut the letter, which put you into snch a peU, came 
from another. Wran^ting Lovers, 1677. 

Damp. No pranks at all, my child, 

Onlv an iir^fumeut arose by cliHnce, 

And I iinlurkily maintained my part 

Willi sonictliiiiK too much heat'. 

Wliicli put her ladyship into a horrid pelt, 

And made her rail at me. at thee. 

And everybody else 1 think. 

UuHatural Brother, 1697. 

2. A blow. 

But iis Leucetius to the gates c:inic fust, 
To lire the same, Troycs Ilioncus brave 
AViih a huge stone a deadly pelt liini ^ave. 


3. A skin ; or garment made of a skin. 

A skin, a fell, a hide, a /ye//, cut is. 

Wilhals' Jjictiomirir, cd. 1008, p. 124. 
A prlt, or garmeiiib made u( wolves and bearcs skins. 
Hhich nobles in old time used tu weare. 

youieitclator, 1685. 
These kinde of siu'epe have all the world ore growne, 
And seldome doe weare fleeces of their owne; 
For they from sundry men tluir pelts c&n pull. 
Whereby they keepe theiiisel\e» as warme as wooll. 

Tufflor's fforkcs, 1630. 

fPKLTER. Apparently, a fool. 

The veriest peller pilde niaie seme 
To have experience thus. 

KendalVs Floirers of Kpigrammes, 1577. 
Yea let such pelters prate, saint Needam be their 

Wc ueed no text to answer them but this, the Lord 

hath neede. Gascoigne's Workes, 1587. 

PENDICE, 9. Pent-house, or covering; 
pentice, Italian. Pentice was also 
used, which makes it probable that 
pent-house is only a corruption of 

And o'er their brads an inm pniJice vast 

They biiili, tiy J . 11). ;: M>.,'i\ .i ?ii.« ! i and tar^e. 

Again in xviii, 74, -where pentide alio 
occurs, as synonvmous with it. 

PENNEECH. A game formerly in use, 
which is sufficiently described in the 
Com pleat Gamester. 

PELTING, a, A very common epithet, 
with our old writers, to signify paltry, 
or contemptible. Dr. Johnson sup- 
posed it a corruption of petty, but 
Mr. Todd has discovered ihAtpaltin^ 
was the original word, in the same 
sense. See him in paltry. 

This laud 

Is now lea8*d out (I die pronoundxig it) 

like to a tenement or peUing furm. Biek, II, ii, 1. 

From low mrms. 
Poor, pelting villages, sheepcotes, and mills. 

Your penny-pot poets are snch peltitu thieves. 

B. and Fl. Bloodg Br., iii, 1 
Packing up pelting matters, such as in London rom* 
monly come to the hearing of the masters of Bride- 
well. Jsckam, SckoUm.^ p. 191. 
Good drink makes gooil blood, and shall peUiM 
words spill it ? Lglv's AUx., 0. PI., li, p. 140. 
f My mind iu pelting prose shall never be exprest. 
But sung in verse heroical, for so I think it best 

North^s PUtarck, p. 81. 

fPENASHE. A plume. Yr.penmcke. 

The bird of paradise is found dead with lier bill fixed 
iu the ground, in an island joyning tu the Midoccos, 
not far from Macaca; whence it comes thither, ua* 
known, though great diligence hath l>een impiojedia 
the search, out without success. One of tbenl desd 
came to my hands. I have seen many. The tayl is 
worn by children for a penaske, the feathers fine and 
subtile as a very thin cloud. 

A Short Relation of the Biter NiU, 1871 

tPENETRAlLES. The Latin pene- 

Passing through the peuetiailes of the stomach. 



The great feather of a bird, called a pen-feather, 
pcnna. U'ilhals' Dictionarie, cd. IfiOS, p. 17. 

tPENITENCY. Penitence. 

So, according to lau and justice, hee was there cun< 
demned and judged (for the murthering of his two 
children) to be hang'd; which iadgement was exe> 
cuted on him at tlitr common lealluwes atCroTdoo, uo 
Muuday thf second day or June, 1621, wnere hee 
dved with great penitencg and remnrce of conscieaoe. 

Taglor's Workes, 16S0. 

fPEN ISTON . A sort of coarse woollen 

cloth used tor linings. 

In the thrve and fourtieih year of that queen's rrigB, 
the Parliament did interpret that Act to extend over 
all and singular of woollen broad clothes, half dotbca, 
kersies, cottons, dozens, penistons, frizes niggs, and 
all other woollen clothes. The QoUm FUece, 1657- 
To traiislormc tliy plush to penngstome, and souiet 
into a velvet jacket which hath scene 
Aleppo twice, is knowne to the great Tarke. 

The Citge Match, 1689, p. 5. 

fPENITRATURE. Penetration. 

But xtlitreas you say you had taken mee for£i«U- 
niioii bv my penitrature and countenance, but that I 
wantetftcares to decipher mv sorrow. 

iireeue's Orphaswm, 15t9. 

PENNER, s. A case to hold pens. 
So Iuu'.ncv and others. The followiug 




lines are spoken iu the character of a 
•chool master : 

I Ant appear, tboojih nide and raw, and niiiddy. 
To apeak before this noble grace this tenor ; 
At whose great feet I offer up mvptHner. 

B. MMd n. Tied ffobU Ktnm., iii, S. 
Is frendhr imiaa become so great a foe, 
That lab''niis pen in ptnnor still shall stand. 

7. Ckurchjfwi, Worth, of WuUt, p. 101. repr. 

Still earrent in the Scottish dialect. 

-fOraphiaria, Sneton. ... A ptnmar, or pencase. 

f Desire her in mr name to lend ns a penner, and 
inckhome, with white, faire. and good paper, as also 
a little wAxe, nnd if shee offer thee a penne, tell her 
1 have one for myseli'e, nnd for her two. 

Peusmaer of Beuwentito, 161S. 


Bat they are rorrerted by bein^ eaten with licorish, 
or pemneti^ white suxMr, or mizi with violets, and 
other such like pect<»aJl things. 

P»$t4mg9r ^Btmrmutc, 161 S. 

PENNILESS BENCH. A cant term for 
a state of poverty. There was a 
public seat so called in Oxford ; but I 
fancy it was rather named from the 
common saying, than that derived 
from it. [PenntYtfM Bench was a seat 
for loungers, under a wooden canopy, 
at the east end of old Carfax church ; 
which seems to have been notorious 
as ** the idle corner" of Oxford.] 

Bid him bear np, he shall not 
Sit long on pemiiUu hendk. Mast. Citj/ Mad., iv, 1. 
That ererie stoole he sate on was penileue benek, 
that his robes were rags. Supkutt and kit Engl, D S. 

See Warton*s Companion to the Guide, 
page 15. 
^Fierce PENNILESS, appears to 
have been a proverbial term for one 
withoat money. 

Wednesday, bcin| the thirteenth of Angnst. and the 
dii> or Clare the Tirgin (the signe beinje in virfco) the 
ni'ioni- fonre dayes old, the wind at west, I cH'iie to 
taki- rest, at the wished, long expected, ancient 
fanuios city of £denborough, which I entred like 
Ptrrcr PeimiU$$e^ altogether monvles, but I thanke 
God, not frieudleese. Tay'tor's Worktt, 1630. 

PENNY-FATHER, «. A peuuriouB 
person. JFilAins, Univ, Char. 

Alas, this reeonflrroswhat I said rather. 
CoamoB has erer been m pennjf-fatker. 

Harwgt. Bp.^ ii, 21. 
To uothinx fitter ean I thee compare 
Th«n to the eon of some rich prNfiy-/a/A^. 

DraytoH's Ideas, x, p. IS63. 
We «liall be bold, no doulit ; nnd that, old penny- 
father, you'll confess by to>morruw lunrning. 

O. PL, vi, 418. 

tPEXNY-PURSE. A parse of leather, 
for copper money. 

For his heart was nhi veiled like a leather p^y-farM 
when he was dusected. 

• Hotctirs Familiar Letters, 1650. 

PENSIL, #. A peudaut, or ornamental 

Terror waa dcckt so bravely with rich furniture, gilt 

swords, shining armours, pleasant pensilx, that the 
eye with detij^bthad scarce IrHsnn- tn he .'itfniide. 

Pruibr. Are., p. 3S4. 

PENTACLE, 9. Perhaps the same as 
penticU, It was, however, something 
in use among pretended conjurers. 
[A pentacle was a magical figure 
formed by intersecting triangles.] 

Thev have thrir clirystals. I do know, and rinjrv, 
Au(fviri(in-)>i<r('hinfnt. hiuI their drud nienS acuUs, 
Their ruven's wiinfrt, iheir lightB. nnd pentodes. 
With characters : I ha' seen aW tliete. 

Ben. Jons, b-til an .las, i, S. 
fThen in thy clear and icj pentacla. 
Now execute a magic miracle. 

t'hapin. IIjfMnto Cyntkuu 

PENTICLE, «. A covering. 

For tliat vtrong pentiele protected well 

The knights, &c. Fair/. Tasso. xviii, 74 

See Pendice. 
fPEPPERED. A common phrase for 
being affected with fues venerea. 

And then you bn»rle a^rainst oitr simple French, 
As if you imd beeue prpp^rd with >our "curh. 

Sli'pkens Essa'i-'s ami (.'hu radars, 1616, 

NOSE, prov. phr. To be angry, to 
tnke offence. Rai/*s Proverbs, p. 206. 

Of a testy fuming temper, like an ass with crackers 
tied to his tail, and i^o ready to take pepper in the 
nose for yea and nay, that u dog would not linve lived 
with tlieni. Ozeirs Rabehtis, vol. xvi, p. 123. 

Ifyles hearing him name tlic baker, t-oke straight 
pepper in the u>se. Tarltnn's Xews out "fPiir^., p. lO. 
because I entertained thiA gentleman fur my ancient 
—he takes pepper i' the nose, und sneezes it out U|iun 
Div ancient. r hapm. Afuv-lMy, iii. p. 73. 

Wherewith enrajrcd all. w ith pfpper in the nose) 
The proud Megurians came to us. as t«} thrir moral 
roes. SurtU's Pint., p. \T^. 

Take you pepper in tf our nose, you mar our sport. 

Span.'Gipsy, Anc. Dr., iv, 190. 

PEPPERERS, s. Grocers ; from deal- 
ing in pepper. 

The pepoerers and grocers of Sopers lane are noa' in 
Bucklesiiernc. Stowe. Lond., 1399, p. 62. 

Within this Une standetli the Grocer's hall, which 
companie be ins of old called Peprrars, were first in- 
corporated by tne name of Grocers in V6^. 


See also 210. 
PEPPERNEL. Apparently a lump, or 


ILis « prppernel in iiis head, as bi-j a« a pu'let's c-z^. 

B.andFl.K,f:i-if fit P.u.l. 

fPEPST. Apparently a term tor in- 

Thou drunken faindst thyself of late; 

Thou three dales iiftiT*fli|.sr : 
How wilt thouslrpc v\itli (Irwikf i > ilccde, 

When thou art tliroiij:!!;> p^pst .' 

AV/ii/rt/Z'jf t'l'-if fs of Eiifirain'<nes, 1''77 

PERADVENTURE. Used as a sub- 
stantive, in the phrase without all 
peradvenfurCy meaning, without nil 

D<mbtles9, and Kitkout all psradrenfurf, more mi- 
raclfs. B. Brome. Qu. and Concuh . iv, 2. 

It is often repeated iu tUai teC<i^*<».^^Vi4 




8eeni8 to be used as a rustic mode of ex- 
pression. Johnson quotes South for it. 
fPERBRRAK. To vomit. See Par- 


For to make a man cast and perhreake. — ^Take two 
jMina of the iuice of feuel, and one part of bony, 
and seeth it tul it be thiik, and drink therof roAming 
and evening, and it will cnu«e a man for to cast or 
perbrtake. Pathvuy to Health, bl. 1. 

But if any poyson dotli lurke within (aa oftentimeB 
it chancetli) the aicke persons are miserably tor- 
mented with perhraking nml rontiimnli vomiting, to- 
gether with want uf appetite, and luathinj; of meate. 
BarrvMffh'a Method ofPhysiek, 1634. 

PERCASE, adv. Perchance. 

They threw . percaae. 
The dead bodv to be (ft-vourM and torn 
or tiie « lid I>east8. Tancr. nu,l Gism., 0. PL. ii, 216. 
Lest thou deler to think me kind, pcraue. 

mirt. for Mag., 418, 
Though perease it will be more stung by glory and 
fame. Bacon, dted by Johnson. 

PERCHER, s, A sort of wax candle, 
called in the old dictionaries Paris- 
candles. See Kersey. 

And in her hand a fercAtfr light the nurcc bean up 
the 8ta>re. 

SomcM* and Julitt, Malone's Suppl., i, 810. 

PERDU, from the French enj ant perdu, 
A soldier sent on a forlorn hope; any 
pt^rson in a desperate state. 

To watcli. poor perdu. 
With this thin helm ! Lear, iv, 7. 

Revolts from manhood, 
Dcbauch'd «.<T./i«'*. Wid. Tears, 0. PI., ri, IB?. 

Come coll in our perdues. 
We will awav. Goblins, 0. PI., x, 161. 

See also ihid., p. 229. 

I'm set here, like a perdue. 
To wutch a fellow tliai has wrong'd mv mistress. 

B. and FL Little Fr. L., act ii. 
iLet the corporall 
Come sweating in a breast of mutton, sttiff'd 
With pudding, ur f>\x\\\ in sume nged carpe, 
Either doth senc I think. As for prrJues, 
Some choice suus'd tish hitiuglii cuuchnut in a dish 
Among some fenuell, or some uihcr grusae. 
Shews how thev lie i'th' field. 

CarlKright's Ordinary, 1661. 

PERDURABLE, a. Lasting ; accented 
on the first. 

I confeas ii.>- knit to thy deserving, with cables of 
perdurable tcmjrliin-ss. Otkrllo, i, 8. 

There is nothing constant or pirdumble in thiswurld. 

Sortk't Plut., 278, t. 
Oiring that natural pow'r, which, by the vigorous 

Doth leud the lively springs their perdurable heat. 

Drayt. Polgolh., iii, p. 70». 

PERDURABLY, adv. Lastingly. 

Why would he, for the momentary trick, 

Be perdurable fin'd. Meas.forMeas., iii, 1. 

PERDY, or PARDY. A corrupt oath ; 
from pardieu. 

Perdy, your doors were lock'd and you shut out. 

Com . of Errors, ir, 4. 
Yea, in thy maw, perdy. Henr. r,ii, 1. 

The earlc of Warw ick regent was two yeari's perdie. 

Slirr.for Mug., p. 491. 

PER GG ALL, a. Equal ; a remnant of 
the language of Chaucer. 

Whilom thon wert perSgedl to the best 

Sp. Sk. Ikl., Juput, L H 
Eighteen young men, here at oar eitj wall. 

From foreign parts, to us returned are. 
All goodly fair, in years •WferepmlL 

Faseic. Ftorum, p. 84, Lond., 1686. 
All, beyond all, no pireymi; you are wondered at« 
(aside) for an ass 1 Mutrtt. AmUm, emd MeU., iii, 1. 

PERFECT, a., in the sense of certain. 

Thou art perfect then, our ship hath toadi'd npan 
The deserts of Bohemia. Wmt. Tale, iii, 8. 

That the Pannonians and wlnuUimns for 
Their liberties are now in arms. CffwA^ iii, t. 

tPBRFECTIONS. " Gifts of nature." 

Acad. CompL, 1654. 
tPERFIT. Perfect. 

The rest, which the text ensniBg ihall lay abrtwd, 
wee will to our abiiitie perforane and p^t man 
exactly, not fearing at all the back-biters and de- 
pravers of tliis so louf a worke, as tliey hold it. 

Holland's Jmmasuu Marcelliniu, 1600. 
B« happie in your choice, giTO to hia rnuxH 
What once you promis'd to my periit lore. 

Tke Lost Lady, 1638. 

And in the adverbial form, perfitly. 

Who keeping this virgin most safe for her father, 
now that she was by all the meanes that physicke 
could affoord, perfitly cured. 

HoUmsTs Am. Mmrcel., It09. 

PERFORCE, adv. Of necessity; 
occurring often in the phrase force 
perforce, which means of absolute 
necessity. See also Patiencb 


To PERFORCE, r. Singularly made 
into a verb. 

My furioTu force their force petfore*d to yield. 

Mirr. Mirng., p. 416. 

But it is in the legend of Lord 
Hastings, which was written by 
Dolman, a barbarous writer, wholly 
destitute of taste. 
To PERGE ; from pergo, Latin. To go 
on. I have met with it only in the 
following passage : 

If thou pergest thus, thou art still a oooipanioa for 
gallants. Mis. of Inf. Mtar., 0. PL. r, d4. 

It seems to be the Latin word that is 
used in, 

Ptrge, master Holofernes, perge. Late'tL. L., if, S. 

For ** proceed, master,*' &c. 
PERIAGUA, 8. A boat, or canoe; 
whether from the French pirogue, or 
both from some Indian origin, I 
cannot at present ascertain. The 
word occurs in so common a book as 
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, and there- 
fore may probably be found alao in 
earlier travels. 

At length I br^an to think whether il«was not poiSH 
ble fur me to make myselt n raniM* or periagua, aadi 
as the natives uf these rliimttes make. 

Vul. I p. 161 and passisi. 

PERIAPT, s. A bandage, tied on for 




niAgical pnrpotes; from wtptawr^, 
Greek. Also in old Vrench, periapte. 
See Cotgrave. From which our word 
most probably came. 

Nuv hap ye eliArnuiig spella and ptriapls. 

1 UcH. ri, T, 4. 
Out of thete they conforme their charmet, enchannU 
meota, feriftt. 

Eur*m«tCtDeclurati<m of Popish Imp., Sib. 

To PERIOD, V. To put a stop to. 

Which failing him. 
Periods hia eomfort. TimoH of Atk^ i, 1. 

To period our vain grieringa. Country Qirl, 1MI7. 

Also, as a neater verb, to end, or cease: 

Tia aoBM poor comfort tliat thia mortal scope 

Will period. Barton, Holiday's Ackuowl 

To PERISH, P. a. To destroy. 

Bvcanae thy flinty heart, more hard thui they. 
Might in thy palace perish Manpiret. 

2 Hen, VI, ui, S. 
Let not my sins 
TtnA jOKt noble youth. 

B. and Ft. MaitPs Trag., ir, 1. 
Tb anch perfections, aa no flattenr 
Of art ean perish now. Ford's ranciss, i, 8. 

See the examples in Todd. The verb 
is sorely obsolete ; the participle 
perished is still in use. 
PERIWINCKE, for periwig. 

His bonnet vail'd. ere erer lie could tliinke, 
Th' nnmhr winde blovs off his periwinke. 

Hall, Sat., It. 6. 

PEKKE, tf. Pert: perhaps from /^erA;- 
inff up the head. 

Thev troont in the winde wane their wmgle tayles, 
Perke aa a pr aoocke. ^ens. Sksp. KtU., Febr., 1. 

See Todd's Johnson. Mr. Todd 
thinks it is still in use among the 
Tulgar ; bat I much doubt it. The 
original Glossary to the Shepherd's 
Kalender does not notice this word. 
PERN, ». To take profits. A very 
obscure word, probably formed from 
a law-term, pernour, or pernancy. 
Tithes in pernancy, are tithes taken, 
or that may be taken, in kind; there- 
fore pernancy of profits, means taking 
of the profits ; and a pernour of profits 
wns he who so took them. Law 
Diet. It is most affectedly intro- 
duced by Sylvester : 

And such are those, whnae w\\r, waxen minde, 

Takea every acal, and sails with every winde; 

Vot out of eonseience, but of carnal motion. 

Of fear, or faTour, profit, or promotion ; 

Tlioae that to ease their purse, or plense their prince, 

Fern their profession, tlieir religion mince. 

Dh Bartas, IV, ir, 2. 

fPERNICONE. " Pernicdni, old par- 
tridges or stagers." Florio. 

A. Rrach those partridges, or lumiiituine si ares witli 
red bila. 

P. But what if it were a youni; nernicone? you wty 
it vould be better, and it is of an not and dry UMture. 

Passenger of Bswsenalo, 16]i. 

PERPETUANA, *. A sort of stuff; by 
itB name it sliuuld be something like 
everlasting. See Wit's Interp., p. 

Perpetuana is for pedants and attumies clarkea. 

(hcU't Aim. Progn.for Mercert,^. 33. 

Under the Italian word Duraforte, 
Florio says, " Strong-endme, lasting- 
strong, the name of a horse. Also 
the stuff, perpetuana.*' 

tlSiS. Sept. 2. It. pHid the upholsterer for a coup- 
terpayne to the yellow prrpftimmi lud . 3/. 10*. 

Sir E. D-rii.g't .Account Book 

fPERSCRUTE. To search thoroughly. 

In Englande liowe many nlyoim Imih and doth dwell of 
all niHnvr of nacvonx, let cvt*iy man judge the cauae 
why and wherefore, yf they li'u\e rrU«on io pereemte 
the matter. Bord^'s IntntductioH uj KuuirUifge, n. d. 

PERSPECTIVE, 9. Apparently used 
for a kind of optical deception,, 
showing different objects through or 
in thie glass, horn what appeared 
without it ; like the anamorphosis. 
-Speaking of a brother and 8L<«ter, very 
like to each other, it in said. 

One face, one voice, one h.ibit. and tM-o pertdns, 
A natural perspectite, that is and is not. 

IV-W/M A ., v. 1! 
A picture of a chancellor of France presi-ntcd to the 
common beholder u multitude of little faces;— but if 
one did look »i it through u prrfyctive, there 
appeared only the single pourtraicture ot the chun- 
CuQor. Humane Indiittru, cited by Mr. Todd. 

PERSPECTIVE LY, adv. Used appa- 
rently with the name allusion. 

Yes. my lord, you see ihtm perspectively, the citiea 
turn'd uiio a maid. Hen. F, v, 3. 

PERSPICIL, s, A telescope, or glass 
tor distant vision. 

Sir. 'tis a perspicil. the best under heav'n ; 
With this I'll rend h leaf of tlivt amall Iliad 
Thiit in a walnut-shell whs desk'd, ii^ pluinlr. 
Twelve long miles o£f, as you sec Paul's fri>m llighgate. 

Albumaz.,0. Pl.,vii,139. 
Let her be 
Ne'er so far distant, yet rhrouoh>>ry — 
Will have a perspieil to Knd her out . 

Crash. Verses to Isaacson's ChronoL 

Johnson cjuotes also Glnnvil. 

And those bring all your lielps and perspidls. 

To ae« rae at best advantage, and augment 

My form as 1 come forth. B. Jons. Staple of N., i, 1. 

PERSUADE, s. Persuasion. 

The king's entreats. 
Persuades of friends, bubiiiess of state, my hononn, 
Marria|(e ntes, nor aught that ran be nam'd, 
Since Lelia's loss, can move him 

B. .»• /■/. Faithf Friends, i, 1. 
Werr her huHbund from her. 
She hanpily might be won b^' thy persuades. 

Sulini'iii ,y Frrsrd'i, act IV, O'rig ot Dr., ii,p.260. 

PERSWAY, V. To soften, or mitigate. 

The (Tfcpiii;; \ruoni of which subtle serpent, as some 
late uiiurA :ittlrm, neither the rutting ol the perilous 
pUint, ii'»r, Sc". iu'., can any wav p- r.n'-av. w :iMuage. 

B. Juus. Bart. Fair, act ii. 

\To PERTURBATE. To confuse ; to- 
cause confu&ion. 




And tliosp which first by flight got ope the gate, 
ProniiscuouB iui{;ht of foei aoih pert urbate. 

Virgil, by Vieart. 

PES. Of uncertain meaning; possibly. 
It may be put for piece, meaning the 
piece of cloth with which the work 
was to be done. 

My ganinier sat her down on her pety and bad me 
rea(-n :hy brcches. Gamm. Qurt.,0. PI., ii, 13. 

The prologue bad told us that she 

Sat pesyng and patching of Hodg her man's briche. 

PESTLE, «. The leg and leg-bone of 
an animal, most frequently a pig, in 
the phrase a ^* pestle of pork.*' 
Probably from the similarity between 
a leg-bone, and a pestie, used in a 
mortar. Sometimes applied to a 
gam 11 oil of bacon. 

With shaving you shine like a putle of pork. 

Damon /* Pith., 0. PL, i, 288. 
Yet I can set mv Gkillio's dieting, 
A pfstU of a lark, or plover's wing. 

iTfltt, &/., iv, ♦. 

That is, something ridiculously small. 

You shall as commonlv see iegges of men hang ap,as 
here with us yon shall find pesUls of porke, or leeget 
of vcnle. Hraly's Disc, of a New World, p. 161. 

Here is ^pettU of a portii;ue, sir, 
"Tis excellent meat with sour sauce. 

B. and Fl. Sea Voyage, i, 1. 

The jest here consists in speaking of 
a gold coin (a portigue) as eatable 
meat, to starving sailors, whose ava- 
rice had ruined all. The same speaker 
recommends gold chains to them for 
sausages; implying, "since you were 
so fond of gold, eat it if you can.'* 
2. Also the short staff of a constable, 
or bailiff; probably from the same 

similitude : 

One M-liiffHt these pewter-buttoned shoulder*8lappera. 
to try whether this chopping knife or their pesUlls 
were the better weapons. 

Chapm. May-Day, iv, 1 ; Anc. Dr.. iv, 70 

tPETENT. Competent? 

Aet these twainc may (I mean drinesie and muisturt*. 
or rttld and hot) bee petent to the tame subject, by 
mniparing them with others in other lubjects : as niHii 
is i.otli hot and cold. Optick Qlaste ofUumort, 1639. 


It w,)s n Bhamc that prK>rp hnrmelesse birds could not 
be ouflered in such pittifiill cold weather to save 
tilt iii»elves under a bush, when every lowsie beggur 
had tlie same Iibertie, but that every paltrie Frier- 
omnur must shoote fire and brimstone at them. 


PETER-MAN, *. A familiar term for 
a fi^he^nlan on the Thames; from 
the occupation of St. Peter. 

Yet his skin is too thick to make pnrch-ment; 'twould 
make good boots for a Peter-man to catch salmon in. 

Kastxcard Hoe, 0. PI., iv, ?27. 
Moreover, there are a jjrcat luiiiiber of othrr kind of 
fishermen— belonging to the liinnies. rai'd Ilcbber- 
men. Pelermen. and Truwlcriiien. 

HotrePs Londimop., p. 14. i 

I have seen also Peter^boaty for a 
PETER-SEMINE (for it is written 
in all those ways, and sometimes only 
Pketer). a sort of wine; the name 
apparently much corrupted, but from 
what original, I have not been able to 
trace. It is spoken of as a Spanish 

Peter-see-ine sl'all wash thy nowl. 
And Malliso glasses fox thee. 

Middl. Span. Gipsey, iii, 1 ; Anc. Dr., iv, ISA. 
Imprimis, h pottle of Greek wine, a pottle of jMlivsM- 
meene, a pottle ot cliarnico. 
Peterse-mea. i.<r liendstrong chamico. 
Sherry and Rob-o-davy here could flow. 

J. Taylor, Praise o/Hempsetd, p. 6S. 

By Canary thus 1 charge thee. 

By Britain-methei:lin, »nd peeter, 

Appeur and answer me in nieeter. 

B. and Fl. Chance*, r, 8. 
From the Spaniard all kinds of sacks, as Maliigo^ 
Charuio. Sherry, Canary , Leatica, Palemo, Frontiniae; 
peter-see-mee, KC. ' PkilocothomMta (16SS), p. 48. 

It ift plain, however, that seTcral of 
those wines are not Spanish. A 
curious rhyme, entitled, ** Vandonk's 
Foure Humours, in Qualitie, and 
Quantitie,'* thus mentions this : 

I am niightie melancholy, 

And a quart of sackc uill cure me; 
I am chotericke as anv. 

Quart of claret wilf secure me. 
I mil phlrgmatieke as may be, 

Prtrrx'-r me must inure me; 
1 am sauffuine tor a ludie. 
And coole Rhenish shall conjure me. 

Laws of Drinking, p. 80. 
"i^Liaticn or Corsica could not 
From their owne benring breeding b«)uudB be got 
Peler-se-inea. or head stron;; Charnico, 
Sherrv, nor Rob-o>Davv here could flow. i 

Taylor's Workts, 18Sa 

tPETIGREE. A pedigree. 

GencHlo^ia, Cic. A genealogie, generation, ^/i^rie, 
linage, siocke, or race. NowuncUtor. 

Then 9hntl be senrch'd, if possible it be. 
Before Cams birth, to finde his peligree t 
Then \% some famous coat of arnies contriT*d, 
From nianv worthy families denv'd. 

Taylor's Workts, 16Sa 

PETITORY, a. Petitionary. French 
and Latin. 

And oft pcifum'd my petitory stile 

With civet-speech. Lingua, 0. PL, ▼, 12S. 

Mr. Todd gives this example, and I 
have not met with another. 

PETREL, corrupted from pectoral. 
A breastplate, or any covering for the 
breast. See Blount's Glossogr. 
under Pectoral, "A petrel, pec- 
torale ' Cotes Diet. 

That if Wit petrrll like tiie crupper he. 

ILiringt. Epigr., i, M. 
Amidst VAcir pettral sUinds unothrr pike. 

Sylv. Dm Bart., p. 400. 




PETRONEL, 8. A carbine, a light gun 
carried by a horseman. *' Sclopus 
equestris." Coles. Fetronell, or 
petrinaly French. 

He made bis brare bone like t whirlwind bear bim 
Among the combatants, and in a moment 
DiKharir'd iMpttronel, with such sure Him, 
That of the adrerse party, from his horse 
One tumbled dead. B. /* Fl. Lote's Cure, i, 1. 

But be mi\i jHttronel uplieaT'd, 
Instead of shield, the blow received. 

Hudihr., I. ii, 1. 788. 
f There be never an sle-house in England, not any so 
base a May-pole on a cc untry ftreene, but sets forth 
some poets fetUmeU or demilances to the paper 
warres in Panles church^yard. 

Retunufrom Pemasttts, 1(M)6. 

fPETUN. A name for tobacco. 

Whereat wee have beene credibly informed — that 
thehearb (aUasweed) ycleped tobacco, (ahn*) trinidado, 
alias, j»#/hii, alias, necocianum, a long time hath been 
m oontinoall use and motion. Ta]flor*t Ivories, 1630. 

PEW-FELLOW, «. A person who sat 
in the same pew at church. 

Being one day at church, she made mone to herf^w- 
ftUcw. Westward for Smelts, D 1 b. 

Also metaphorically, a companion : 

And makes herpcw-fellow with other's moan. 

Rich, in, iv, 4. 

He would make \dmpue-feUow with a lord's ste^Hrd 
at least. Northward Hoe. 

When I was a trenantly sehoUer in the noble univer- 
sity of Cambridge, though I hope I had as good a 
oonsdenoe as other of my fsw-fettows. [Beference 

See other authorities in Steevens's 
note on Rich. Ill, 1. c. Sir J. Haw- 
kins asserted the word to be still in 

f" Serre God !" said Opinion. " the deviU he wiU as 
soone ! hee hath not scene ihe insides of a church 
these aeven yeazes, unlesse with devotion to pick a 
pocket, or pervert some honest man's wife he would 
on porjpoM be pned withall : viUanie is his contem- 
plation." Man in the Mooiu, 1609. 

PEWTER, considered as costly fur- 

Yahuiee of Venice gold in needlework, 

Fewter, and brass, and all thinn that belong 

To hoose or housekeeping. Jwmng of Shrew, act ii 

In the Northumberknd House-hold 
Book it appears theX pewter wm hired 
by the year, even in noble families. 

PHEERE, or PHEARE. See Fere. 

chastise, or beat. Dr. Johnson gives 
two interpretations of this word ; the 
one from sir Thomas Smith, de Ser- 
mane JngUeo, which explains it injila 
didueerey to separate a twist into 
single threads ; the other to comb or 
curry. Whatever may have been the 
original meaning, the allusive sense, 
in which it occurs, is evidently to 
chastise or humble. In the first 

instance it is said, in a threatening 
manner, by Sly the tinker, to his 
wife : 

VVLpheeze you, i' faith. Tamif^ ofShr., Indue. 

In another, Ajax says of Achilles, 

An he be proud with me, VWpheeze his pride. 

Tro. and ('rets., ii, 3. 
Come, will you quarrel? I wHi jeiee you, sirrah. 

B. Jons. Alch., v, 5. 

Mr. Gifford who is a West-country 
man, acknowledges it as a word ol 
that country. He says, ** It does not 
mean, as Whalley supposes, to drive; 
but to heaty to chastize, to humble, &c. 
in which sense it may be heard evert/ 
day,** That is, in the west of England. 
Note on the above passage. 
Stanyhurst, however, used it for to 
drive away : 

We are totued, and from Italy ffased. 

Transl. of Virgil. 

Here it means to humble : 

peerles you, or els no one :ilive 

Your pride serves you toyVrt^** them hII alone. 

Piirlkftiiaiif apud Puttenh., p. 180. 

See Steevens*8 note on Tain. Shr. 

PHEWTERER. See Feuterer. 
tPHILAUTIE. Self-love. Gr. 

They forbeare not to ninke profession of shewing light 
to others, being so puffed up with pkHautir. and .^elle- 
conceit. Passenger of Benvenuto, 1G12. 

PHILIP, or contracted into Phip. A 
familiar appellation for a sparrow ; 
from a supposed resemblance in their 
note to that sound. 

To whit, to whoo, the owie docs cry, 
Phip, phip, tlie sparrow es m thcv Hy. 

Li/ljf's hluther Bombie, iii, 4. 

Hence the allusion following, by a 
person named Philip : 

Q. Good leave, good Philip. 

P. Philip I sparrow f K.John, i,l. 

Sir Philip Sidney has the name at 
length, and the contraction, in one 
sonnet, addressed to a sparrow. He 

Good hrother Philip, I have home you long. 

And he end^, 

Leave that, sir Phip, lest off your uecke be wroong. 

Astrophel, S. 8S. 
Had he but the persever-ince 
Of a cock-sparrow, thai will come at, Philip, 
And cannot write nor read, poor fool. 


Philip Sparrow was a great favorite 
with the early poets. Skelton has 
an elegy upon one, which he calls *'A 
litle boke of Philip Sparrow,-** and 
G. Gascoigne writes also "The praise 
of Philip Sparrow.** Both have the 
contraction of iVi^ wwsi^\.QPK\^ ;^^>^-» 


654 PHY 

what is odd enough, Gascoigne's 
Philip is a female throughout the 
poem : 

Ml hen Philip 1« st to go to bed. 
It is a heaven to heare my Pkippe^ 
How sht can chixpe with chery lip. 

Gascoign^s Weedes, p. 279. 

of ornament, or rather a sort of stuff. 

A goodly share I 
'Twill put a lady scarce in P^lip and Cheyney, 
With tnree imail bugle laces. 

B. 4- Fl. Wit at in. W., ii, 1. 

So it is read in both the folio editions. 
The annotator of 1750 conjectures 
Philippine cheyney, which he says is 
" a sort of stuff at present in common 
use, but goes now by the name of 
Harrateen." On what authority he 
decides the identity of these articles, 
he has not told us ; but it is certain 
that Philip and cheney was a current 
name for some kind of stuff. It 
is mentioned by Taylor the water- 
poet : 

No cloth of silver, eold, or tissue here, 

PhUiff and cheiny never would appear 

Within our bounds. Praise of Hempseed. 

The conjecture of Philippine, there- 
fore, though it sounds probable, 
wants contirmation. 
PHILISIDKS. One of the poetical 
names of sir Philip Sidney, evidently 
formed from portions of the two 
names, Philip and Sidney. It 
appears first in '* A Pastoral 
iEglogne on the Death of Sir Philip,^^ 
which is printed among Spenser's 
Poems. See Todd's edit., vol. viii, 
p. 76. 

Philisidcs is dead, &c. line 8. 

Often mentioned in the poems of 
friends, introductory to the two parts 
of Browne's Pastorals; in one of 
which it is said, 

Numbers, curious eares to please, 

Learii'd he of Philisides, 

Kala loves him, &c. Signed B. Heyicard. 

Before the second book, one says of 
Browne, that 

He masters no low soule, who hopes to please 
The nephew of the brave Pkilisides. 

That is, William, earl of Pembroke, 
son of the sister of Sidnev, to whom 
that book is dedicated. See Beloe's 
A need, of Liter., vol. vi, p .59. The 
name, however, was invented by him- 
self. We have " the lad Philisidesr 

Aread., B. iii, p. 394. Eel. 3d. In 
the edition of 1724, Philisidet is so 
explained, vol. iii. ExpUmation of 
Characters, p. 3. Bishop Uall too 

so styles him : 

He knows the eraee of that new elegance. 
Which sweet Pkilisides fetcfa'd of lite fsom France. 

&<.. VI. L 


An approved medicine for the plafoe, called the 
philosophers eag -. It is a most excellent preserra- 
tive a|c:iinst all poysons, or dangerous diaoMca that 
draw towards the I'ir.irt.— Take a new laid egg, and 
break a hole so broad as you may take out the white 
clean from the yulk, then take 1 oonee of wiSron, and 
mingle it with the yolk. &c. 

The Countess of Ken^s Ckoics Msunud, 1676. 

PHILOSOPHER'S GAME, or, accord- 
ing to some, PHILOSOPHY GAME. 
A game played with men of three 
different forms, round, triangular, 
and square, on a board resembling 
two chess boards united, the men 
black andwtiite. It is mentioned by 
Burton, in the same light as chess, ai 
too anxious to suit studious men ; in 
whom, if melancholy should arise 
from over much study, it might " do 
more harm than good." Chess is, 
he says, 

A sport for idle gentlewomen, souldiera in garristm, 
and courtitrrs tliat have nought bntlove matteriito 
busie themselves about, hut not altogether so coave* 
nient for such as arc studeuta. Hie like I may ar 
of CI. Bruxer's philosuphy getme, 

Anat. of Mslsmek^ p. 373. 

Bruxer published an account of it, 
which was printed by H. Stephens 
in 1514. Strutt has described it in 
some degree from a Sloanian MS. 
451, and has shown the arrangement 
of the men in Plate 30. See Sports, 
&c., p. 277. Dr. Drake also speaks 
of it in his Shakesp., &c., vol. ii, 
p. 271. 

^Jge. or all gnmes (wherein is no bodily ezercisf ) it 
is most to be commended, for it is a wise plaj (and 
therefore was tiamcd the philosapksn* gmme) i' fyr in 
it there is no deceyte or guyle, the witte thereby is 
made more sliarpe, and the remembrance quickened, 
and therefore raaye bee used moderately. 

Northbrooke, Treatise agai$ut IHctttg, 1577. 

fPHRENTEZY. Phrensy. Whiting, 

1638. N 
PHYSNOMY, s. A corrupt contraction 

of physiognomy, as used for face or 


Faith, sir, he his an English name, bat hiMphism&mj 
is more hotter in France than here. Jits Wetl^ \\, S. 
Who both in favour, and in princely looke. 
As well as in the mind's true quulitie. 
Doth represent his father's physnomit. 





His jndfcment eomutt not in puite but pkytnomy. 

On • Pminter, Clittu's C4tter-CiMr., p. 10. 
1 will examine all your pkumomia, 

SkirUft SUterit i, 1. 

The art of physiognomy : 

I My 't for if my ftdtmmg deceive me not. 
You two are bom to be . . . coxcombs. 

Ibid., Doubt/. Heir, ii. 1. 

PI ACHE, «., for fi piazza, or, more 
properly, an arcade. Though this is 
now a mere Tulgariam of the lowest 
order, it seems to have been formerly 
deemed more respectable, since Coles 
has admitted it into his Dictionary. 
Those who now use it pronounce it 
like p and A. In the Dictionary it is 
similarly spelt: 

The Italian piazza is in fact exactly 
the French place, though it is now 
thought to mean a set of buildings 
on arches. 
PIACLE, «. A grievous crime, requiring 
expiation in the sight of heaven ; from 
piaeuluM, Latin, which meant origi- 
nally an expiation, and afterwards an 
act of guilt requiring such satisfaction. 
Mr. Todd thinks that the English 
word was once common, having found 
it frequently in Howell. He quotes 
also bishop King for it. Not having 
met with it» I cannot but think that, 
like many other Latinisms, it was 
confined to those who were scholars, 
or affected scholarship. I borrow his 
examples : 

But may I witboatpuMir forget in the rerr laat scene 
of one CH his latest actions amongst us, what lie then 
Uid ? Bp. King, Sfrm., p. 52. 

To tear the papi that frare them suck, can there be a 
mater j»ui«<e against nature. Howtll, Engl. Tears. 
tThis was accounted a mocuIoms action of the kings 
by many, tboogh sooie nave not stuck to say. 

WiUorn'M Jmmes 1. 1663. 


And now nina dsyet the pei^e fetsted had, and 

altars All 
Applied with ofllrings due, nnd ■onne had made the 

sea to fall. 
And sound ofpitUag vinde eftsooiies to deepe their 

ship doUi caHL Virgil, bg Fkaer, 1600. 

PICAROON, «. A rogue, thief, or pirate ; 
from piearo, Spanish, meaning the 

He is snUect to storms and springinff of IcaJcs. to 
pirates UMfimrooHS. Howftl, Lrtt.. ii. 39. 

Some frigates should be always in the Downs to chase 
f tearooms from infesting the coast. Ld. ClareHJum. 

These examples are from Teddys John- 
son, but the word is there derived 
from tlie Italian ; whereas it is Spanish, 

as we may see in the following passage, 
where it is used as pickeroy which is 
nearer the oritrinal: 

The iirts of roc(H|iii<tmo and Grrni.niJa. used by our 
Spanish pickeroes i\ nunn. filrhniir. fmsMnj:. niniui;:, 
jiltinj;' wedcfy. .V/nijA Oi/.tu, li. 1 ; Anc. Dr.. iv. IS i. 

In Shirley's Opportunity, an impiTii- 
nent valet is pn^teuiiijig to be ft Span:- 
ish prince, and tells a boy that he 
will prefer him, hut is only laughing 
at him : 

Thou whalt be a piraro, in your language, a page ; my 
chief picaro. Act ii. 

f I am become the tult 
Of everv piearo ami lailron. 

Sh :,!f 7 , Thf Brothers, 1652. 

dillekemy Dutch; piceadille, French. 
See Cotgrave. A piece set round tht- 
edge of a garment, whether at the t .p 
or bottom; most commonly the collar. 
Blount describes it as " a kind of stiff 
collar, made in fashion of a hand.*' 

Tlil«» Ii ilti I ' 1» H fo:»r;«e M t-ariii^ ; 
Twill sit bill sriii\ilv Ujion fli:s cnliar; 
But patience lit ai jm^xl as ii Fniu ii pickadel. 

H. Fl. Pilgrim, ii, 2. 
Or of that truth off <<-i(-ar«/i7/. in clutlics 
To boa*t a sovereignty o'er lHilif«. 

B. Jons lirttl I'M Ass, ii, 2. 
With a liair's-hreailth error, thm's a «liouIder-piece 
eut, and the buse of a pickadille in punclo. 

Mass. Fatal Dotcrg, iv, 1 . 
In every thine she [yroman] must he moiiuierous, 
Her piccadil alK)ve her cro« n upbears. 

Drayton. Jfoonealf. p. 4M). 

It seems there wa?* an onlor m:ule by 
the vice-chancellor ot' Cambridge, 
when the king was expected there in 
1615, against wearing pickadela, or 
peccadilloes., as they were also called, 
to which allusion is made in these 
lines : 

But leave it. scholar. Ii>ave it. and take it not in snuff, 
I'or he that wears no uirlrndrl. bv l.iw may wear a ruff. 
Camhr Slmj. Ilutri-. If/noramus, p. cxvii. 
fWhich for a ^{•.ln:^ll l»l«irkc lii-> lands doth sell, 
Or for to buv a siaudiug pickadell .' 

PasquiVs Sight-cap, 1613. 
fOr one that at the eallowes made iu-r will. 
Late ehoaked witii the han;;manB f trl-iK/i/;. 
In which respect, a sow, a cat, a mare. 
More modest then these foolish females are. 

Tantur's U'orkes. 1630. 

PICCADILLY. It seems agreed that 
this street was named from the above 
ornament. Blount says, 

That famous orilinary lu-ar St. James's, calird Pirkn- 
tUllif. took denomination from this, that one Ifi}!}rin«. 
a ta\lor, who built it. L:ot most ot his estate by /wVot. 
dillfs, which in the l.tst asre were much in fashion. 

Bailey makes Iliggins build the street ; 
but it is much more probable that he 
built a few houses, besides that which 
became famous as an ordinary ; and 
that the street, gradually extending. 




still preserved the name. The com- 
piler of Dodley*8 Dictionary of London 
and Westminster, partly confirms this 

tFarewel, my denrest Piceadilly, 

Notorious for great dinners ; 
Oh I what a tennis-court was there ! 

Alass I too good for sinners. 

Wit and Drollery, 1682. p. 89. 

PICK, for pike, or spike. The sharp 
point fixed in the centre of a buckler. 

Take down my buckler, 
AnJ sweep tlie cobw ebs off, and ^rind the pick on't. 

B. and Fl. Cupid'* Revenge, ir, 1. 

Picks are put jocularly for foi ks : 

Undone, without redemption, he eats with picks. 

Ibid., Mons. Tko., i, 8. 

Spoken of a traveller. See Forks. 
To PICK A THANK. To perform some 
servile or mean act, for the sake of 
gaining favour. 

Fine heads will pick a qoarrell with roe, if all be not 
curious, and flatterers a tkanke if anie tiling be cur- 
rant. Etwhues, A 4 b. 
Or doth he mean that thou would'st pick a thank. 
No sure, for of that fault I count thee frank. 

Sir J. Haringt. Bpigr., 66. 
By slavish fawning, or by picking thanks. 

Wither. Brit. Rem., p. 89. 

PICK-TH A NK, s. A flatterer, a person 
who is studious to gain favour, or to 
pick occasions for obtaining thanks. 
A word so common once, that it may 
be said to have been a favorite. 

Which oft the ear of greatness needs must hear, 
ng pick'thanki 

wiin pieatins tales hii 

A flatterer, a pickthank, and a Iyer. 

, and base news-mongers. 

1 Henry /F, iii, 9. 
With pleating tales his lord's vain ears he fed. 

See Johnson. 

Also as an adjective. Thus Poole, in 

his Parnassus, gives it as an epithet 

both to sycophant and parasite. So, 

in lady Eliz. Carew*s tragedy of 

Mariam, the Fair Queen of Jewry, we 


Base, pick-thank devil Steev. Not*. 

tFirst they devidrd their bands, and insinuated them- 
selves into the fHmilyn of the poor good natured 
tenants ; tlien they carry'd pickthank stories from 
one to anot her. Buckingham's Works, cd. 1705, ii, IIS. 

PICK-TOOTH, *. This common and 
tiecessary implement, now more com- 
monly called a tooth-pick, was not a 
native invention, but was imported 
by travellers from Italy and France ; 
and the using of it in public was long 
deemed an nffected mark of gentihty. 
But the most extraordinary display of 
it, as a trophy, seems to have been 
the wearing it in the hat. Sir Thomas 
Overbury thus winds up hit descrip- 

tion of a courtier, who, of course, was 
supposed to be the pink of fashion: 

If you And him not heere, you shall find him in Paules, 
with a pick-tooth in his hat, a cape eloke. and a los{ 
stocking. Charact. 4, ed. \Ut 

Of an idle gallant, bishop Earle mi, 

EUs pick-tooth bears a great part in hts disconrsf- 

Micr. Cher.. 19. 
What a neat case of pick-tooths he carries about Juo 
still. B.Jons. Every M. out of H,\v,\ 

See Tooth-pick. 

tAnd then retire to my castle at HeUen, and there 
write a new poem, that I have taken paiues in, almost 
these ten yeares. It is in prayse of picketoothei. 

Tragedy of Hoffman, 16S1 
tNo not a bodkin, pincase, all tliey send 
Or carry ail, what ever they can happe on. 
Ev'n to iUe pretty pick-tooth, whose each end 
Oft purg'd the reficks of continual capon. 

Rump SMf*. 
tA curious parke. 
Do. Pal'd round about with pick-iaetk. 

Rando^h's Jmyntas, IMOt 

fPICK-PACK. The older form of pick- 
a-back, t. e., carried like a pack over 
the shoulders. 

Some two or tliree meet in a bole 
Together, their state to condole, 
Tet none of them knowes what thej lack, 
Unlesse they'd be brought home pick-pack. 

Homer a la Mode, lltt. 
Well, Ue ferret every altar in the church for her, sii 
enquire at every house in Toledo but lie find her. 
And if I meet her, lie have her to him, the it be oi 
pick-paek. Wrangling Liners, 1<77- 

PICKED, a. Nicely spruced out in 
dress. " It is a metaphor taken from 
birds, who dress themselves by picking 
out, or pruning, their broken or 
superfluous feathers." Steevens. 

He is too picked, too spruce, too affected, too odd. ss 
it were ; too peregrinate, as I may call iu 

L. L. Losit V, I. 
Why then 1 suck my teeth, and catechize 
My pickfd man of count ries. K. John, i, I. 

The age is grown %o picked, that the toe of the pea- 
sant comes so near the heel of the courtier, he galls 
his kibe. ^<8Mi.,v,l. 

Tis such a picked fellow, not a haire 
About his whole bulk, but it stands in print. 

Chapman's All Fbols, O. PL. iv, 18S. 
Certain quaint, pickt, and neat companioni, attired— 
a la mode de Fnmce. Greene's Def. of C. Catching. 

So it is in Chaucer, "He kembetn 
him, he proineth, and pikeih.** 
Cant. Tales, 98b5. All the expla- 
nations from piked shoes, beards, &c., 
are nothing to the purpose; nor 
from the sense o( picked, as nueaning 
selected, picked out. 
PICK EDEV ANT, *. The pointed part 
of the beard, as once worn. A fan- 
tastic gallant is described as, 

A man consisting of Kpickedetant and two mosta- 
choes, to defeat liTm there ne^ds but three dipoM of 
a pair of cizzars. Poole's Fam., 801, ed^ ltf7. 


tPICKEDLY. Neatly. 




Dooest thoa not fee within tbe ftate a eompanve of 
women, the whiehe aeeme to be ot good disposition 
and well ordred, having their apparell not gHie but 
•ymple, nor be tbei so trymme nor so piekedly 
attirad as the other be. 

The TahU ofCebet, ijf PoyngSt n. d. 

PICKEDNESS, «. Neat, spruce 
niceness. After tpeakiDg of those 
who are always ** kempt and per- 
fiimed," and exceedingly curious in 
mending little imperfections, Ben 
Jonson says. 

Too mneh fidkedmeu is not manly. 

IHteoterieSf p. 116. 

From picked, i n the sense above noticed . 
To PICKEER. To rob or pillage ; from 
the Italian. Not much in use, if at all. 
Johnson quotes Hudibras for it. 

I^Tet that's but a prelndioas bliss. 
Two toals fidttenng in a kiss. 

ClnOMd^t Works, 1687. 

PICKEERBR, «. One who robs or 

The cfabeic iw r er, the robust cfaurdi-waTden 
Of lincowe's Inn back-comer. 

CUweloHtTs Poemt,\9Sl, p. 1S6. 

PICKERELL, 9. A young pike; a 
diminntife from pike. In Merrett's 
Pinax, or Catalogue, we have " Maxi- 
mos Tocat Oesner luces, parros pick- 
treU:** and Coles has ** Pickerel, 
ladolus, lucius paryns." One author, 
comparing them to ships, says, " The 
pikes are the taller ships, the pickerels 
of a middle sort, and the Jacks the 
pinnaces." Cena. Lit,, x, p. 128. 

like as the Uttte roach 
Must ebe be eat, or leape upon the shove. 
When at the hungry pickertU doth approach. 

Mirr./br JVJy^ 308. 

Ixaak Walton speaks of a weed odled 
piekerei'Vreed ; because, according to 
Geaner, pikes are bred in it, by the 
help of the sun*s heat I Part I, cb. Tiii, 
tnCKERIE. Pillage. 

Both thefte md wkkmU were quite sMuie see d . 


tPICKLB. To pick. 

The wfca, who aeeinf (prest with sleeps deeire) 
Hile^ piijsiwj pirate praM the slimT shoar, 
and hqtping htm before, 
■■,... he skips, his teeth he piekUs, 
his pafartc, and his throat so tickles. 

Dm BmtUu. 

PICT-HATCH. A noted tayem or 
brothel in Turnvt.ill, commonly called 
TarabuU street. Cow-cross, Clerk- 
en well ; a haunt of the worst part of 
both sexes. 

6«,—« abort kwib tad athong r-^ jonr naaor of 
Heki'kttiehi''t^ Mtrr. W, r., ii, 9. 


Tlie lordship 
Of Tiimbal so,— which with ray Pickt-hatck gnuig;e, 
And Shore-ditch fanii, and other prt- niises 
Adjoining — ^rery good — n prettv maintenance. 

Mutr's L Glass, O. PI., ix, SU 
From tbe Bordello it niiglit come as well, 
The Spittle, or Pictkatck. B. Jons. Er. M. in H., i, 2. 
Tlie decay'd vestals ol Piekt-katck would thank }|-oa 
That keep the fire alive tliere. Ibid., Alchem., ii, 1. 
Why the whores of Piekt-hateh, Tarnbnll, or the 
unmerciful bawds of Bloomsbury. 

Randolph, ifeyfor Hunt sty, B 3 b. 

It has been well observed, that a 
hatch with pikes upon it was n com- 
mon mark of a bad house : 

Set some piekrs upon your hatch, and I prav profess 
to keep a bawdy house. Cupids ithrligig. 

Hence the name. The pikes were 
probably intended as a defence against 
riotous invasion. See Pericles, iv, 3. 
Suppl. to Sh., ii, 107. See Turn- 
fPIDLING. Paltry. 

Tliii is a sign ot ttpidling beggerlv condition. 

Saunarrs* l*h^sio(jnomie, 1653. 

PIE, or PYE, *. The familiar Englii^h 
name for the popish ordinal ; that is, 
the book in which was ordained the 
manner of saying and solemnising tlie 
offices of the church. See Gutch, 
Collect. Cur., ii, 169. The difficulty 
and intricacy of it is alluded to in the 
Preface to our Liturey : 

The number and hardness of the rules colled the pit, 
and the manifold changings of the service, was the 
cause thai to turn this >K)ok only was so hard and 
intricate h matter, that many times there was more 
difficulty t) find out what shouid be read, than to 
read it when it was found out. 

Cone, the Services of the Church. 

Supposed to be an abbreviation of 
pinax, the Greek word for an index ; 
or, by some, to be so called because 
it was pied^ or of various colours, red, 
white, and black. The former seems 
more probable. 
[In epite of the pie, obstinately.] 

tPertinax in rem aliquam, that is follT bent to due si 
tiling, that will doe i^ yea marie will hee, maugre ui 
tit sptghtofthrpie. 

mthals^Dietionarie, ed. 160B. p. S9(). 

PIECE, «., for cask, or vessel of wine. 
The expression is borrowed from the 
French, in which language it is still 
used in that sense. 

Home, Lance, and strike a fresh jneff^ of mne. 

B. and Ft. Motis. Thorn., v, 8. 

fPIECE. A drinking-cup. 

Diota. Horat Any drinking p(;rf0 having two cares : 

a two eared drinking cup. homenclator. 

fPIECE. A sort of small gun. 

Tliey seldomc have any robbery committed amon'jst 
them, but there is a murther with it, for tlieir un- 
mannerly manner ia to kuockit Q>a&.^tDASA\vr\\v\'&% 
first, or else to Yurltt >>t\L\u^ % Uet, mv^ iJttficN. ^ Wvv\\ 





vith Apeeee or ^ pistol, and so DiHke sure worke with 
the nasseiiKer, kndthen search his pockets. 

TayU>r's Worket, 16S0. 

fPIES. A pies, an exclamatiou, the 
derivation of which is not clear. 

Aur. A jiiet upon you : well, niv father has made 
Lucy swear too never to see Iruiuaii without his 
consent. CoteUt/'t Cutter of CoUman Street^ 1663. 

Char. Why what a-piet iz she made of. niusten she 
be luchl ? zure h man may buss her, az a body may 
zay, and no harm dun. Unnatural Mother, 169o. 

+PTG. The name of this animal 
enters much into phraseology. 

Quod (latur accipe: when the piff is offered, hold odl- 
the p<-.ake. WUhaW Dictionary, ed. 1634, p 5/9. 

Terra volat: pigs Hie in the ay re with their layles 
forward. Ibid., p. 683. 

attractions of Bartholomew Fair, in 
early times, were pigs, which were 
there roasted and sold in pieces to 
those who would huy and eat. Much 
of this may be observed in Ben Jon- 
son's comedy of Bartholomew Fair, 
where the puritanical wife, Wiu-the- 
fight, longs for pig, in the very first 
act. On which Busy, the Banbury 
puritan, thus learnedly discourses: 

Now piff it is a meat, aud a meat that is nourishing 
and may be longed for, and so consequently eaten ; it 
may be oiten ; very exceeding well eaten : iiut in the 
fair, and as a Bartkolomev pta, it cannot be eaten; 
for I he very calling it a Bartnolomew pig, aud to eat 
it so, is a spice of idolatry, and you make the fair no 
better than one of the high places. Act i, bc. 6. 

Abundance of matter, on the same 
subject, may there be found. Gayton 
thus mentions these attractions of 
the fair : 

If Bartholomew faire should last a whole year, nor 
pigt nor puppet-playes would ever be surfeited of. 

Festivous Notes, p. 143. 

No season through all the Tecre accounts he more 
subject to abhomination than Bartholomew faire: 
their drums, hobbihorsc?, rattles, babies, Jewtrumps, 
nay pigs and all, are \% holly Judaical. 

Ifhimzies, or a New Cast of Characters, 1631. 
A Zeahut Brother, p. 200. 

Pig was not out of fashion when Ned 
Ward wrote his London Spy, in queen 
Anne*8 time. 
Other fairs had also the same dainties : 

She left you at St. Peter's fair, where you lonE*d for 
Pig. Wits, O. PI., viu, 461. 

See Bartholomew Pig. 
fPIGEON-HOLES. A game resem- 
blmg bagatelle. 

In several places there was nine-pins plaid. 

And pidgeon holes for to beget a trade. 

Frost-Fair Ballads, 1684. 
the rare pleasure whieh the fields 
Tliis mouth of May to mortals yields ; 
The birds do send forth several strains, 
Lambs skip and leap upon the plains t 
The wanton kids about do run. 
Mot tliiuking winter e're will come. 

The boys are by themielret in sholet. 
At nine-pius or at pigeoM-hoies. 
Whilest those men who are fit for war. 
Are busie throwing of the bar. 
But then upon a holiday 
How men and maids at stool-ball play. 
Some having got a cats-gruts scraper, 
bow they dance, frisk it, and caper. 

Poor ltobiM,\m. 

?lGKT,part. Pitched. Generally cou- 
sidered as put for pitched, either as 
the participle, or the preterite tense 
of to pitch ; but there was certainly 
an old verb, to pight. Thus : 

And having in their tight 
The ihreatned citv of the foe, his tent did Asserfi^lt 

Wanur, Alh. Bmal, p. 3t 

Mr. Todd also quotes it from Wicliff. 
Pight, the participle, was common ; 

Your vile abominable teats, 
Thus proudly j>ty4/ upon our Phrygian plains. 

Tro. and Cress., t, 11. 

Also in the sense of placed or fixed: 

Bat in the same a little gate was fight. 

Spins, r. ^,I,Tiii,S7. 
When I dissuaded him from his intent. 
And found him pigkt to do it. Lear, i>. 1- 

The threatned citie of the foe his tents did Asser f*g^ 


PIGSNIE, s. A diminutive of pig; « 
burlesque term of endearment, as in 
this English hexameter : 

Miso, mine own pigsnis, thoa shall have sevi d 
Dametas. Siduefs Art., p. 377' 

Butler has used it for a small eje, 
quasi a pig's eye. See Johnson. 

f As soon a^ she close to him came. 
She spake, and call'd him by his name. 
Stroking; him on the head, Pigsny, 
Quoth she, tell me, who made it cry. 

Homer a la Moif, \^^ 

fPIGWIDGIN. Small, or fairy-like. 

By Scotch invasion to be made a prey 
Tu %\xc)\ pigwidgin myrmidons as they. 

Cleatland Retired, 166a 

PIKE-DEVANT, «. The beard cut to 
sharp point in the middle, below the 
chin ; a fashion once much in ate. 
It is seen in most of the portraits of 
Charles the First. I 

He [lord Mountjoy] kept the haire of his upper lippe 
something short, onely suiFeriog that under his netJMS 
lip to grow at length and full ; yet some two or thres 
yeares before his death he nourished a aharpc sad 
short pikedetant on his chin. 

Fgnes Monson, Part ii, p. 41 
And here I row by my concealed beud, if ever it 
chance to bc discovered to the world, that it nuT 
make a pike devant, I will have it so sharp poinieo, 
that it snail stab MoUo like a poynado. 

Lily's Midas, r. 1 
My piece 1 must alter to a poynado, and my ptke to 
a pike-drrant ; only this is my 'comfort, that our pro- 
vant will be better here in the court, than in tbt 
eanip. Heywood^s Royal King, ^-c.^ act iv. ad fia. 

tAnd verily, for feature and shanc of bodie, this it vas : 
meane of stature, the haire of nis brad lyin^ smootk 
and soft, as if he had kembed it, wearing his beard, 
which was shagged and rough, with a sltarpe petip- 
devant. Holland's Amniianns Mareelliuuf. \M. 

-fFair hair, as the poets say, ia the priaon of Ciip-dj 
that is the cause, 1 suppose, the laoiea make rii>|% 




thet, and lovelocks to lend to their lofere, 
men curl and powder their hair, and nmne 
•aUvants. IFard't Diary. 

he be besotted on a wenche, he must lye 
lights, renounce his book, sigh and lament, 
then weep for his hard hap, and mark above 
what hats, bands, donblets, breeches are in 
how to cut his beard, and wear his lock, to 
is nioshatos. and curl his head, prone bit 
/, or if he wear it abroad, that the east side 
jiondent to the west. 

BurUm, An. of Mel, ii, 3S7. 

iner be upon the board, desire the parson to 

t grace, and fall to it quickly ; for entreaties 

1 an account, are as ridiculous ufiekedfvant 

trunck-breeches. Poor Bobin, 1709. 

»r PILCH£R, a. A scabbard ; 
*/lche, a skin-coat, Saxon. See 
r. Hence he derives pilchard 

pluck vour sMord out of his pitcher by the 

iZoM. and Jul., lii, 1. 

^e, or leather coat, seems to 
ten a common dress for a car- 
Decker says of Ben Jonson, 

it forgot how thoa nmbled'st in a leather 
a play-waggon in the high-way. 

in a lether pileke, that had whipt out a 
pound out of tiis horse-taile. 
fash's Fierce PeniUsse, in Cens. Lit., vii, IS. 




A pilche for a saddle, 
im i" which explains that it 

external covering, and proba* 
eather. Kersey also calls it a 
g for a saddle; but he like- 
res it the sense of " a piece of 

to be wrapt about a young 
It seems, therefore, to have 
ed for any covering. 
^, s. A technical word with 
I, for the mark of a paragraph, 
unt, Kersey, Coles. Minshew 
's it to be corrupted hovapara- 
r; but by what process, it is 
^ to guess. 

low to confer evenr abstract with his moneth, 
find out huswiiery verses by the pilerow. 

Tusser, p. 2. 
idry mntters, where pilerow ye find, 
i appertaineth to husbandry kind. Ibid. 

irections refer to the form and 
8 used in the printing of his 
Beaumont and Fletcher write 
TOW, Speaking of the murks 
nted book, Lapet says, 

ipeel-erow here? 

Gl. I told him so, sir : 
ow had been better. Nice Valour, iv, 1. 

for to pillage. 

* thereby presumed liis people for to pill. 

Mir r. for Mag., p. 279. 
The commons he hath pilld 
rous taxe«, and quite lost their hearts. 

Rich. IJ, ii, 1. 

Hear me, you wranj^ing pirates, that fall out 
In sharing that which you have pill'd from me. 

Rich. Ill, i, 

Often joined with poll, as to pill and 
poll, to plunder and strip : 

Can pill, and poll, and catch before they erare. 

Mirr.for Ma^., p. 467 
We cut off occursions, we prole, poU, and uill. 

Ibid., 84. 
Kildare did use to oill and poll his friendes, tenants, 
and reteyners. IioUnggk. Hist, oflrel.. F 7. col. 2 a. 
Bicause they pill and poll, because they wrest. 

Gascuigne, h 3 b. 

See Poll. Hence, 
PILLERY, 8. Rapine, the act of* [)illng- 

And then concussion, rapine, pilUries, 
Their catalogue of accusations fill. 

Daniel's Works, I 5 b. 

PILLARS. Ornamented pillars were 
formerly carried before a cardinal, 
and Wolsey was remarkable for keep- 
ing up this piece of state. In the 
stage directions for his solemn entry 
in the play of Henry VIII, it is said, 
"Then two gentlemen bearing ttoo 
ff real silver pillars.'* Hen. Fill, ii, 4. 
This was from authentic history. He 
is so described by Holingshed, and 
other historians. Cavendish, his bio- 
grapher, speaks of these silver pillars, 
and of his cross-bearers and pillar- 
bearers. Wordsw. Eccl. Biogr., i, 
p. 353. Skelton satirically describes 
him as going 

With worldly nompe iocredible. 
Before him ryaeth two prestos strooge, 
And they bear two crosses right longe, 
Oapynze in every man's face. 
After them folowe two laye>men secular, 
And eche of theym hoidyng k pillar 
III their handes, steade of a mace. 

Skelton^s Works. 

These pillars were supposed to be em- 
blematical of the support given by the 
cardinals to the church. 
Bishop Jewel, in his Apology, speak- 
ing of the pomp of the Roman pre- 
lates, says, *' Amictum quidem habent 
illi interdum aliquem, cruces, colum- 
nas, galeros, tiaras, pallia, quam pom- 
pam veteres episcopi Chrysostomus, 
Augustinus, Ambrosius non habe- 
bant.*' § 9. In a useful modern 
edition [Pontefract, 1812] the word 
columnas is put between brackets, as 
suspected to be wrong ; but it is per- 
fectly right, and is in all the best 
PILLED, 2)flfr^. Bare, as if picked or 




Their (the ostrirhes) neckes are much longer than | 
craneb, and piUrd, liaTing none or little fenthen about 
tlic lu. Also their legs — are pilUd and bare. 

Coryat, vol. i, p. 89, rcpr. 

PILLORY. The ancient mode of pun- 
ishment in it was this: The collis- 
trigium, or pillory, was placed hori- 
zontally, so that the criminal was 
suspended in it by his chin and the 
back of his head. Hence is explained 
a passage of Shakespeare, supposed 
by Dr. Johnson to be corrupt : 

You must be hooded, mtut you ? show your knave's 
visage, with a p — x to you ; show your sheep-biting 
face, and be hMg*d an hour. Meas.for Meas., v, 1. 

The alleged crime was not capital, 
and suspension in the pillory for an 
hour was all that the speaker intended. 
The words an hour are, therefore, 
not superfluous. The method, how- 
ever, may be presumed to be un- 
common, as Minshew only mentions 
''standing on the pillorie." Ed. 1617. 
fPILLOWBEEU. A pillow-case. 

Sordido. take heed your horns do not make 

holes in the fillcwbeers. 

MiddUtom, Women bevart Women. 

-PIMGENET. A pimple on th** face. 

1 clear the lass with wainscot face - rrvm t fmt-r 

Plump ladies red as Saracen's head with toaping 
ratafee. Newett Academy of Compliment*. 

Is it not a manly exercise to stana hcking his lips 
into rubies, painting his cheeks into cherries, parcn- 
iug his pimffinite, carbuncles, and buboes ? 

Dunton't Ladies Dictionary, 1694. 
Ladies or dowdies, wires or lasses. 
With scarlet or pimaennet faces, 
Tho' caos'd by drinking much cold tea. 
Punch, nectar, wine, or ratifea. 

ffudibras Redivifmi, 1707. 

PIMLICO. Perhaps originally the 
name of a man who kept a public 
house at Hogsdon, to which there \ 
was a great resort of the common 
people. There is an old tract existing, 
named ** Pimlyco, or runne Red cap, 
'tis a Mad World at Hogsdon." 4to, 
160!^. [See the last example.] 

Ail sorts, tag-rag, have been seen to flock here 
In threaves, these ten weeks, as to a second Hoesden, 
lu days of Pimlico and Eyebright. B.Jons. Jle£., ▼, 3. 

Afterwards a part of Hogsdon seems 
to have been so called : 

I have sent my dsnghter this morning as far as 
Pimlico, to fetch a draught of Derby ale. 

Greene's Tu Quogue, 0. PL, rii, 63. 

It was famous for cakes and 
custards : 

My lord >>• •land, will you go to Pimlico with us? 
We are nmking a boon vovnge to that happy land of 
spire cakes. Aoarinp Girl, (). PI , vi, 104. 

Id Kqutre iuM AJstcrs, and demolish custards 
^ At Pim/ieo. 

A sort of ale also seems to have taken 
the name : 

Or stout March-beer, or Windsor ale. 
Or Labour-in-vain (so seldom stale), 
Or Pimlico, whose too great sale 

Did mar if. 
MckoU's CoU. Poems, iii, 20. 

A psrt just beyond Buckingham 
gate, St. James's park, in the way to 
Chelsea, has since succeeded lo the 
name : how, or when, it was trans- 
ferred I know not. 

tHare at thee, then, my merrie boyes, and hey for 
old Ben Pimtico's nut-browne. ^ 

News from Hofdon, 1S9S. 


But when the drinke doth worke within her hesd. 
She rowles and reekes, and pimpers with the W- 
Une's Tom Tel-Troths Messagt, 16011 

PIN, *. The middle point of a butt, 
or mark set up to shoot at with 
arrows. To cleave this, was to shoot 
best. It stood in the very centre of 
the white. See White. 

The very ptn of his heart cleft with 
The blind bow -boy's but-shaft. Bom, ami /mL, ii. i 
Then will she get the up-shot, by deaving «( thefts. 

Ime^ L. L.,v,\. 
The f ta he shoots at. 
That was the man delivered ye. 

B. and Tl. Island Princess, ir.l. 
Holdout, knight, 
111 elaare the black oia i' the miakt of the whits. 


For kings are clouts that every man slioots at. 
Our crown the pin that thousands seek to cleave. 

Marlowe's TambMrl., cited by Mskna 

See Clout. 
fPlN. A wooden peg. 

Pynne of tymbre, chtrille. 
Upon a mtvy pynne, de kayt. 

t^dgar, away with ptns V th* cup 
To spoil our drinkins whole ones up. 

HoJbom Drollery, ItfUt p. 71 
Imaffine only that he shall be cheated. 
And ne is clieated : all still comes to pasae. 

He's but one pin above a natural ; but 

Cartwriffkfs Ordinary, 16SL 
Onoth he, I care for neither friend or kinsman, 
Nor doe I value honesty two pinnes man. 

Taylor*s Workes, 1690l 

[k knot in timber.] 

TThe pinne or hard come of a knot in timber, vhkb 
hurteth sawes. NoenemeUUr. 

tPIN-FEATIIER. A name stiD giren 
in Northamptonshire to the incipient 
feathers of birds. 

Had we suffered those birds of prer to have bcc» 
fledge (for they were but pin-feaikerei), it might have 
been said in our proverb, tlmt we brongfat up birds to 

Sick out our own eyes. But they were all tooa get 
ylowbelling; these silly woodcocks were euDarsd 
in a gin laid oy the royal party. 

Tke Sage Senator, p. S09 

PIN AND WEB. A disorder of the eye, 
consisting apparently of some excres- 
cence growing upon the ball of the 
eye. So, at least, Markham deacribca 
it in horses : 





the wait, peari«, pin or wtt, vbidi are evila 
n and apoa the eye, to take them off, t^ the 
' the hob betin, and wash the eye therewith, 
'tut the spots awMy. 

Cketp amdOoodHushtrndry, Book i, ch. 87. 
igibbet, — he gives the web and tkt jpw, 
the ey&^fcc Lttr, iu, 4. 

wishing clocks more swift; 
ninatcs ; the noon midnight; and all eyes 
ith the pirn and w«i, but theirs. 

I, good qiieene, be great, so are they cleare 

er yet had tn»»« or webbe, his sight for to 
ay. Gascoigni's Prineelg Fl. cfKnuho. 

says, the pin is pterygium, or 
r; and the web, pannw. See 
911, Pin, 9. 
UKE, 9. A sort of vessel. 

Moses brought water out of 
ck, the Israelites, says Drayton, 

catch it, and 

, kits, dishes, btaonB.pinbotdtet, bowls, 
orched bosoms menily they baste. 

Hoses, B. iii, p. 1804. 

I not seeu the word elsewhere, 
any Dictionary. 
iCH. Used of hounds pressing 
!ind seizing their eame. 

A hownd a freckled hind 
»ar*e hunted ; ou the foreskirts yet 
bed and pull d her down. Ckt^wi. Odyss., xix. 

!R. The officer whose business 
• to look after stray animals 
ut them in the pound, and to 
it trespassers. 

;h that tUey cspy'd the jolly j»iuf«r, 

iS he sat under a thorn. 

w turn again, now torn again, said iht pindsr, 

'or a wrtinff way you have gone. 

Bobiu Hood and the Finder of Wakefield. 

r PYNE, *. Grief, or suffering; 
to pine, and that from pinan, 
. It is to be found in Pope. 

-bone cheekes, through peuurie and pine, 
ironke into his jawei, as he did never dme. 

Spens.F. C.,I,ix.86. 

or fatal pain : 

Mr hath his foe within his reach. 
Ions her that merits death and pins. 

Fair/. Tasso, xri, 67. 

Spenser : 

tether he alive be to be found, 

>mc deadly chaunce be done to pine, 

him lately lost, uneath is to dehne. 

F. C. VI, ▼, 88. 
dea of bale, in pangs of deadly p^me- 

Gascoigne, Flowers, a 8 b. 

E, V, act. To wear away with 

Dg ferer him so pynde awaye, 

kin did finish this his dolefull daye. 

The Newe Melamorphosts, 1600, MS. 

or PIONER, 8, A pioneer; 
?ndant on an army, whose office 
ig, level, remove obstructions, 
reuches, and do aJJ worka exe- 

cuted with unwarlike tools, as spades^ 
&c. From French. 

biy pittas eke were prest with showl and spade, 
T* inter the dead, a monstrous trench that nil, 
And on them dead they reard a niiirhtie liill. 

i/irr. Mag., p. 188. 
Wherewith to win this towne, afresh th' assault he 

He fitters set to trench, and undermine amaine, 
Maae bastiles for defence, yet all this toUe was vaine. 

Ibid., p. 491. 

Ben Jouson has pioner, in the folio 
edition : 

Statilius, Curius, Ceparius, Cimber, 
My labourers, pioners, and incendiaries. 

Cotaline, iii, S 

Captain Grose on Othello, iii, 3, gives 
instances to show that the situation 
of a pioneer was a degradation ; and 
in both instances it is written pioner, 
A soldier of course considers himself 
superior to a mere labourer ; conse- 
quently it must be a degradation to 
biu) to be turned into that corps. 
PINGLER, «. Probably a labouring 
horse, kept by a farmer in his home- 
stead. Pingle is defined by Coles, 
"Agellulus domui rusticee adjacens, 
ager conseptus.*' Picle is the same, 
in provincial language. 

Perverslie doe they alwaies thiuke of their lovers, 
and talke of theni scometullie, jud^iiii; all to bee 
clownes which be not courtiers, and all to lie pinplers 
that he not coursers. Euphues, m^mi. >I 1 h. 

PINK, 8, A vessel with a narrow stern ; 
pinque, French. Hence all vess^els 
so formed are called pink-sterned. 
Chambers, In the French Manuel 
Lexique it is thus defined : ** Nom 
d'uu vaisseau de charge qui s'appelle 
aussi flutte. II est plat de varange 
(flat-bottomed), et il a le derriere 
ronde." It is not, in fact, an obsolete 
term at sea. 

This pink is one of Cupid's carriers : — 

Clap on more sails i pursue. Merry h'. H\, ii. 2. 

Observe, however, that the three 
oldest editions read puncke, and pink 
is only conjectural. As we know no 
other derivation of punk, perhaps it 
is merely a corruption of j}ink. A 
woman is often compared tu a ship, 
as here : 

Thisjpinci', this painted foist, this cockle-boat, 
To hana; her fights out, and defie uie, friends, 
A well known man of war. 

if. and Fl. Woman's Pr., ii. 6. 

PINK EYNE. Small eyes. See the 
next word. 

Cofiie, thou monarch of the vine, 
Piuiupy Bacchus, w\t^ piak e«)He. 




This expreRsioii, iu the quaint lan- 
guage nnd t'aDtastic spelling of old 
Laneham, appears thus : 

It was a sport very pleaaaont of tlieeze beastz, to see 
the bear witli hiaptnt nyet leering after his enniiez 
approach. Ldterfrom Kenilwortk. 

PINK-EYED. Small eyed. Coles 
renders it by lucinius and ocella ; 
later ed. tiX%Q pcetus: and in the Latin 
part of his Dictionary he has/'Oc^Z/^e, 
— arum. Maids witli little eyes; 
pink-ey^d girls.'* To wink hndi pink 
with the eyes, still means to contract 
them, and peep out of the lids. 
Johnson quotes L' Estrange for this 
sense. In Fleming's Nomenclator 
we have, " Ocella, lucinius, qui exiles 
habet oculoa, fnKfiofifinros, Ay ant 
fort petits yeux. That hath little 
eyes : pink-eyed.^* Pag© 451, a. 
Bishop VVilkins also has, '^pink-ey^d, 
narrow eyed.** A/ph. Diet, 

AIm> thcni that were pink-eyed, and had very imail 
ties, they termed ocellw. P. Holland's Pliny, B. 11. 

tTo PINK. To wink. 

Though his iye on us therat ^leasantlie pinke, 
!\e% will he thinke that we sale not as we thinke. 

Heyvood's Spider and FUe, 1656. 

fPINNER. An article of dress, drawn 
round the neck. 

With a snit of tfood pinners pray let her bedrest, 
And when slie's in bed, let iili go to rest. 

T/ie Crafty Miller, an old ballad. 
My hair's about my ears, as I'm a sinner 
He hiis not left me worth a hood or pinner. 

Radcliffe's Ovid Tratestie,\68\ , p. 5. 
The cinder wench, and oyster drab, 
With Nell the cook and hawking Bab, 
Must have their pinners brought from Frauce. 

The London Ladies Dressing Room, 1705. 

fPINSNET. Apparently the same as 
the following. 

To these their nether-stocket, they have corked 
shdoos, pinsnets, and fine pantofflea, which bear them 
up a tinger or two from the irround. 

Stuhbes's Anatomic of Abuses. 

tPINSON. A thin-soled shoe. 

Calceamen and calcearium is a shoo, pinson, socke. 

Withals' Dietionarie, ed. 1806. p. 811. 


Our poets and writers about London, whom thou hast 
called piperly make-plaves and make-bates. 

' Nask, Pierce Pemilessc, 1593. 

fPIPER'S CHEEKS. Swollen or 
pufFed-out cheeks. 

Tii:it hath bigge or ereat cheekes, as they tearme 
J them, pipers cheekes, bucculentus. 

^ Withals' Dietionarie, ed. 1008. p. S86. 

fPIPIENT. Making a noise like a 

There yon shall hcare hypocrites, a pipienl broode, 
rackline their owne ripenesse, when they are scarce 
out of their shelles. 

Adams' Spirituall Natigator, 1615. 

tPIPPIN. A general term for au apple. 

Lord, who would take liim fora oipptn squire. 
That's BO bedaub'd with lace ana rich attire? 

Taylor's Workes, \&k 
A gold-smith telling o'er Ins caah, 
A. pipping-mongcr selling trash. 

Hudibras Reditina, ITOL 

mid. The latter is either singular or 

That piramis so high, 
Rear'd (as it might be thought) to oven op the sky. 

Drayt. PUyM., 1181 
Place me some God upon a piramis 
Higher than hills of earth. B. /• Fl. Pkilaster, ir, 4 
Then he, above them all himseu that tought to raise. 
Upon some mountain top, like a pirdmides. 

Drayton, PolyoH., p. 101S. 
Now flourishing with fanes, and proud piHbmiies. 

Make it rich 
With brass, and purest gold, and ahioing jasper, 
Like the piramides. B. /• Fl. Pkilast., r, S. 

Spenser and others write it pyra- 
tPIRE. A pier. 

The next day they spent in riewing the castk of 
Dover, the pire, the diffei, the road, nnd towne. 

fyli^s Enhaa. 

PIRRIE, or PERRIE, s. A sudden 

storm at sea. Pirr, in Scotch, 

means a gentle hreeze. See Jamie- 

In surgeletse seas of aniet rest, when I 
Seven yeares had sailo, a pcrrie did arise. 
The blasts whereof abridg'd my libertie. 

ifirr. for Mag., p. IH 
A pirric came, and set my ship on sands. 


It occurs also in prose : 

At length when the furious jpym> and rage of vindei 
still encreased. Holinshed, Scotland, sign. X 4. 

They were driven back by storme of winde and 
pyrries of the sea, towardes the coast of Attica. 

North's Pint, Ul. 

I have not seen it in the old diction- 
aries, yet Mr. Todd has it, and exem- 
plifies it also from sir T. Elyot. 

PISCINE, or PISCINA (a term in 
church architecture). A cavity made 
within a niche, usually in the chan- 
eel, near the high altar, for ron- 
taining water, in which tlie priests 
made their ablutions, &c., at high 
mass. '* Locus in quo manus sacer- 
dotes lavant, et ubi ablutiones sacer- 
dotis missam celebrantia injiciuntur.'' 
J)u Cange in voee. See Archaeologis, 
vol. X, page 353, and the quotations 
there given. Also Gent. Ma^., vol. 
67, p. 649. When the uae of them 
ceased, the name was soon forgotten. 
From piseina, a fish-pond, Lattn. 


Peace, Firke ! Peace, my fine Firke ' stand by wiib 
your pishery pashery ! Away ! 

The Skoo makers Holy-day „ ]6S1. 




FISSING-CONDUIT. A small conduit 
near the Royal Exchange, so called 
in contempt, or jocularity, from its 
running with a small stream. Stowe 
says it was set up by John Wels, 
pnu'cr, mayor in 1430. It seems 
also to have had the more respectable 
name of '* the conduit in Cornhill ;" 
nf which Howell gives this account: 

Bj tlie west lide of the Hforeiaid priion called the 
Taniie. vu a foir we.l of ipriiiK-water, curbed round 
vith hnrd stone. But in the year 1401, the laid 
pritoii ionae called the I'unne Vat made a ccsteme 
for street water, conreyed by pipes of lead from 
Tybome, and vas thenceforth calleu the conduit upon 
CornkiH. Londinop., p. 77- 

Some distance vest is the RoTall Exchnn^e— and so 
dovoe to the little conduit, called the piMiing-coniuit, 
by the stocket market. Stowe's LonJottf p. 144. 

Hence, in a play attributed to Shake- 
speare, Jack Cade is made to say, 

Nov IS Mortimer lord of tiiis city. 

And here sitting upon London-stone, 

I diarre and command, that, of the cities cost, 

The pisriHf-€tmdmii run nothing but claret wine. 

The first year of our reip. 3 Hen, VI, if, 6. 

This seems to have been, in some 
measure, a general name for a small 
conduit. Thus a servant who had 
been drenched with water says, 

I shall turn mssina-conJuit shortly. 

B. 4- Ft. WymfH PUoM'd. i, 2. 

There is a similar expression in Dave- 
nant*s Wits. 
tPISSING-POST. Public urinals ap- 
pear to have existed under this name, 
and to have been the usual places for 
sticking up bills and placards. 

But if this warning will not sen-e the tume, 
I sweare hyt sweet satyricke Nash his urne, 
On erery f JMtM^ po$t their names I'l place, 
Whilst thqr past shame, shall simine to shew their 
f»ce. Taylor'9 Worka, 1630. 

Now the spring is coming on, when each pissina-post 
will be almost uasted orer with quacks bills, who for 
your mony will cure you of all diseases, especially 
the pox. Poor Rohn, 1694. 

PrSSING-WHILE [save reverence], a 
short time, such as is sufficient fur 
that evacuation. 

lie bad not been there (bless the niHrk) a pitting- 
mhile, but all the chamber smelt him. 

Two Oent. Ver., iv, S. 
I shall entreat your mistress, madam Kxpectation, if 
■he be among these ladies, to have patience but a 
pitsing-wkiU. B. Jont ilagn. Lady, i, 7. 

where he shall never be at rest one pittina-iekile a 
day. Oamm. Gttrton, 0. PI., ii, 50. 

To stay a pimng-wkUe. Bay't Proterbt, p. 206. 

See also Nash's Lenten Stuff. Our 
ancestors were not very nice; and 
rather chose to be exact than delicate 
in their allusions. It is here inserted 
chiefly to show that Shakespeare was 
not singular in using the term. 

tPISTEL, or PISTLE. An epistle. 

Hay, any Worke for Cooper, or a Bncf« Pistle i" 
the Reverend Bishops, counselling them if they uiJ: 
needes bee Barrelleu up, for feare of smelling in tli«- 
Nostrills of His M^jesty, and the State, that thrx 
would use the A.drice of Rerertnd Murtin, for )ir*>- 
▼iding of their Cooper, because T. C. is an unskiltul 
Tub>trimnier, flic. 

Title of a book, of the time of Jamet I. 

\To PISTOL. To shoot with a pistol. 

Captain Reniish. who was the main instrument for 
discovery of the royne. pistol' J himself tn a drsperate 
mood of discontent in liis CHbin. in the Coiiveitine. 

lloweWt Familiar Letters, 1650. 

PISTOLETS, *. Diminutive of pi8. 
toles, a Spanish coin, not rounded, or 
formed with exactness. 

Or were the/ Spanish stamps still travelling. 

That are become as catholtque as their king, 

Those unlicked bear^whelps, niifird pittolett, 

That more than canon-shot avails or lets ; 

Which, negligently left unrounded, look 

Like many -angled rtgnn s, in the book 

Of some dread coi\jurer. Don le, Eleg. 1 1 

A double pistolet is also mentioned: 

That will dance merrily upon your grave. 
And perhaps give a double pistolet 
To some poor needy friar, to say a mass, 
To keep your ghost from aalkiug. 

B. ^' Fl. S/.a,t. Cur., i. I. 

It is hardly necessary to observe, that 
pistolet sometimes meant also a small 
pistol. See Johnson. 
PITCH, *. The height to which a 
falcon soared, before she stooped 
upon her prey. 

Between two i»awk«, which flies the higher pitch, 
I have perhaps sonu' shallow jud&'uieiit. 

1 Urn. VI, ii, 4. 
These growini; feathers plucked from Ciesar's wing 
Will make him tly an ordinary pitch. Jul. Cat., i, 1. 
Yet from this pitch can I behuld my own, — 
And in my fearful sloop can make thi^ stand. 

B. S- Ft. Sohlr Gent., iv, 1. 
Where now my sp>rit got rooiuih it selte to show, 
To the fair'st pitch duth make a giillani fliKlit. 

Mirr.for Afag., p. 5i6. 

It was u;ted also, and still is, tor 
height in general ; but this perhaps 
was the origin of that use. 
PITCH AND PAY. A familiar ex- 
pression, meaning, pay down at once, 
pay ready money. Probably, throw 
down your money and pay. 

The word is pitch and pay, — trust none. 

He,,, r, li, 3. 
No creditor did curse me day by day, 
I used plainnesse, ever pitch and vug. 

Mirr.for Mag, Z7i. 
Where (Norwich) strangers well may seem to dwell. 
That pitch and pay, or keep their day, 
But who that want, shall nnd it scant 

So good for him. Tuster, p. 146. 

And there was neither fault nor f^y. 
Nor any disorder any way. 
But every man did pilch and pay. 

rorkshire Song, Ernnt, I. p. 23, ed. 1810. 

By the following intimation, Dr. 
Farmer seems to suggest that it 
originated from pitching goods in a 




market, and paying immediately for 
their standing. One of the old laws 
of Black well-hall was, that "A penny 
he paid by the owner of every bale of 
cloth for pitching^ It is not im- 
probable that this might be the 
original sense. 
tPITCHER-MEN. Great drinkers. 

No cobler in onr tonn almost. 

But at thHt time he'll liave roast ; 

Altho' tliey c^g^s and apples are. 

But Hs for drink he will not spare; 

For not one shoemaker in ten 

But are boon blades, true pitcher-nun. 

Foot Robin, 17S8. 

tPITFOLD. A pitfall. 

Decipuluni, . . . Untrebuchet. A pt(/b/J, or other snare 
10 intrap birds or beastes : a trap : a gin. Nomenclator. 

PITTANCE. 8. The allowance of meat 
distributed in a monastery. See 
Pictantia, Du Cange. In Tindal's 
History of Evesham, it is also said to 
have been a measure of liquids, six 
of which made up a pint royal, sex- 
tarium regis, p. 122. Roquefort 
says, because its value was a picte, 
which was a small coin of Poictiers. 
The word itself is well known. 

PITTERING, a. Making a low and 
shrillish noise. 

And when his pittrring%\xctiV\e% are low nnd thin. 

R. Greenf, Eng. Fam., 67, repr. 

Herrick applies it to the not^ of a 
The name of some place at Windsor. 

Marry, sir. the Pitiie-vard, tlic park -ward, every 
way ; Old Windsor way, and everv w Hy but the town 
way. if<frry W. W., iii, 1. 

No such place being known, the 
modern editors have very arbitrarily 
changed it to city-ward, which seems 
to be the very way that the speaker 
says they had not looked ; besides 
that Windsor was no city. Petty- 
ward, for small ward, is more pro- 
bable. Or if there was a place called 
the Pit ty, it must mean towards that. 
See Ward. Mr. Steevens savs there 
Mas) H place so called at Bristol. 
Pithj-wanf is quite inexplicable. 

tlMVlSH. Pievish; foolish. Kendall's 
Flowers of E pi grammes, 15/7. 

tlMX. Pitrh. "Pjdp scraped from 
ships.'* Nomenclator. 

PIX, or PYX ; from pyxis, Latin. The 
box, or shrine, in which the conse- 
crated \iafrrs were kept; called also 

tabernacle. This, as well as tbtjMM^ 
was deemed an object of pious Tene* 
ration ; and it is generally supposed, 
that the vulgar expression of please 
the pigs, is only a corruption of 
please the pix. 

We kiss the pix, we creepe the crowe. onr beades vc 
orerrunne. Alb. Engl, p. 11». 

Ab. Fleming, in Junius's Nomen- 
clator, has '* the pix, or box, wherein 
the crucifix was kept,*' as a transla- 
tion of hierotheca: but this, I believe, 
is erroneous, unless it meant botli. 
Minsliew has copied this. Da Cange 
more correctly describes it, aa **Pyxis 
in qua sacra eucharistia infirmii 
defertur, ex ebore/* in pyxis. It ii 
thus described by the late Mr. Carter, 
an architect, and of the Romish per- 
suasion : 

Tahemade, or pix, in oar antiquitiea, wu a mall 
cabinet to contain the host, 8cc. It was aiide of 
sold or silver, and set with preciuot stonea. Tbs 
form in general consisted of a foot, whereon was 
pUced a niche, with a door, and finishing with a 
pediment head, with buttresses and piiiiiacka on tke 
aides, &c. Gent. Mag., 1804, Part I, p. &3i 

Sometimes, as we see from Du Cange, 
it was of ivory. Pix, and pax, must 
be carefully distinguished, though 
they have often been confounded in 
modern times. See Pax. 
fPLACART. A printed broadside ; a 

The archduke for the time hath a very princely couf 
maud, all coyns bear his stamp, all placMrtt or edicu 
are publishetl in his name. 

HoiceWf Familiar Lettert, 165a 

PLACE, *. The greatest elevation 
which a bird of prey attains in its 
flight ; similar in that to pitch. 
This is Mr Gifibrd's explanation, and 
he quotes a modern authority : 

Eagles can have no speed except when niiiunflUM, 
and then to he sure their ucight incmset their 

Thorn ton* s Spwtimg IWr. 
IS to say 
Mamng. Oumri, i, 1. 


:h ti place flies, »s he seems to say 

In sucf 

See me. or'sec me not. 

So Shakespeare : 

A faulron tow linjj in her pride of plae^. 
Was by n moosint; owl hawk'd at and kill'd. 


In PLACE. In company, present. 

Then Mas she fayre Hlt<ne, when none was fSsireis 
plac€. Svcn4. r. q., I, ii. «. 

Oh hold that ht-avie uand. 
Dear sir, what ever that ihuu be in place. 

/iii., iii, S7. 

endeavour to curry favour. The 
placebo was the ves^per hymn for the 
dead. Du Gauge, Pope Sixtus*s 




iry says, "Ad vesperas, absolute 
tur ab AntiphoDft, placebo Do- 
In regione vivorum* Off, De^ 
rum, p. 156. Harington's 56th 
im, in his second book, is " of 
cher who wngs placebo;*^ and 
lescribed as being, 

b-tonir'd preacher, that did murh affect 
»mied of the purer sect, 
-o cooiedie — vhen lome to nngplaceko^ ad- 
mi it ibould be forbidden, because it was 
at too plaine, — vet he would have it allowed. 
Sir J. Ear. Prefue to Ariotto. 

ous old song on Placebo and 
* (another part of the mass for 
id) is in Ritson*s Ancient Songs, 
where manv of the Latin words 
Toduced. A monk sings ** for 
Nape's soule Placebo and 
'." Jack Nape is there sup- 
to mean John Holland, duke 
ter [the duke of Suffolk]. 
^T, 9. A petticoat; generally 
» addressed by Shakespeare as, 

all loiterers and miilcontents, « 
iBce ot plackets, king of codpieces. 

L. L L., iii, 1. 

no manners left among maids? will they 

BIT pUcktU, where tliey should benr their 

Wint. T., iv, 3. 

od-piece were fkr fitter here tiiNti a pinn'd 

B. and Fl. Love's Cure, i, 2. 

: a plow-boy tir'd in a browne jacket, 

ecnes round, long leatliem point, no placket. 

Oa^toH, test. N., p. 170. 
iides a spinning goe, 
s flax, and fire uieir toe, 
beir plackets. Herriek, p. 874. 

eevens quotes an author, who 
it the opening of the petticoat 
ar, iii, 4). Bailey says it was 
e-part of the shift or petticoat ; 
was neither. It is sometimes 
or a female, the wearer of a 
t, as petticoat now is. 

t brave lieart made to pant for a placket / 

B. attd Fl. Hum. Lieut., iv, 8. 


D. To 

to a small brook, I perceived a handsome lass 
>ther side, which made me stay to see how 
d get over; who, according to the custom of 
irk Irish, tucked up her coats to Iter waste, 
11 fiom her middle downward naked, and so 
ddittg through. English Rogue. 

v., for complain. A common 

:ail birth ; but if the child could speak, 
I a ould call it, and of nature plain. 

Sir J. Davies, on the Soul, ^ 83. 
nnatural and bemaddmg sorrow, 
hath cause to plain. Lear, iii, I. 

* plaining for complaining, and, 
bstantive, * plaint. See John- 

tFor such an humour every woman seizeth. 
She loves not him that plainetk, but that pleaseth. 
Browne's Britann'uis Pastorals, i, L 

\In PLAIN. An adverbial phrase. To 
speak plainly. 

Cl. Conceale him not 1 in plain, I am thy father, 
Thy father, AmarylUs, that commands tnee. 

Randolph's Jmyntas, 1640. 

PLAIN-SONG. The simple notes of an 
air, without ornament or variation ; 
opposed to descant, which was full of 
flourish and variety. 

All the ladies — do plainly report, 
That without mention of them you can make no 

They are jout playne-sotig, to singe descant upon. 

Damon and Pithias, O. PI., i, 183. 

Hence the cuckoo is said to sing 
plain-song, and the nightingale de- 
scant : 

Tlieflattt-JON^ cuckoo gray. Mids.N. Dr.,m,l. 

The learning to sing from notes was 
once almost universal in England. 
Ascham laments the disuse of the 
practice : 

I wish from the bottom of my heart, that the laudable 
cuiitom of Englande to teach children their ji>^iii«. 
song Hiid prieke-song, were not so decayed tlirouxli* 
out all the realme as it is. Jsch. Tox., p. 28. 

Of its decay, he says afterwards. 

The thiiige is too true, for of them that come dailye 
to the university, where one hath learned to sinire, 
six hath not. Ibid., p. 31. 

The prick-song was the music, pricked 
or noted down, i. e., written music. 
See Phick-song. 

PLANCHED. Boarded ; fromplancAe, 

And to that vineyard is a planeked gate. 

Meas.for Meas., iv, 1. 
Yet with his hoofes doth beat and rent 
The planched floore. Gorges, Transl. of LueaM. 

Also to plaunch : 

Is to plaunche ou a piece as brode as thv cap. 

0. Fl.,ii,p.9. 

PLANCHER, 8. A plank, or board; 
plancker, French. 

Upon the ground doth lie 
A. hollow planckcr. Zy/y, Meud's Metamorpk, 

Th' anatomized fish, ana fowls from fi/ani^A<rr«sproiig. 

Brayl. Poli/olb., iii, p. 711. 

Also a floor, which is the sense of the 
original : 

Oak. cedar, and cliesnut, are tliu hi-:st builders: «onie 
are fur planchers, as deal ; some lur tallies, &c^ 

Bacon, cited by Joliiisou. 

PLANET. The planets were supposed 
to have the power of doing sudden 
mischief by their malignant aspect, 
which was conceived to strike objects; 
as when trees are »viddev\V^ VA\^\.^\^ 





or the like. Hence the common ex- 
pression, still in use, of planet-struck: 

Physic for't there's none i 
It is a bawdy planet, that m ill strike 
Where 'tis predominant. Wint. TaU, i, 2. 

And heal the harms of thwarting thunder blue. 
Or what the cross, dire-looking «/an«/ smites. 

JliltoH, JrcadeSf 1. 60. 


Go fetch me down my plnnet-book 

Straight from my private room ; 
For in tne same I mean to look, 

What is decreed my doom. 
The planet-book to her they brought, 

And laid it ou her knee ; 
She found that all would come to nonfat. 

For poison'd she should be. 

The Unfortunate ConenHne. 

PLANET-STRUCK. Affected by the 
maligniint influence of a planet; 
sometimes, afflicted with madnees. 
Thus ClaiuM, in Randolph's Amyntas, 
says of the distracted Amyntas : 

Who hath not heard how he hath chac'd the boare? 
And how his speare hath tome the panch of wolves, 
Ou the barke of erery tree his name^s ingraren j 
NoM- pfanet-struck, and all that rertue vaniehed. 

Amyntas, act iii, sc. 8. 

The word is by no means disused, 
though the superstition is discarded. 
PLANT, 8. A foot, (romplantat Latin. 
Certainly so used in the following 
passaee : 

Here tibey'll be man : some of their plants are ill- 
rooted already, the least wind i' the world will blow 
them down. Ant. and Cleop., ii, 7. 

He speaks of persons rendered un- 
steady by liquors. Coles has, " The 
plant of the foot, planta, &c. pedis." 
So Jonson : 

Knotty legs, nnd plants of clay. 

Seek for ease, or lure delay. Masq. ofOheron. 

Other authors also are cited for it. 
PLANTAGE, s. Probably for any- 
thing that is planted. 

As true as steel, as plantage to the moon. 

As sun to day, Ike. Tro. and Cr.^ iii, S. 

Plants were supposed to improve as 
the moon increases : 

The poor husbandman perceireth that the increase 
of the moon maketh plants fnitefuL 

R. Scott's Disc, of Wiickcr. 

PLANTAIN, 8. A well-known plant ; 
plant Off o, Latin. Its leaves were sup- 
posed to have great virtue in curing 
wounds. It is, therefore, put for a 
healing plaster : 

These poor slight sorei 
Need not a plantain. B. and Ft. Two Noble X., i, 3. 

To PLASH. To interweave branches 
of trees. 

For nature loath, so rare a jewels wracke, 
Seem'd us she here and there had plash'd a tree. 
If possible to hinder destiny. 

Browne, Brit. Past., \i, p. ISO. 

Johnson quotes Evelyn for it. Also 

for what we nowcallto«p/a«A,tha 
dash water about with noise. I^ 
PLASH, *. A shallow pool, oi 
lection of water. 

He leaves 
A shallow plash to plunge him in the deep. 

7am. ofS 

tPLAT. The sole of the foot. 
footed, splay-footed ; or polt-fo( 

The platte of the foote, planta. 

WitkaJs' Dietumarie, ed. 160^ 
Plat-footed, polti. Ibid 

PLATE, 9, A piece of silver mon 

In hii livery 
Walk'd crowns and crowneti; realms and 

As plates dropt from his pocket. Jnt. and 
Behke he has some new trick tor a purse ; 
And if he has, he's worth three liundred d^ti 
Marl. Jew of Malta, O. PI., 
'TIS such a trouble to be married too. 
And have a thousand things of great importa 
Jewels, and plates, and fooleries molest me. 

B. and Ft. RmU a 

PLATFORM, *. The ground 
or delineation of anything. 
Bon has this sense, but it i 
now in use. Hence generally 
design : 

Apelles, what peece of worke have yoa now i 
A. None in hand, if it like your m'ajeatie : 1 
devising a platforme in my head. 

Lfljf's Alex, and Cat 
To procure bimselfe a pardon, went and di 
the whole plat-forme of the conspiracie. 

Disc. ^New WorU 
tBeing let downe shee casts her face int( 
forme, whicli dnretli the meale, and is tak 
with the voider. Her draught reacheth 
manners, not to thirst, and it is a nart 
mysterie not to professe hunger: but Katv 
her in private ana strctcheth her upon meat 
Overbury's New and Choise Charaett 

PLATT, 8, A plan, or map. 

There was no other pastime nor exercise an 
youth — but to draw plattes of Sicile, and des 
situation of Libya and Carthage. 

North's PImi 
tNo dumsie fist may dare 
To meddle with thy pencil and thy plat. Ih 


the following passage, seen 
mean to deceive. To stroke 
beard was a piece of amorous 

Yet have I plny'd with his beard, in knitt 

I proniist friendship, but — I meant it not. 

Damon and Pith., 0. ? 

PLAY-FEER, s. A play-male, 
fellow. See F£RE. 

Where she was wont to call him her dear soi 
Her little play-feer, and her pretty bun. 

Drayton, Moome 
llee liaddi* passed his youth in wanton past 
riotous niisonlcr, with a sort of misguveme 
and unthnttie/>/ay-/<'rrj. 

Halinsh., vol. ii, A a a 
All the youni; sonnes of the nobilitte tlocking 
for the com panic ol him, as i\it\rplayferre. 

Stows Atnali 




or PLAISE. The fish; 
ed as a simile for one who 
T7 mouth : that fish, like 
it fishes, having the mouth 

we made a wry mouth at the world Hke a 

Hon. in., 2d Part, O. PI., iii, 396. 

he pfayse and the butt, that made wry 

him. and for their mockine have wry 

T lince. Greene' t Lenten Stuff". 

; is easy to see why Decker 
bus of his detractors : 

t that stake, my pltnce-moutkyc\fen. 


•mouth is also used for a small 
mouth : 

iinocent out of the hospital, that would 

her bands thus, iind B.plaue-moutk, and 

rou. B. Jont. Silent Worn., iii, 2. 

r expression is quoted from a 
' T. Lodge : 

is pUute-mouth'd wife in welts and gardes. 
Bdo€*s Anec. ofSe. Books, ii, p. 113. 

» in the following passage, 
denote some kind of vessel. 

wed tiiem aborde in xxx hulkes, hoves, 
Holinsk. Hut. of Scot!., c, coL 2, a. 

H, r. To intertwine, or weave 


I a thick pleached alley in my orchard 
tverheard. Much Jdo, \, 4. 

* steal into the pleached bower, 
sy-suckles, ripenM by the sun, 
ran to enter. IHd., iii, 1. 

thus, with pleached arms, bending down 
>le neck. Jnt. and CI, vr, 12. 

oess, delieht. 

•me season when all is ydadde 
mnce. Spens. Sh. Kal., May, v. 6. 

should put an enemy into their mouths, 
ly their Drains I that we should with ioy, 
revel, sind applause, transform ourselves 

Othello, ii, 8. 
;ly pleasaunee each to other makes, 
f purposes, there as they sit. 

Spens. F. Q., I, ii, 30. 
tarie groves, whereas ihe iiyiupins 
Mce laugh, to see the satvres pl£y. 
R. Greene's Orlando Fur, 150t, sign. Db. 

JT compleat, or complete. 

80 we have, both to devotion 'pleat, 
ty made saints. 

Drayt. Polyolb., xxiv, p. 1149. 

breviations may generally he 
they are very numerous. 
DES. Evidently full tides. 

: teares in pUny'lides oreflow, 
' Kngland's second Cicero. 

Greene's GroatSK., page ult. 

f. A fold in a gown or robe. 

in with many a folded plight. 

Spriu. F. q., II, iii, 26. 

blowing example from Chap- 

hnson and Todd have both 

od it to mean a garment ; I 

doubt that it has there tlic 

meaning of condition : ** lie 

let not my condition want either 
coat or cloke." 

He let not lack 
My flight, or coat or clooke, or any thing 
Miglit cherish heat in me. Chapm. OJyuey, 

To PLIGHT, r., united with word 
faith, or troth. To pledge, or give 
as assurance, the word, faith, or 
truth of the speaker. See Troth,^ 
and Troth-plight. 

PLIGHT, part,, for plighted, in the 
sense of platted. 

With gaudy girlandi, or fresh flou rets dight 
About her neck, or rings of rushes plight. 

Spens. F. Q., 11, vi, 7. 

So Fletcher : 

A long love-lock on his left shoulder plight. 

Fl. PurpU JsL 

PLIGHTED, part, Folded, twisted. 
Milton has borrowed this term from 
the older language. 

Creatures of the element. 
That in the colours of the rainbow live. 
And play i' th' plighted clouds. Comus, 299. 

He used it also in prose : 

She wore a plighted giirment of (livers colours. 

Hist, of Engl., B. 2. 

It is clear, as Warton observes (in 
liis Milton), that pleach, pleat, and 
plight, are all of the same family. 
PLOT, f ., for place, or spot of ground ;. 
AS plat also is used. 

And death did crj', from Lomlon Jlie, 

In Can)brida;e then, I found H^:eii, 

A resting plot. tnsser, « 'I. 1672, p. 146. 

A prettv plot well chose to liuild ui)on. 

2 Hen. VI, i, 4. 
Tliis little plot i' th' country lies most flt 
To do his grace such serviceable uses. 

B. and Fl. Noble Gent., iii, I. 

tPLOTCH. A blotch. 

The chasticenient that a certain niHgistmte in Glan- 
ders U9(m1, was reputed mosi just, who caused an idle 
vagrant person to be publikely beaten, who stood at 
the Temple gate demanding of alnies, with certaine 
counterfait plolches of a leaper. 

Passenger of Benvenuto, 1612. 

PLOVER, s. One of the varioua 
cant terms for a loose woman ; aa^ 
is also quaily in the following pas- 
sage : 

We are undone for want of fowl, i* the fair, here. 
Here will be Zekiel Edgfworth, and three or four 
gallants with him at nidit, andllin' neither p/^r^ 
nor quail for them : persuade this, between you two, 
to become a bird o' the gnnie. 

B. Jons, Barth. Fair, iv, 6. 

fPLUCK. A turn, or set-to. 

Why, wylt thou fyght a plucke f 

the Playe of Robyn Hode, n. d. 



fPLUM-BROTH. An article in cookery 
which appears to have been fotxxxftxV'^ 
in great Tep\\le,K\\dL \.ci Vw?^ \i^vcw^ 





favorite Christmas dish. The re- 
ceipt here given lor making it shows 
that it wns lather a complicated mix- 

IK'liere the meale is be»t. there he ronfiitefl most, for 
his Hrguinc is but the eftlracy of his enting ; good bits 
hee liuids breedes ^(>od positions, and the pope hee 
best concludes Sfcaiiiat, iu plum-broth. 

Oerrbuiy's Charaeteri, 1615. 
Iiispir'd with plum-broth and iniuc'd pies, 
1 Ills letter conies in hunible wise. 

Brome'3 Songs, 1668, p. 189. 
Or ( Iiuse, and iu thy unquoth mood joyn «-itli some 
srpai.-ite congregation, and pray ti^innt pUim-irotk 
Ht Christmas, in expecuition of a loft on their ncw- 
vtars-Jay. now»rd,Man ofNewmarkett 1678. 

To niuke plumb-broth— 'Ynke a leg of beef, and a piece 
of tlie iirck. and put it into a good quantity of water, 
that is, three or K>ar gallons, boil it four hours ; then 
have t\i u poi ud of currans clean wash'd and ptck'd, 
and three pound of raisins of the son, three pound of 

{)runeB well stew'd, put in the curnutB and raisins, 
et th« m boil one hour ; then take two nound of stew'd 
prune s, and force them through a cullender, leaving 
the stMiirs and skins ; then hare a two-penny white 
loal gi-Mtcd. mix it with some of the broth, and put 
the pulp of 'he prunes to it, and one ounce of ciniia- 
mon, ) Hit Hii ounce of nutmegs grated, a quarter of 
an ouiiie of beaten cloves and mace; put all these 
into the broth ; let it boil a quarter of an hour, keep 
it always btimng. for fear it bum; then put in one 
quart of claret, and half a pint of sack, and then 
sweeten it to yotu taste; put in a little salt; then 
hav« some white>bread. cut as big as dice, in the dish 
or bason ; lay a little piece of the meat or a marrow 
hone iu the middle of the dish, put in the broth, 
garnish the dish with some of the stew'd prunes, 
some raisins and currans out of the broth ; scrape 
some sugar on the brim of the dish, and so serve it to 
the table. The Queen's Royal Cookery, 1713. 

To PLUME, V. Term in falconry, to 
pluck off the feathers from a bird. 
" It is M'hen n hawke caseth a fowle, 
and pulleth the feathers from the 

And when the snare 
Hnth causht the fowl, you plume him, till you get 
More featners than you lost to Pallaiine. 

The Wits, 0. PI., viii, 427. 

PLI:MMET, for a plumb line. That by 
which the depth of the water is 

Ignorance itself is a plummet o'er me. 

Jfrr. W, W., r, 6. 

That is, says Mr. Tyrwhitl, "igno- 
rance itself is not so low as I am, by 
the lenj;th of a plummet-line.** This 
seems the best interpretation. 
PLUMP, s. A cluster, or collection of 
separate things ; a group, or mass. 
It has been supposed to be corrupted 
from clumpy or that from thiit. But 
clump is applied to trees only, and is 
evidently German ; whereas, in the 
examples given of this from Sandys, 
Bacon, Hayward, and Dryden, it is 
applied equally to a group of trees, a 
'Co}}ecuon of islands, a small body of 



troops, and a flock of wild-fo^ 
these examples lahall copy on 

Warwick having espied certain plumps < 
horsemen ranging the field, returned tc 
arriere to present danger. 

But it occurs also in Beaumc 

Here's a whole plump of rogues. 

DoubU Marr 

Also in another old play : 

No, thou seest heers a plumpe of fine galls 
6. Chapman's Eumorws Day's Mirth 

It appears to have been in u 
before clump ; and G. Mason t 
it the original word : but I 
they are quite independent < 

t Bnt at Enfeld fvndyng a doaen in a phimp, 
was no rayne, I bethought my sen that 
appointed as watchmen, for the apprehendi 
as are missyug. LelUr, « 

tOreat reason they had on their side to fis: 
it were with much danger), whika the 
enemies preassed on all in plumpes and he 

Jmmianus Mareell 

fTo PLUMP. To swell, or pi 
Plumper, anything used to si 
another thing. 

Art not thouplumpt with laughter, my La 

Hoffhum, a 2Va 
And that the cheeks may both agree, 
Their plumpers fill the cavity. 

The London Ladies Dressing 1 

tPLUNGE. A difficulty ; a sti 

Canon Ely thought to have put Testwodt 
plunge. Fox 

Questionles this Gustavus (w hose anagr»n 
tus) was a great captain, and a gallant ma 
he surviv'd iliui last victory, he would Iu 
emperour to such a plunae, tluu sont thinl 
hardly have bin able to nave made head a 
to any purpose ngaiu. 

HowtWs Familiar Le 

PLURISY, *. A plethora, or 
dancy of blood. Not the s 
pleurisy y but derived ixavaphu 

For goodness, growing to a plurisy. 
Dies in his own too much. E 

Some younx horses will feed, and being 
crease bloou, and so grow to tLttlurlsy, ana t 
if he have not soon help. Masetuon Cat 

111 a word. 
Thy plurisy of goodness is thv ill. 

^ass. Unn. C 
(Mars) that heal'st with blood 
The earth when it is sicke, and cur'st the ' 
O' ill' pUuresie of people. Fl. Ttro SohU I 

Why was the blood 
Increas'd to such a pleurisy of lust. 

Mheisfs Ti 

tro PLY. To bend. 

Behold the apple bough how it doth plw 
And stoope with store of fruit iliat doth al 
Scarce able to sustaiiic tlicni from the gro 

Remedy of 

cal phrase for a stick or cudg< 
tioned bv Rav in his Proverbs, 
"because,** says he, "we us 




rpo, but not when we wear a 
** Therefore, as he explains it, 
nrho land at Plymouth, rather 
ite, and cannot procure a cloak, 
1 cut a stick, as an apology for 
'ficiency. See Ccerpo. Hence 
llowing passage is easily under- 
which would otherwise be very 
^lligible : 

walk in a Pfymouik c{aaJt(that'i to say) like a 
n my hose wnd doublet, and a crab-tree cudgel 
and, and you sidm in yoor latini ? 

2 Part of Bon. Wk., 0. PL, iii. 423. 
doak$ (at Pftmotf/A ipon) was crabtree wood. 

Dawenant, (o\., p. 829. 
He being pnmdly mounted, 
Ckd in etoak of Plpnouth. 
mkam, Bmllad on Sir J. Mennis, Works, p. 7S. 
ag ftill the embleme of a sooldier (hit sword) 
Umouth doakt, otherwise call'd a battoone. 

Lenton's Ckairacterumit C^ar. SO 
inst tell Toa, if you but advance 
ytmmtk doak, you shall be soon instroeted. 
ifoM. N<w Way to p. 0. />., i, 1. 

lears that for a similar reason it 
so called a Dunkirk cloak. See 
d on the above passage. 
PALABRAS. See Palabras. 
/HE. Equivalent to the modern 
can term to gouge. 

)rild and paird liis beard, of paled hew, 
in hia face, and out his tonicue they drew, 
ti nade to speake of God great blasphemies, 
rith their nngers foehtd out his eyes. 


rS. It seems to have been an 
of expensive affectation to have 
»cket8 perfumed. 

1 think thou hast pat me in mouldy foei$t$. 
\ good, right Spanisk perfume, the lady 

St twelve pound a pair. 

B. Jons. Staple o/Nevs, i, 8. 

iS were also perfumed (see that 
), and other parts of dress, 
ishion began thus : 

Vere, earXt of Oxford, came from Italy, and 
, wiUi him gloves, sweet baggs, a perfumed 
jerkin, and other sweet things. 

Horned 9 Contin. of Stoves Annali, 

boots did not escape unscented : 

I wear perfumed boott, and beggar my tailor. 
DsAonur'f PoorJian*s Comfort, 

A.PTAIN. The keeper of a pup- 
low, in Ben Jonson's time, then 
a motion. 

kther let him be Contain Pod, and this his 
tion. B. Jons. Every Man outcfH.t vf, 6. 

ler show-man is called his pupil : 

motions that I, LanUiom Leatherhead, have 
^t to, i' my time, since my master Pod died. 

Hid., Bart. Fair, v, 1. 
1 yond motion ? not the old fa-dine, 
|itei« Pod, kc Ibid., Bpigr., 97. 


will say I am npodging asse. 

Historic of J U 


POET-SUCKER. Formed by analogy 
from rabbit-sucker, which means a 
sucking rabbit; consequently this 
means a sucking poet. 

Wliat says my noetsucker ? 
He's chewing his muse's c'ua, I do see by him. 

B, Jons. Staple of Neics. iv, 2. 

See Rabbit-suckkr. 

POINADO. See Poynado. 

POINT, *. A tagged lace, used in tying 
any part of the dress. Thus, the 
biisk'point was the lace by which the 
hui»k was fastened See Busk. 

F. Tbeirpoin/j being broken, — 

P. Down fell their hose. 1 Hen. IV, ii, 4. 

Hence the pun in Twelfth Night: 

Cl. BiA I am resolved on two points. J/. That if one 
hreak, the other will hold; or if both break, your 
gaakins fall. Twtlftk N., i, 6. 

To tru99 a point, or the points, was 
to tie the laces which supported the 
hose, or breeches, and to untruss was 
the contrary. See Truss. 

tA btttton-maker, kce-niaker. flotttZ-m/tl-^r, Abulariui. 
Wtlhah* Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 210. 

fPOINT-LACE. A sort of lace. 

To take out spots, stnins, iron-moulds, pitch, rosin, 
or wax: to restore scorched lumen, faded silks, or 
linnen: to wash point-lace, tiffanies, sarsuets. n-hi- 
modes, lute-stringa. &c. Jccomp. Female Instructor. 

To POINT. Adverbially used, for ex- 

Hast thou, spirit, 
Perform'd to point the tempest tiiat 1 bride thre? 

Temp., i. 2. 
k faithlease Sarazin all arm'd to point. 

Spens.F. Q., I. ii, "2. 
Are you all fit? 
To point, sir. B. /- Fi. Chances. 

Precise, or nice to excess. It is 
difficult to ascertain the origin of this 
phrase ; it appears like French, but I 
can find no authority in that language 
for h point devisi, though it is per- 
fectly analogous to h point nommi 
which is a very current form. Mr. 
Donee refers it to needlework, and 
mentions point lace as similar ; Mr. 
Gifford thinks il must have been a 
mathematical phrase. 

I abhor such phanatical phantasms, snch insociable 
and pmsU'dnise companions. L. L. Lost, \\ I. 

Bat yon are no sucn mun [that is, not negligent or 
sloveiUy], yon are rather point-devise in yonr accoutre- 
ments. As yon I. it, iii, 2. 
Henry wan a strong town culled Damfrout, and fur> 
nishing it sX point-devise, he kept the same in his 
possession. Rclinsh., vol. ii, x, 1. 
Thus for the nuptial hour all fitted ooint-devise. 

DrnytoH, Polyolb.. xv, vol. iii, W7. 
When men (unmanly) now are garish, gay, 
Trickt, spruce, terse, quaint, nice, soft, all pobil' 
Jewiee. Fasc. Ffontm, p. 24, Lond., 16:i6. 

In allusion to this phrase, Bew Jqwai^v^ 




makes Kastril in anger call his siater 
punk'devUe, t. e,, a precise iiarlot. 
Alchem,^ v, 3. But, in thefollowine 
example, it is used as if it was formed 
from the English word device. 

And if the dapper prieit 
B« bat as cuuning, point lu his (Uviee, 
As I was in my lie, niy master Bramble, 
Will. Ibc. B. JoHs. Tale of a TMb, iii, 4. 

fPOINTELING. With the point to- 
wards him ? 

He myght wel see a spere grete and longe that came 


Morte d* Arthur, ii, 165. 

streyghte upon hym poyntetyt 

tPOINTELL. A stylus or pencQ for 
writing in a table-book. 

A fotKtell, graphia vel stylus : but stylus is the point 
or pricke oflhe pointell. 

iVithah' Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 240. 

POISURE, «. Weight; an unusual 

Nor is this forced, 
But the mere quality and poisurc of goodness. 

B. and Fl. Wit mtkout M., i, 1. 

stick, or iron, used for setting the 
plaits of ruffs. 

Where are my ruff, and poker? 

Hon. Ifk., 0. PI., iii, 280. 

POKING-STICK, s. The same as the 
preceding. These were latterly 
made of steel, that they might be 
used hot ; the invention of which 
notable improvement is recorded by 
Stowe, who tells us that, about the 
sixteenth year of queen Elizabeth, 
** began the making the Steele po^'w^- 
stickes, and untill that time all lawn- 
dresses used setting stickes made of 
wood or bone.'* 

Pins, nnd pokina-sticks of steel. Wint. TaU, ir, 3. 
If you sliuuld cnniicc to take a nap in the afternoon, 
\our falling band requires no pokingstick [as a ruff 
^oes] to recover its form. Malcontent, O. PI., iv, 99. 
Tour ruff must stand in print, and for that purpose 
get pokiftg-stick* with fair long bandies, lest they 
•corch your hand. MiddUton't Blurt Master Const. 

These ruffs, and the sticks for setting 
them, terribly inflamed the righteous 
indignation of Stubbes; who, in his 
. Anatomie of Abuses, not only ascribes 
the invention to the devil, but adds a 
tremendous storv of that evil conn- 
sellor appearing to a young lady, who 
was dissatisfied with lier ruff, in the 
likeness of a handsome young man, 
to set it for her ; after which he 
kissed her, and destroyed her in the 
most wretched manner, with many 
fabulous additions, too strong, one 

should think, for the most preji 
credulity. The whole story i 
tracted in the notes to Greene 
Quoque, 0. PI., Tii, 19, shouli 
one be curious to see it ; Stu 
own book being as scarce as 
POLACK. A Polauder ; Po 

So frowa'd he once, when in an angry pvle. 
Be smote the sledded Polaek on the lee. A 

Pole was also used ; both occi 
gether afterwards : 

Nor will it yield to Norway, or the PoU, 

A ranker rate, should it be aold in fee. 

H. Why t)ien the Polaek never will defend it. 

In the former passage, the earl; 

tions all read Poleaxe, which pc 

was only intended for the plu 

this word. The weapon of that 

was spelt poll-axe, or pole-cuce. 

of Polack, in this place, the sii 

is more dignified, and perhaps 

probable, as it was in a parley 

a general slaughter was not 

to ensue. Mr. SteeTcns, ho' 

thought that the plural wa 


I scorn liim 
Like a shav'd Pulack. White Deed, O. PI., 
Where hast tlum serv'd? Sold, With the 
against the Polack ; a heavy war and has bro 
tu this hard tnte. I was tooke prisoner by tl 
Heyw. and Br. Lime. Witches, 

To POLL, V. To strip, or plunde 

He will mow down all before him. and 1 
passH ge ooWJ. Cori 

And said they would not such polUna a 
shaving. Mirr.for Mag 

They will poll and spoil so outrageooaly, as 
enemy cannot do much worse. Sptiuer on 

Often joined with pill, or pillage 

Which poU and pils the poore in piteous wiz< 

Spens. F. q., 
PilUn^ and pollinf/ is grown out of reques 
pUine pilfering came into fashion. Wimwoo^ 

Johnson quotes the first passa 

having a different sense, but 

seems doubtful. 

Also to cut the hair short, 

though curled ; usually called V 

the head. Absalom polled hit 


And when he polled his head (for it was 
Year's end that he polled it, because the ) 
heavy on him. llicrefore he polled it) he weig 
hair of his head at two hundred shekels a 
king's weight. 2 Sa<u 

Neither sliull they [the priests] shave the; 
nor sutVtr tlitrir locks tu grow long, they sli 
po// t'leir heads. Ezek. 

And by these polled locks of mine, which a It 




vere long vcre the ornament of my text, now in 
tlieir tlunt cturlea the testimonie of my Servitude. 

Praihr. J re, p. 187. 
-t-AbarbvstoweU, which tbey put atmut the slioulden 
for the cruttingi or potting» of the haire to fall upon. 

Nomfncltttor, 1685. 

POLLARD, 9. Anything that is polled 
or stripped at the top ; usually applied 
to trees. Here to a stag, or rather to 
a man, jocularly compared to a stag : 

1 C. He his no bams, lir, hai he? 

i C. No, tir, he's a polUrd. What wouldst thou do 

With horns f B, /• Fl, PkilatUr, v, 4. 

A clipped coin was also called a pol^ 
lard. [Also one of the names of a 
well-known fish, the hull-head or 
miller's thumb.] 

tCapito, Anson. Cephalns fluvialis. Mnnier, eo 
qnbci circa nioletiinas rersetur, vihiin, ob virtus spur- 
dtiem : tcstard, a capitis maynitudine. Kvolard. 

Nimenetator, 158fi. 

sort of coarse canvas. Hence, meta- 
phorically, any coarr^e wares. 

I cannot draw it to such n curious web, tlierefore yon 
most be oontent with homt\j poildavU ware fironi me. 

HoweWt UtUrs, I, ^ ii. 10. 
He is a perfeet seaman, a kiud of tarpawlin, he being 
bulged abont with his coarse compositions, those 
pei€-4mrig papers. Cleveland, 1687. p. 82. 

THempaeed ooth yeeld or else it dotli allow 
Lavne, cambrieke, holland. c:uo .'«'•. cailico, 
Normandy. Hansbrou^h, strong poledavis, lock ram, 
Audio make up thenme (with reason) buckram. 

Taylor's Worket, 1630. 

fPOLLER. An extortioner. 

Arcipiter peeonianun, a poller of the people or an 
eitareioner. Bliotes Dietionarie, 1659. 

DRON. That part of the armour 
which covered the neck and shoulders. 
Probably from epaule. 

Strive to plncke off eche others head pcfn-. mid to 
rent their polroH* from their shoulders. 

North's Plut., 643 £. 
His hefanet here he flings, hin pouldems there. 

f&r. Jriost.t xxiii, 106. 
His fomldrom pinch him, and be cumbrous thines. 

Drayton, Dav. and Ool., p. 1637. 

POLT FOOT. A club foot, or lame 
foot. It IS most frequently applied to 

AnTwhere to tMcaipe this jMl/:^/«i philosopher, old 
Sang here of Lemnos [i. e. Ymcan]. 

B. Jons. MoMfue at C, vol. v, p. 4S7. 
Vulcan was painted eariontly, yet with a ooU-joot. 

Lifhf*$ Euphues, Dedic. 
Venus was ocmtent to take the blaekesmith with his 
Melt foot. Ibid., K S. 

Fdt'foot is among the epithets for 
Vulcan in Poole's English Parnassus. 

F(yMAND£R, 9. A ball, or other form, 
composed of, or filled with, perfumes, 
worn in the pocket, or about the neck. 
The following receipt for making one 
is in an old play : 

Your (mly wav to make a good pomander is tlii<*. Take 
•a oonee of the purest garden mould, cIcansM mid 

steep'd seren days in rhan<;p«)f nnithcrh-s ro<i^-\vater. 
Then take the Itest laiidaiiuni. lu-iijinii, boili s'.i)r.i.\e8, 
anil>ergris, civet, amn mu^k. Iiu-ur|>uriite ilicm to- 

f ether, and work tli'in into wlcit form >i>u please, 
his, if your lircath hi: not too valiant, u ill make you 
smell as sweet as any lady's do^. 

Lingua, iv, 8, U. PI., v, p. 199. 

There is another, but very similar 
receipt, in Markham's English House- 
wife. It is this : 

Take two penny worth of labdanuui. two penny worth 
of storaz liquid, nnc penny worth of calamus aroma- 
ticns, as much balnu*. half a quarter of a pound of 
fine wax, of cloves and mace two penny wortli, ot 
nutmegs eight peuny worth, and of mnsk tnur 
graines; beat all these exceedingly together, till ihey 
come to a perfect substHncc, then mould it in any 
fashion you please, and dry it. P. 151. 

Pomander h mentioned in Autolvcus's 
list of articles sold : " Ribbon, glass, 
pomander, brooch, &c.*' Winter's 

As when she from the water came. 
Where first she touch'd the mould, 

In balls the people made the same, 
¥oTp6mandrr, and Hold. 

Drayton, Quest, of Cynth., p. 'j--3. 

Pomanders were often used, as Dr. 
Grey says in his notes on Shakespeare, 
against infection. 

Her moss most sweet and rare. 
Against infectious damps for pdntander to wear. 

Folyolb., Song iv, p. 731. 
When as the meanest part of her 
Smells like the maiden p&mander. Herrick, p. 168. 

Usually accented, I fancy, as in these 
passages, on the first syllable. Min- 
shew derives it from pomme and amber. 
But a pomander was sometimes made 
of silver, in which case its office was 
to hold perfumes; and probably it 
was perforated with small holes to let 
out the scent. Among pieces of plate 
sold in 1546, we find, ** & poma7inder, 
weying 3 oz. and i." Cotes 9 Hist, 
of Reading, p. 222. By a metaphor 
not much to be expected, a book of 
devotions received the title of " A Po' 
mander of Prayers,** 1578. See Dib- 
din*s Ames, iv, p. 145. It meant, 
doubtless, a sweet savour of prayers. 
POME- WATER, s. A species of apple 
called malus carbonaria, by Coles. 

Ripe as a pome-water, who now haneeth as a jewel in 
the ear of Coelo, the sky. Lo9^$ L. L., iv, 8. 

Tis de sweetest apple' in de world, 'tis better den de 
pome-water, or apple John. 

Marlow^s Old Forlunatm, Anc. Dr., iii, 198. 

It is figured in Johnson's Gerard, but 
no particular description of it given. 
fPOMMADA. Pomatum. 

But vou will say unto me. Have you any remedy for 
it? Yes, gentlemen, I luive. axvd {Qt t&mk) <:^v& 




iaconvenicncfs : I have n fomwuidn to make fair the 
•kin ; it is white as snuw. and o<l<iriferotts as balm 
or musk. Corneal Hittoty ofFraneion, 1655. 

fPOM PIOUS. For pompous. 

Thus in this pompioM manner, beeing placed in the 

Erocession next Ludfer himselfe, they returned to 
ell. Greene's Ntwes both from Heaven and H€ll,\h%&. 

PON, 8, J for pond. Apparently a strange 
licence ; yet it is probable that it was 
authorised, by tlie d being commonly 
lost in pronunciation. 

Near to the foot wherrof it makes a little jnni, 
Wliich in as little space con\ trrted wood to stone. 

Drayt. Polyolh., 8. xxriii, p. 11?7. 

Thus Warner uses /^onnecf, for ponded, 
or inclosed in ponds: 

The citizens, like fanned pikes, the lessen feed the 
great. Alb. Engl, p. 136. 


To make a ponado. — ^The quantity yon will make set 
on ill a posnet of fair water, when it boils, put a mace 
in, and a httle piece of cinnamon, and a handful of 
currniis, and so much bread as you think meet, so 
boil it, and season it with salt, sngar, and rosewater, 
and so serre it. J True Benllewoman* Delight. 

PONIARD, 9. A dagger, or small 
sword. For a time a fashion prevailed 
of wearing poniardt, or dirks, instead 
of swords. Poignard, French. 

Out with your bodkin, 
Tour pocket daner, your stiletto, out with it, 
Or, by this hand, I'll kill you. Such as yon are, 
Have studied the undoing of poor cutlers. 
And made all manly m capons out of fashion: 
Ton carry poniardt to murder men. 
Yet dare 'not wear a sword to guard yoor boaonr. 

B. and Fl. Custom qf Country, ii, 1. 

Afterwards, the coxcomb baring been 
well beaten, his antagonist says. 

As you like this, 

Ton may acain prefer complaints against me 
To my uncie and my mother, and then think 
To make it good with a poniard. 

On which the sufferer exclaims, 

I am paid 
For being of the fashion. Jhid. 

PONKE. A false reading, instead of 
Pouke, for Puck, a merry fairy. See 

tPONTACK. A sort of wine. 

Wine in abundance,— I drank none bat Mck, 
But all yon men did ply it with jNm/acit. 

Ovti 7V«mfi«,l«81,p.l8. 

tPOORE AND RICH. An old game, 
mentioned by Taylor the water-poet 
in tlie following lines : 

At nomm, mumchance, mischance, (chuM ye which) 
At one and thirty, or at poore and rick. 

POOR JOHN. A coarse kind of fish, 
salted and dried. The fish itaeif is 
called also hake. It is said to 
resemble ling. LoveiPs JnimaU, 
p. 233. Mr. Maione said that it 
was called pauvre gens, in French; 
perhaps rather pauvre Jean, for the 
ether wou?d require pauvret. 

I wonid not be of one [a rdUgion] that § 

mand me 
To feed upon poor-Jokm, when I see pheas 
And partridges on the tabk. Mfauing. Rei 
Or live, like a Oirthnsian, on poor John. 

Ibid., Gua 
nKs well thou art not fiab ; if tboa hadst, 

been poor-Jokn. Rom. at, 

It was of course very cheap fai 

We thy old friends to thee nawelcomd are 

But raddenhrthon grewst so miserable. 

ihy old frii * " 
Poor-Jokn and iqiple^pyts are all our fai r. 
\ Haringl. 

The steward provided two tables for tju 

for those that came upon request, powderc 
perhaps venson; for those that came for 
7okn^ and apple-pyea. Ikid., Life of 

tPOPELET. "A puppet, or 
wench." Dunton'9 Ladies Diei 

of a sort of pear, first brougk 
Poperingue9,\Xk Flanders; henc 
Popering. Henry YIII ga 
living to Leland, the antiquai 
probably introduced that pe; 
England, as Mr. Maione has ol 
In the quarto edition of Bom 
Juliet was a passage, mfterwan 
properly omitted, containing a 
and coarse quibble upon the n 
It seems to ha?e been a bad p 

I requested him to pnll me 
A Katherine pear, and had I not look'd to 
He would have mistook and given me a P« 

Woman S 

It seems that there is much 1 
at wit on this pear, in soi 
dramas ; but such aa it is not 
while to repeat, or attempt < 
POPINJAY, 9, A parrot; fro 
Spanish papagayo. 

To be so pesterd with a fopimjof. 1 He 
Or like the mixture nature dothe display, 
Upon the quaint wings of the popinjay. 

Brotnu, Pa$i 
Bat if ^popinjoM speake, she doth it by ir 
man's voyee, artmoally and not natunUj. 


Hence popinjay green fi 
Maleont,, 0. PL, iv, 56. 

Yoong popkafayi learn qnickly to apetk. 

A»€k. Sckal 

In the following passage I 
suppose it to be a stuffed b 
some kind of mark set up to I 
at. Stowe mentions a place, 

Since letten to the croisebow makers, wb 
nted to shoot for games at the p«fim§9y. 


Mr. Steevens quotes a paasa 
which a distinction is made b 
a parrot, and a popinjay ; but 
ever the author quoted might in 




ration, and some of the abo? e 
(, seem to fix it; unless we 
the popinjay some particular 
>f parrot. 

Ind pyping still lie tpeut the day, 
> xuaj M the foningmf. 

Jh^t<m*t Ospktrd^t GarUmd, 1&98. 

An old form of puppet. 

m;. her 4ycvng, d»ylv and nyiclitlye, 
aye more^cehod tbeii there? not lyghtly, 
f mid fweryn? by mo poppetei, 
I G«4 in ^ tboVamid (rolibetes. 

flay of WU Md SeUnce. 
Jul sixth were Somerset and his countess, 
luninent, all ihe letters that passed bet« ixt 
iti she, were read in open e««rt, and the 
braf en foppeti were made visible, dnncinK 
rn from band lo hanU. vhich discovered 
f her NCtiomu Wilton't James I. 

Thr poplar-tree. 

mIso the yew tree, which brookeMi a light 
I soyle: the walnut tree likewise in nieane 
in; h«t, and the elme a sandy earth, the 
tfsple^ the alder, the able trres moyst ground, 
Mwt kindit of ground. 

Nordem*i Swneiort Dialogtu. 

iCK, for porpoise, 9, Accord- 
be true etymology of it, qu. 

sir, she talks ten times worse in her sleep. 
CI. Do yott not know that, sir? never 
iigh^ TV. And snores like n pare-fiisce. 

B. JoM, Bpie., iv, 4. 

ed also to pare-eapic. 

LIND. Purblind, or short- 

Pore-iliude, luscus. 

mtknlt' IHeliomarie, ed. 1606, p. SOO. 
aes here the p^nr-Uimi world may see. 

Taylor^t Worket, 1630. 

iUSB. A portcullis. 

Liv. Vectcs portiiruiti cancellatie, portn. 
id^'ersus homilem inipetuni peudulie. ... La 
e gril d'ane |Mirte de la ville. A port-chte, 
ce. NomeHclator, 1585. 

e also, who settini; iu hand to lireake the 
c/mm, were soone fired away, or killed with 
onea ftom the wals. 

Ammtauus SfnreelliHMS, 1609. 

nNE» 9. One of the naniea 
isimalnow called a porcupine. 
}^9» i% porcu9pine. Hist. Jn, 

I vpon the fretful porpentine. 

Uaml., i, ft, orig. edition. 
ptllMr with tooparda, Unxrs, .iiid porpe» tines, 
k^ in that part of the Tuner wliich is 
Lims's Tower. BoweWs LoHdimpolis, p. 3 k 
lb«poeie sayth, thnt nature geve exHinple 
ge flm by the porpenline, which shoote iiis 
^ wiH hitte anye thinge that tightes with it. 
As€k. Toxoph., p. 13, repr. 

inecessary, I presume, at this 
;xpo9e the error which so long 
d* that the porcupine can dart 
Is. They are easily detached, 
irp, and slightly barbed, and 
ck to a person's leg, when he 
ware that he is near enough 
1 them. 

PORT, 9. State, attendance. 


the qimidnm king, at ^dltt dtnghter's 

Was settled scarce, when she repines, and lessens 
still his port. Warner, Jit. Bitgl., p. Cj. 

Thou shHlt be master. Traaio. in my stead ; 
Keep hoose, and port, and servants as 1 should. 

1Sm.ofSkr.,\, 1. 

This is probably the sense intended 
in the following passage; a pretty 
attendance : 

Well, madam, ye've e'en as pretty hfort of pentionerSb 

To which the lady answers, 

Vaiii-glory would seek more and handsomer. 

B. and Fl., i, 2. 

Hence partly in the sense of stately. 
To PORT, r. To carry in a solemn 
manner; a military term. 

For ting tlie ensij^ns of united two, 

Both crowns auu kingdoms, in their either hand. 

B. Jons. Epithml., vol. vii, p. 3. 

Milton has used it : 

Sharpening in mooned horns 
Their phabinx, and began to hem him round 
Witli porUd spears. Par. Lost, iv. 978. 

PORTAGE, *. Port, or port-hole. 

Lend the eye a terrible aspect. 
Let it pry through the portage of i he hesid 
Like the brass cuunon. Hen. V, iii, 1. 

GUE, 9. A Portuguese gold coin, 
worth, according to some, about 
4/. 10«., according to others only 
3/. 1 0«. It seems to have been some- 
times pronounced as three syllabhs, 

Hold, Bagot, there's a portagnf to drink. 

Sir John Oldcastle, i, 3. 
Where he was wont to give me srures of cruwns, 
Dotb he now foist me with a poriugue. Ibid. 

Mr. Mnlone's attempt to change the 
ri'adiog to cardecu is quite unneces- 
sary ; the fall from scoyes of crowns, 
to less than one score, was sufficient 
ground of complaint. See Suppl. to 
Sh., vol. ii, 384. 

An egge is eaten at one sup, and a porta^ue lost at 
one cast. Lglys Mgda^ ii, 8. 

F. No gold about Uiee? 
D. Yes, I've a fortagne I have kept this half year. 

A Jons. Aiek., act U 
Whear lords and great men have been disposed to 

IiIhv (lerpe )ihiy, and not having mony about them, 
iiive cut canles insteede of oownters, with assew- 
rawnce (on theyr honors) to pay for every peeoe of 
carde so lo«t a portrgue. 

Harington on Plags, voL i, p. 907, ed. Park. 

For portiyue, see in PssTLE. 

POR rAL. See Pobtbssi. 

PORTA NCE, «. Carriage, manner, de- 

But your loves. 
Thinking upon his services, took from yoa 
The apprehension of his present jK>rteii^. 

Gonol \i« V 




Bat, for in court ^yportaunce be percdT'd, 
And gallant shew to be in loreatest gree, 
Efitooues to court he cast t' adrance his flnt degree. 

Spent. F. q., II, ui, ft. 

And again in St. 21. 

Before them nil a goodlie ladie came. 

In stately portanee like Jove's braine-bome dame, 

To wit, that virgin queen, the fair Elize. 

Higint't Engl. EUtu^ p. 780. 

It is introduced in Othello, from the 
old editions : 

Of my redemption thence. 
And portanee in my travel's history. Act i, sc. 8. 

The fourth folio reads, ** traveller's 
history." Other editions, 

And with it all mjr travel's history. 

PORTASSE. See Poetesse. 

PORT-CANNON, a, A sort of oma- 
ment for the knees, resemhling stiff 
hoot- tops, or the holsters for pistols ; 
called also cannions. See Cotgrave, 
and other old Dictionaries. Bishop 
Wilkins calls them ** Canons of 
breeches, &c.," and defines them 
^* hollow cylinders." Real Char. 


Alphab. Diet, They were of French 
invention, and called by them canons. 
The French Dictionnries say, "Canon 
— ornament attach^ au has de la 
culotte;" but the modern editions 
add, ** cet ornament est liors d*usage." 
The excess of this fashion is thought 
to have been laughed down by Moliere. 

And HS the French we conquer'd oucc, 
Now •five lis \n\\% fur ^miitaluons, 
The Iciijcth of hreeclips, Hiid the );athcrs, 
Fort-eauHone, periwigs, and feathers. 

Hudib., I, iii, 923. 

The same author says of ** the huffing 
courtier," that, 

His (camitiire is the sauce to his donths, and he walks 
in his port-etutnoM, like one that stalks in long iuass. 

Genuins Bemains, ii, 83. 

PORTCULLIS. An English coin, with 
that figure stamped on the reverse. 
Such were struck early in the reign 
of Elizabeth. Pinkerton calls them 
"the portcullis coins of Elizabeth, 
issued in rivalship of the Spanish 
king. — They are of different sizes 
from the crown downwards, and are 
easily distinguished by the portcv I lis 
on the reverse." Pinkerton on Coins, 
ii, 86, 2d edit. 

It romes well, for I had not to much as the least 
porteulU^ of coyn before. 

B. Jone. Every Man out o/H., iii, 6. 

tPORTER. A lever. 

A leaver or porter to lilt timber or other thingrs with, 
palanga. jrithah' Dictionarie, ed. 1608, p. 133. 

PORTER'S-LODGE. The usual place 

of summary punishment for the 
servants and dependants of the great, 
while they claimed and exerdaed the 
privilege of inflicting corporal chai- 

Fit coropanj only for pages and fooC-bojt, 
That have pemsed iiit porttt't^odge. 

I must be plain: 
Art thou scarce manamised from the partat't leigt. 
And yet sworn servant to the pontoOe. 
And dar'st thou dream of marritfe? 

/&., New Wkg to P«v, #«, i, L 
I'll hold my purpose though I be kept bade. 
And venture lashiiie at the portrr't-M^ 

Hetfttf. Boyal Ktng, ^c, Ane. Dr., Ti, ML 

So also Shirley, quoted by Mr. Giffrad, 
on the first example : 

Begone, begone, I say; there*! a ^orto^f Uigi da^ 

You may have due ehastisement. Grmt^ 8m md 

It is also alluded to here : 

And that, until 
You are again reforni'd, and nown new men. 
You ne'er presume to name Uie court, or prcts 
Into the porter's-lodqe, but for a penance. 
To be disciplin'd for your roguery. 

B. and n. Elder Bro., v, 1 

And in the Maid of the Mill, v. 2. 
The unconfessed, but not doubted, 
author of Kenilworth» has made ex- 
cellent use of this custom, as of othen. 

tl am sure wee be not farre from Heaven gates, ssd 
if S. Peter should niulcrsiaud of your iibusr, I kno«c 
he would commit you both to the porter*s lodge. 

Greenrs Nnccs both/rotn Ileaeru and Hell. 15M. 

PORTESALE. An auction ; originallv, 
perhaps, a sale made in a port. 

When Sylln hnd taken the ciiie of Rome, be nsdi 
porteaale of the goods of them whom he bad pat ts 
death. AorM'* P/jii.,«0,C. 

" Auctio — Open sale, or portsale of 
private goods.** Thomasii Dtc/.» 
1619, in voc. 

Also the goods to be cheapened or 
sold : 

Shewing foorthe themselvet to the portmU of cvciT 
chcai>euer, that list demaunde the pryoe. 

Palace qfPiMi^riA ii.X6V 

Coles, and others, render it vendiOi 
in portu, 

I have rermyred and rygged the ship of knovkin 
and hnve hoysed up the sayles of good tatt&mi^i 
she mny safely pasae aboate and thimigli aD pHttf 
of this noble realme, and there mnhn irrrrf mh of hiT 
w ,vshed wares. Cmoal f»r Com, Omn^ A S b. 

t Vcndre pubhcqnement, et k I'eaeant. 7\> nakt opm 
sale, or porteale : to sell by the voyce of flM eoouMK 
crier, for who gives more. NommeUior, IttL 

PORTHOSE, &c. Breviary ; a port- 
ahle book of prayers. Very yarioosly 
spelt. So called from being portable. 
In Chaucer it is portos. See Mr. 
Tyrwhitt's note on ▼. 13061, of that 
poet. In low Latin it waa calM 




partiJMumt " quod foras facile portari 
possit." Du Canine. PortuoMes are 
prohibited in Ktat. 3 and 4 Edw. YI. 
c. 10. It w actually derived from 
porte-hort, in romance French, which 
it explained " Br^viare, livre d'^glise 
portntif. kTuaa^e deaeccl^iastiques.'* 
Roquefort. Poriehors u a literal 
translation of porii/orium, from por- 
iare-foras. Porta*, or port-hose, 
therefore, were not so remote as they 
might seem from the etymology. 
Porte-hore it also in Lacombe, Suppl. 
They are called portals in 1 Jac. I, 
cap. 5, where it is provided that no 
person shall import, print, sell, or 
buy, any popish primers, &c., bre- 
Tiaries, portais, legends, &c. 

I'll take my porUct forth, and wed 700 here. 

Qreen^i Friar Hueon, ligD. G 4. 
And in hii hand lABporleue still he bare, 
Ibafc Biiich was wona, bat tlterein little redd. 

Spent, y. q., I, ir, 19. 
I thank God, I have lired well these many years, and 
■0rer knew either the Old or New Testament. I con- 
tent myself with my mortesM and pontifical. 

Tkt Bishop ofbumkeld, in Cool^t History oftks 
ReforwuUion in Scotland, voL i, p. 159. 
She lanKha to sec their portises to fly, 
Eead^ to knoeke ont one anotlier's braine. 

Harr. Ariozt.t uvii, S6. 
At the light of a woman, the holirst hermit's porttuse 
Km false ont of his hands. Flori'i, 2d Frutft, p. 171. 
Which have seene no more Latine than thai onelie 
which they reads in ihtir portaufs and missalis. 

Tindat, Prot. to Geneiit. 

See Wordsw. Eccl. Biogr., vol. ii, 
p. 237. 

Called also portuae, and said to be 
corrupted into port-hose; but port- 
hose is only porte-hore. Skinner has 
it as port-hose, and says, *' Vox mirifica 
et difficultatis plena;" but we now 
see the reason of it. Spelt sometimes 
portaeef and even Pobtuse. See the 

The ForiiMfatt iaeoimierB them nnshook, 
He makaa hto lanees at their backs come out. 

Ftauk. Lutiad, II, 160. 
Doe wee not tee the noble to match with the base, 
the rich with tlM poore, the Italian ofkntimes «-ith 
the F^iii^mU. Bmph., sign. H 4 b. 

They are also called Portugals : 

When flnt they foire*d th' indnstrioos PortngtU 
firom their plantations in the happr islands. 

B. and ft. Sea Voyage , w. 1. 

Used also as an adjective, Portuguese : 

O icreat and Portit^atl lldelitie, 
P^'d by a tnUect to his prince I what more 
Pcacform'd the Persian in that prqjeet hi^ 
Mee ud fhn he euboiMdo'd o*t% 

Which made the great Darius, sighing, cry 
J thousand tiuws, (it griet^d his heart so sore) 
His bnive Zfipynis, such ns he whs once. 
He'd raiher have than tuenty Uabilons. 

Fansh. Lus., Ill, 41 

I quote the whole stanza for the sake 
of the 8i.xtli line, which had been 
omitted by the printer, but 18 supplied 
by Sir R. Fan8baw*8 own hand, in a 
copy which I have. 
[Used also for the country.] 

f Spainr can report, and Porthujale can tell, 
Denaiarkc aod Nurwav, \yjlh ciin wiiiicsse well 

Taifhr's ITorkes, IC30 

fPORTMANTLE. A portmanteau. 

Finding; nothing of ilnp<>l'^1ncl^ ihey took only a box, 
and two port uuinties, with all that ^as iu them; and 
were about to carry them away. 

hist. o/Franeion, 16S6. 

tPORT-PANE. A cloth for carrying 
bread so as not to touch it with the 

JL port-pane to beare bread from the pantrie to the 
table with, linteum panarium. 

WitkaW Dietionarie, ed. 1006, p. 17&. 

PORTUSE. The same as Portesse, 
&c., above noticed. 

ir I may take thee, it were as good thou weare deade, 
For even with thit portuse 1 will battre thy heade. 

JVnp Cm/., 0. PL, 1,968. 

POSE, s. A cold, or defluxion from the 
head, the medical name of which is 
coryza, under which word Kersey 
thus defines it : " The/XMtf, the falling 
down of a sharp, salt, and thick 
humour, out of the head, upon the 
nostrils, mouth, lungs/' &c. 

By the pose in thy nose. 

And the gout in thy toes. B. ^FL ChaneaSt r, 8. 

Me^g yesterday was troubled with ^pose. 

Which this night hardened, soddera up her noee. 

Iflerrick, p. Sfil. 
n. I am sure he had no diseases. 
D. A little rheum or pose, he lacked nothing 

But a haudkerrhier. Lyly, Mother Bomb., if, %. 

The ague, cough, the pyony, the pose. 

Heywood, Dr., last leaf. 

In Polwhele's Cornish vocabulary it 
occurs as pawze, 
POS NET, s. A small pot, or skillet. 

Whether it will endure the ordinary Are, which 
bcU)n)ceth to chafllng-dishes, posnets, and such other 
silver vessels. Bacon. 

A silver posnet to butter eggs. Taller, No. 245. 

The old dictionaries have it, but it 
does not commonly occur in authors. 
Perhaps from poeslon, French ; now 
made podlon, 

f You neede not doubt, but they have closets and 
studies full of perrumes. boxes, drawers, gally-pott 
yia.\\». piisuets, pipkins, ladels, spoones, plates, platten, 
egge-shelles full of divers oyles. 

PoMengcr of B«KMMft,io«VSSak 
tThen put in a clean poiaet, mA. i^Xmpil i««i lisrs^ 



1»egiiit to boil, pat in joot pmnccitcoii ^d let it boil 
•ollly S or 4 bonre until you find your simi^ tliick 
enougb. True 'GeH/lncomaiu Delight, 1676. 

POSSESS, V. To mnke master of in 
poiQt of knovledge, to ioforoi pre- 
cisely ; nearly the same as the Jbird 
lense of this verb in Johnson^ but 
used without any preposition. 

I bare poiseu^d bim, my moet itay 
Can be bat brief. Meat, for Mem$., iv, 1. 

Here Johnson's explanation is, "I 
ha?e made him clearly and strongly 

Po$t4ti oa, potust Of : tell ua lomethiag of bim. 


She iapoMsat 
Wbat atraama of gold you flow in. 

Citf Match, 0.n.ix,S67. 

With a preposition, as^ ** possess us 
of," or "with," such a thing;, it is 
more common. See 0. PL, xi, 309. 
POSSET, 8. A drink composed of hot 
milk, curdled by some strong infusion, 
which was much in favour with our 
ancestors, both as luxury and medi- 
cine. All the guards that attended 
the king, in Macbeth, seem to have 
had their possets : 

I bava drun'a tbeir potteti. ii, 9. 

In Fletcher's Scornful Lady, Wilford, 
and the mistress of his sister, take a 
powet on the stage before they retire 
to rest. 

Shakespeare has boldly made a verb 
of it : 

And with a sudden rigour it doth 0OM0/ 

And rurd. like CMger (iropjpinga inti) aiilk, 

The I hill Hiid wholeaoiue bUxM. Html., \, 6. 

U >K:as a treat usually prepared for a 
bridegroom : 

I have bespoke a. posset, aomebody 
blia^ j^ive me tbanka for 't. 

B. and Fl. Hon. Ma»*s F., v, 1. 

i^ee Johnson. 

iAU thnt bappy is, lictide 
Both llie bndcgroom and the brid^ 
May their tinyea be all of bliss. 
Each as full of jov as this; 
And when the cake and posset come 
With aumniooa lu £lysiam. 
The God of Love mnvf y them to their rest 

EpithaUuHinm, Poems, hp M. Steweiwm, 1666. 

POST, 9. Haste, speed. 

The mayor towards Guildhall hiea him in all jm#/. 

Ambition, atill on horseback, comes in potut. 
And seemea with greater gloi7 to appeare. 

JkM. dip. Wartn vii* 6S. 
And broaght him anto Yorfce, in allmaina Maf/. 

For ahe went down to Cornwall atraygfat in post. 
And cauaed all her father^ men to nse. 

Mirr.for Mag., p. 83. 

POST AND PAIR. A game on the 
««rds, played with three cards each. 

whcr^i^ mvic(ii depended W a; 
betting on the gooduesa of yo 
tiand. It is clear, from the 
tions in the examples, that 
royal of aces was tne best ha 
next any other three cards, ac 
to their order : kings, queens, 
&c., descending. If there n 
threes, the highest pairs mig] 
or also the highest game ii 
cards. It would in these 
much resemble the modem ( 
commerce. This game waa tl 
sonified by Ben JonsoQ,in a n 

Post and pakr, with a pair-royal of aoea in 1 
garmenta all done orer with paim and para 
carrying a boir, oarda, and coontera. 

Ckristwuu, a Maaq., v 

It is characterized elsewhere 
same author, as a frugal game 

Let 'em ambraee more frogal paatimea. ^ 
not the thrifty and right woKaliipfal 

peur content them; or the witty tuvenlioi 

for counters. Masque of Lev* Restored, vo 

]f yoa cantiot agree opou Ike gaue— 


W. We aball be soonest pairs; and my no 

When ha oomea late, lie muat kiaa the 

Woman kilUd, O. I 

See Puu, and Paik-£OYal. 
POSTS, painted and ornamente 
usually set up at the doors of t 
and other magistrates, on wL 
royal proclamations were fixec 

lie says lie'U stand at your door like a skei 

How long should I be, ere I shoald put off 
To the lord chancellor's tombc, or the skri 

B. Jons. Bv. M. out < 
1 hope my urquaintance goea in diaioa of 
and fifty tiucs doable— the 90«/« of hia 
paiutiug too. Hon, Wk^ 0. 1 

A pair of such broUiers were fitter for jw 
doors, indeed, to make a shew at a new 1 
gate, than to be uacd in a womaa'a cbambi 

His discourse [an alderman's] is oommoBly 
of bis mayoraity, and what good goronu 
was in the days of his gold chain, thoai 
posts were the only things Uiat sallered i« 

Whose Sonne more justly of his eeutry boi 
Tlmn who were borne at two ^\fM.pMnted^ 
And had soma tranatuig mevchant to bU s 

These were usually new-pain 
entering into office, as appear) 
second of the above quotatioi 
here also : 

My k>rd maior's pasts must aeeda be triaaai 
he takes hia oaUu To tktPmnttrs, OwWa 

fPOSTHUME. Born or publishi 
the death of the father or 
posthumous. In the first o 
examples it is used as a aubati 




mi, Mr 4Mk WKt pRTCSt a MvC, 

OMMir'cl tboc, both in hn life and dotli, 
> Iky (Bard bis postkmmes did bequeath. 

LatanrfleM, vkere ke 
Iter ■Itift a jMtlAtfaw viciory. 

Car<w^s Poemi, Ittl. 
! 7«Ni will Mt iBMgiae here it a Hue but what 
aatlnr% •«■ : far, thoucb this be « pottAmmt 
hoc ia ■» fUae oodmll, liccutteii after the 
ta bnrieo. CmrtvcrigkVt Poems, 1651. 

«, I. a chQd bota after the fathers death. 

ihaUom*» Ladies' Dietionmry. 

lNIGHT. In the fir«t example, 
Afioiber phrase for a Knight 

B POST, which see. In the 
it ftppeiirs to mean one who 

1 the p<ist. 

kwimkt that vill iweare away his aimle, 
tor (he same the taw his tures doe powle. 

Tmjiiur's IForkrs. 1630. 
TUm. ns Jov s ft i> iHUhip tliou doat inider, 
irn%all sec iho« dust hiai rvnder. 
Iaj*ea souDe his nnssagje thus did tell, 
ike %foH4might, caur from hdl ; 
a th'mfemall kinc of blacke Avcraus. 
vds he vtter'd (which doe mach concern us). 

;TP0SB. To esteem less than 
r, to despise. 

ip|iearea oMSt towards theai who lay down 
ra, und mostpate all worhlly tbiufs for the 
tMB oC their canaciences. 

Hvweirs Pamilimr LclUrs, 1650. 

TURE. To picture, to repre- 

peeeet «« esteem most rare, 
IB nifht shadows postnr'd are. 

HoveiCs FamilUir Letters. 1650. 

»de ill tlie month with one fin}^, as chihlren 
le. Witluils* tJiclhttmne, ed 1608. p. 36K 

tDS appear in the stage direc- 
y the Pilgrim, act v, so. 4 ; 
I can only conjecture to mean 
ind of hirds, imitated hy a pot 
ter» and a quill. The first 
on is '*Mu8ick and birds.'* 
hen talk about the singing of 
"ds, and the margin says again, 
ick and poi-birds.*'' 
20. Sometimes written for 
QO, which see. 

^G8. It is curious enough to 
at excellent root, which now 
a regular part of the daily 
tent of almost every individual, 
the chief or endre support of 
ndiet in Ireland, spoken of con- 
y, as having some powerful 
ipon the human frame, in ex- 
ihe desires and passions. Yet 
; the case in all the writings 
iporarv with Shakespeare. 

Lei the skT rain poMees; let it thanAer to the I ah 
of Grernsleeres; bail kissing cooaAu, aad 

eringoes; let there come a tempest of prurueatiMi. 

Merry W. W., ▼, 5. 

See the abundant, or rather super- 
abundant, notes of the commentators, 
on this, and similar passages. The 
subject is not worth pursuing; but 
if any person wishes for more illiia«- 
tration, they may consult, B. & Fl. 
Elder Bro., iv, 4 ; Ben Jons. Cyn- 
thia's Revels, ii, 2 ; Massinger, New 
Way to Pav, &c., ii, 2 ; O. PI., iii^ 
323, iv, 427, &c. The medical 
writers of the times countenanced 
thi.< fancy. See also Haringtoti*8 
Epiffinms, B. iii, 33. 
To POTCU, or POCHE. To thrust at 
« ith a pointed instrument ; derived 
by Johnson from the French: but 
perhaps more nearly allied to poke, 
Kei*sey marks it as a North-country 

Mine enmlntioa 
Hath not that honour in't it had, for where 
I thon'.:fat to crush liini m nn rqaal force, 
Tnie sword to sworU, I'll potek at him some way 
Or « mtli or miri inHy •rrt hin. Coriol., i, IQL 

They use to p'teke thcui with an instrument aome- 
whai like a salmou-Sfieare. Curetc's Cor*»., p. SI. 

fPOTCH'D EGGS. What we now call 
poaclicfl t'jfiTS. 

POTED, part. 1 linve seen only in the 
follouiii^ instance, and do not ex- 
actly know its nienning. 

He keepes a starcht gair, wcjires a formall ruffe, 
A noM^v, set lace, ami a puted cnffe. 

Hegw. Brit. Troy, ir. Ml 

See PlJRlT.\X. 

POTENT, *., for potentate. 

Cry luivock, kinfrs! lAck to the stiincd fteld I 
You equal patents, fiery-kindled spirits 1 

X. /»to, ii, H 

It seems to be Scotch, by the eiample 
which Mr. Steevens gives in the note ; 
but it is not in Jamieson. 
fPOTGUN. A pop-gnn. 

Sclo|ins vocari potest et tnbolas h ssrabarino ^pt^ 
QUO Murn clisa iclaude stappea strepitom ocbL 
o^mlptor. A Po/^HN autfle of an elderae ■tieke,or 
hollow quill, wbereout boyes shooie cliawen p^»er. 

Ifomemdiiitr, 186S. 

Also, a name for a short wide cannoti, 
formed like a pot. 

Ddfcjcs, handgoons, hakes, hagbasser8» calveriai^ 

Potaooms, sakirs, cannons, doable and demle. 


Thnt his stem ignoranee ana pride 

Mi^hi be the better fortify 'd, 

B«nriitli his uiise. in mighty state, 

.\ liiace of niortNl en^fines sate. 

Such ilrradtul pot-guns of correction, 

1 iiat threat en'd nothing but destnietiM. 

Uudibras Bediwiw^ jfut U, 1707. 




fPOTHANGLE. More usually caUed 
a pot-banger. 

Clunacter, insirunientnin in gradns seansile, de quo 
ahena et lebetes Buspendimus. icAif&axriip. Cre- 
■uUere. Tht poi kMigen. NomatcUUor. 

Item, a ftreng panne and a peyre of potkangles sold 
to the aeyd Scaoamonr. 

In9entor^ qf Goods, 30 Hen. 7III. 
Item, one pothtrngle*^ pnce ij^. 

MSS. Strtttford-on-jitOH, 1614. 

tPOT-LEACH. A drunkard. 

With hollow eyet, and with the palsie Bhakiug, 
And gouty legs with too much liquor taking. 
Thii vrniuokt pol-irack, that upon hit knees 
Has dmnke a thousand pottles up-se-treese. 

Taylor's Workes, 1630. 

tPOT-PUNISHMENT. Forcing one 
another to drink. 

But these base fellowes I leave in their ale- housesito 
take pot-funiskmeHt of each other once a day, till sc. 

Lomaiius on Painting, 1698. 

fPOT-QUARRELS. Dninken squabbles. 

Are. Faith, landlord. Mol. I'd have sworn thou 
hadst bin of a better nature, tlian to remember fo^ 
fuarrels. By my tioth I should have kick'd my 
lather in tlutt humour. 

Cswtwfighes BofM Sla»e, 16S1. 

POTSHARE, 8. The same as potshard, 
a fragment of a broken pot. 

Thev hew'd their helmea, and plates asunder brake. 
As they had ftotskares been. Spens. F. Q., Yl, i, 37. 

tPOT-SHOT. Drinking to excess. This 
term occurs in the Workes of Taylor 
the Water- Poet, 1630. 

Tims many a ^aMHnt that dares stab and swagger. 
And 'liDiinsi a justice lilt his fist or dageer: 
And being mad perliaps, and hot pot-shot, 
A crazed crowue or brokt n pate hath got. 

tPOT-SU RE. Confident ; literaUy, 
having drunk enough to make him 

When these rough gods beheld him thus secure. 

And arni'U againot them like a man yot-sure, 

Tliey siint \ain Bt«>ruis. Lrgcud ofCapt Jones, 1659. 

To POTT, v., the same as to cap, verses ; 
that is, to produce one Latin verse, 
on demand, which shall begin with 
the same letter that ends a verse 
before repeated. 

The boies of divers schooles did cap or potie verses, 
and contend of the principles of |:raniniar. 

Stove's Survey (1599), p. 53. 

I have not found the word elsewhere. 
POTl'LE, 9, The measure of two quarts. 
I presume the pottles for strawberries 
originally held that quantity. Alas, 
how changed ! 

Mow, my sick fool, Roderigo, 
Whom love hath tum'd almost the vrrong side out- 
To Besdemona hath to-night carouz'd 
Potations pottle deep. Othello, ii, S. 

She [m ba« d] hath only this one shew of temperance, 
that let a gentleman send for tenne pottles of wine in 
her bonne, liee shall hare but ten quarts ; and if bee 
Want it that way, let biro pay for't, and take it out in 
atew'd prunes. Oterbttry's Char., K 1 b. 

It is sometimes used for drinking- 

vessel, without reference to the mea- 

Hence also, 
that quantity at once. 

To give thanks for yon, sir, \Ufot(U-4na$§kt». 

Our funerals had been 
Bewail'd in pottle^rangkts, OH 

See vol. IX, p. 338. 
-[To POUCH. To close up in a poad 
or case. 

Come bring your saint .poMi'i in hialMitlierm almM 

Qmariefs Fmfinu 


Broomea for old shooeal •maItumw, bootaa ail 
buskings. Songs qf tke Ztmitm FtmiiuM, p. lil 

POUKE, «. A fiend. The same as 
Puck, or Robin OoodfelloWy aappoaed 
to be a merry and mischievoua fairy. 
So, without doubt, it ought to be 
read, as Mr. Todd conjecturea, and 
not ponke, which has no meaning. 
Mr. Steeveus had so cited before. 

Me let the pouke. nor other evill sprighta, 
Ke let niiftcliie\'oU8 w itches with Ihey'r cbames, 
Ne let hob-goblins, nanus whose sence we see not. 
Fray us uiiTi tliiugfc that be not. 

Spens. 3pUkmL, f 1. S41. U 
And, that they niav perceive the heaveut frown. 
The poukes aiid goblins pull tlie ooverinn down. 

Seonrge of Fenms, 1614 

Skinner explains Chaucer's ''ne none 
hell powke," by *' t. e., no jnt^ of hell, 
null us cAcodsemon.*' See also under 
Puff, etym. gen. where he says^Pv^ 
etiam dsemones vocant/* &c. See 
POULDKH, *., or POWJ.DER. Powder; 
pon/dre, old French. 

And ul the j^oulder plut they will talk yet. 

B. Jems. Bfi§r., 91 
For like ns a iiintcli doth lie and smoulder, 

LoM^ tune helore it cuiiiroeth to the traine. 
But \t't. when tire liHth caught in the pcmlder, 
tio art is able the flames to restraiiie. 

Mirr. Mag., SSI 
And who niNy dare spcake, against one that is great, 
Laue Willi liV'jvldrr indeed. 

Soug of a Coustable, Cems. LUer., viii, 401. 

P0ULDI:REIX Beaten to powder; 
from ilie same. 

And u ere not heveiily lerace that did him blease, 
Ue hud beene ponldred all, as thin as floure. 

Spens. r. Qn I. F 8. 
And on his shield, enveloped sereufold. 
He bore a crowned little ermilin. 
Thai deck'd the azure held with her hjn poulit^i 
skin. nu., liCii. S K. 

POULDRON. See Polron, &c. 

POULES, or POWLES, for St. Paul's. 
The old, vulgar pronunciation, bor- 
rowed, perhaps, originally from the 
French. "As old as Pouiet,'* (pro- 




led Poles) was a proverb occa- 
\y used within my memory, 
h it allndea to the old Gothic 
h. So it was spoken, e?en when 
n Paulas. 

;eDcled, hanng cure of toals, 

ton Bnmmont I shoold prehch at Faules. 

Honest Qhott, p. S09. 


ow tliou'rt come in sieht of PauTs^ 
ton compounded for thy coalei. 

mt Restored, Mr. Smith to Sir J. Mennit. 


r. A chicken. 

s lieleev'd coz, 

the «t iiest few too, that i* th' camp 

nut feed on pleasniit poult*. 

Cluq»Man*» jUgMnffe of Honour, 1654. 

BR, 8. A dealer in poultry. It 
>ng been changed to poulterer. 

dost it half so gravely, ao mnjestically both in 
lid matter, hane me up by the heela for a 
lucker, or a poulter's hare. 1 Hen. IF., ii, 4. 
hulk your grace, aud hanz yon up crosa-leg'd, 
liare at a pater's. B. ir PI. Philaster, v, I. 
pa a horseback like a pouUer. 

Wiite Devil, 0. PI., vi, 283. 
^nst the parish church of St. Mildred, on the 
ide of the Ponltrie, up to the great cuudutte, 
e divers fayre houses, sometimes inhabited by 
r. Stowo, p. 210. 

E, P. To perforate; from ponear^ 
Bh, or panceilare, Italian. Coles 
to pounce, perforo." See also 


coate gaided and pounced after the galiarde 

El^ot, Oot., foL 91. 

odd. Holinshed speaks of gilt 
pounced, or pierced. 
[^£. A punch ; a stamp. 

V to print the money with, todicula. 

WitkMW Dietumarie, ed. 1606. n. 147. 
«, or printing yron to marke withall, inoicula. 

/Mi., p. 131. 

'3E. Some medicinal prepara- 

iesli thereof there is made pounce* for sicke 
refresh and restore them : but yet it gene- 
[Toase blood, and makes one to sleepe much. 
. Passenger of Benvenuto, 1612. 

BT-BOX, 8. A box perforated 
tmall holes, for carrying per- 
; quasi, pounced-box, 

ixt his finder and his thumb he held 

tt-hox, which ever and anon 

; Ilia nose, and took't away again. 

1 Hen. IV, i, 3. 

;ht be thought that a snuff-box 
leant, as it follows : 

erewiUi angry, when it next came tliere 
in siinff. 

\ means no more than snuffing 

or smelling strongly to it ; 

he addition of a quibble on the 

!, **to take anytliing in snuff",'' 

was equivalent to ** taking liuff 

at it," in familiar modem langoage. 
See Snuff. 
stamped in clothes, by way of orna- 
i.ient, such as is now called pinking. 

Your poorer nei{;hbonrs, with coarse naps, neg[lected» 
FHshiuns conferred about, pouneings ana paintings. 

What can you do now. 
With all your paintings and jomx poundnas, lady. 
To restore my l>lood again ? Ibid., Kn. t^Mtdta^ ii, 1. 
One snendeth iiis patrimony upon pounces and cute. 
UoiHily agniuat Excess qf Jpparel, cited by Todd. 

tPOUND-PEAR. The pear called in 
French the bon^chrStien. 

Poire de bon chrestien, poire de livre, Budaeo. A 
poHud-peare. Nomendator, 158(. 


Then doih the ponderous powiMb/oiM purse 
Bring duuue their feete asnine. 

KeudtdVs nowers of Bpigrammes, 1577. 

troduced into England early in the 
1 7th century, and hecame the imme- 
dime subject of ridicule to the drama- 
tists, and severe censure from the 
Puritans. I do not recollect that it 
is mentioned by Shakespeare ; but it 
is by Ford, in a play published m 

Why this beinir to her instead of a loi>kin<(>a:la9s, she 
shafi no oftener powder her hair — kc., but she shall 
remember me. Loee's SacriJ., ii, L 

It is alluded to in one printed in 

As for your hnndsome faces, and filed ton^ncs. 
Curled miUer^s heads, Slc. Ft. Loyal Subject, iii, 3; 

About the year 1654, Howell, speaking 
of a person who thought madness 
cured by putting ashes on the head, 

If the said ambassador were here among us, he would 
think our modem gallants were all mad, or subject to 
be mad, because they ashe and powder their pericra- 
niums all the year long. Utters, iv, 5^. 

To POWDER, V. To sprinkle with 
salt: also to salt meat in any way. 
Hence a powdering -tub, for a vessel 
in which things are salted. Also 
powdered beef, for salted b^ef, &c. 
These words are hardly obsolete. 

If thou imbowel me to-day, I'll give you leave to 
powder me and eat me to-morrow. 1 Hen. IF, \, 4. 


Can we not force from widowed poetry 

Now thou art dead (great Donne) one elegie. 

To crowne Uiy hearse? Why vet did we not trust. 

Tiiou;(h with uiikneaded flav-<^F(/ prose, thy dust» 
• • • • • 

Dry as the Kuid that measures it, might lay 
Upon the nshes, on the funerall day? 


fPOWDlKR. A dike in the fens. 

Cutting downe of powdicke. 

DalUnCs Countreg Jnttiee, 189* 




IMMtat«r1ifffckilK dowie of fovA'lv, or other banket 
in niNrsh-land, mHliciously, ii feltaiv. Hid. 

POWLER, 9. for poller; that is, one 
who poUd or cuts the hair. 

B. I know him not; is he a deafr harberf 
Q. O jm ; why he is mietrets Lamia't powUr. 

Frvmv tmd Cm$samtrA, v, 4w 6 FUys, i, p. 58. 

fPOWLINGS. Cutiiiigs. 

Tlien lop for tliy fewel the powUngfi well jrroven. 
That hiaAwth the come or the grnsse to be mowen. 

Tusier'g Htubandru, 1567. 

tPOWTING-CLOTH. A sort of ueck- 

A e io aa e cloath, as thev tcnrme U, a iKnrtiHg-chlk, 
pUgula. Witkali' hictionarie, eU. 1608, p. 275. 

FOX 9' The smallpox, when so used 
withont any epithet ; exactly contrary 
to the modem usage. It was so 
called from the pocks, or pustules, 
with which it covers the hody. This 
use of the word is fully confirmed by 
Dr. Farmer, in a note on the following 
passage; which, indeed, itself affords 
a confirmation of it, since the o>, 
there mentioned, mean the marks left 
by the smallpox, as they did also the 
pustules of it. See O'x. 

that your face were not so full of O's. 

K A fox on that jest. L<yi^$ L. L, v, 2. 

I'hus, says Dr. Farmer, Davison has a 
canzonet on his "Iady*s sicknesse of 
the poxe;** and Dr. Donne writes to his 
sister,** At my return from Kent, I found 
Peggy had t\\e poxe — I humbly thank 
God it has not much disfigured her." 
Thus is Katharine, the court lady, 
attendant on the princess of France, 
defended from the imputation of inde- 
licacy, in using this term ; and thus, 
I presume, may the other old dra- 
matists be defended for putting this 
expression into the mouths of their 
delicate females ; of which abundant 
instances may be found. See Ben 
Jonson, Devil is an Ass, v, 1,2, and 3 ; 
New Inn, ii, 1. 

Celia, in the Humourous Lieutenant 
of Beautnont and Fletcher, says. 

Par on Uiesc bawling drums 1 I'm sure yoia'U kiss me. 

Art i. sc. 2. 

So Anabel, in the French Lawyer, 
act V, sc. 1 ; and Mary, in Monsieur 
Thomas, act iii, sc. 3. Leonora, in 
]Vfassinger*s Very Woman, act iv, 
•c. 3. But I fear the ladies did not 
quite discard the expression when it 
has obtained a much coarser meaning. 
Use reconciles strange things. 

finch a phigiie wai tii^ m m wiipm, 
before the recent modes of conattf- 
action were known, that ita iiane 
miglit well be used as an imprecalkii. 
POYiNADO, or POINADO, «. A award, 
or ratlier dagger ; a poniiird. 

Strikes his poimSo at a button's breadth. 


It occurs also in the «tage direcCioa 
to Fuimus Tro^ Act v, Sc. 3. *'drawi 
]\'\B poynaffo.^* 0. PI. vii, 517. 

I will have it so sharp-pointed, that h abaD MA 
Motto like a po^naydo. ^^f* Mffiu, ?,& 

lie would not use iiny otlier revenge, bat at the na 
meeiiiiK stftl> hiiii wiihliisjpoiacio, thcNq^ he vn 
condemned to dciitli for the actiON. 

JL Greene. Tkeepet /uUiug tmL^^f^Bui 
MisCt Tol. ni, 397, ed. Park. 

POYNETTES. Small bodkins, or 
points to punch holes with. 

And tljeu their bouettes, and their poyneitei. 


PRACTICE, s. Art. deceit, treachery. 
See Todd, in Praetiee^ No. 8. 

This act persuades me. 
That this reniotioa of the duke and ker 
Is practice only. Kimg Lev, ii, 4 

Oh thou, Othello, that wast once ao good, 
Fall'n in I lie prnctiee of a cursed ^ire. Oikdb, f, i 

Since 1 am iiifonu'd, 
"Hiat he wns n|iprehended bf her prar/scv, 
And, when he comes to trinf for his life. 
She'll stand up his accuser. MIeue. P«rl. o/Lote, t,1. 
I pray Ghxl there be no practice in this dmnge. 

Look mbout yom, IfiOOl 

In our commoner sense of practice, 
that is, the habit of performing anj 
thing, practick was most used. 
Practice, opposed to theory. 

No such matter ; 
He has the theory only, ikOlWw practick. 

Mats. Emp. </ Boat, ii, 1. 
Oh, friend, that I to mine owne notice 
Had joined but your experifnce ; I hare the 
Tkforicke, but tou the praetidte. Bn§L T V Bs dl .,ti 
Who being wefl grounded in the theoricke, aiiaMl 
\\\e praetique as an effect of the canae. 

Lentm*$ Lmt. der., L 

PRACTICK, a. Practical. 

So that the art and prmctick |)art of life. 
Most be the mistress to this llworlone. 


Also, from the above noted sense of 
practice, artful, treacherous : 

Wherein wlie used hath thr prmcticke paine 

Of this lalsc fo<itman, riokt «iiii simpleneaae; 

Whom if ye pli*>ise for to disco«-er iihitne. 

Ye shall him. Arrhimago, find, I i^Iiesse 

The falsest man alive. Spette. F. 9i I. xi, ^ 

Supprcsseth uiutin force, nndpraetieke fraude. 

Huffhert t. Arlknr, 1587. Introd. 

PRACTISANTS, 9. Traitors, confe- 
derates in treachery; from the obsolete 
sense of practice. See Pkactice. 

Here enter'd Pucelle, and her praetisautt. 


proverbial expression, often alluded 




to hf old authors. Stephen Gh>MOD, 
a writer of qaeen Elisabeth' a time, 
was the anthorof a Morality soentitled, 
but neTer pablished. Shakespeare 

A kind 
Of eaeellciit dmmb diteoww. Pr. Prmhe in iepmrting. 

Temp., in. 3. 
Hov frmm mi thy pmrtku. Tm Tfif, 4-c., 1598. 
AalM Ike iott t Wt fraitr fliy iMk «l MTln^. 

flW Wmmtm ofAbin § 4o m ^ \iW. 

tPRANE. A prawn. 

VRANK, V. To dress out affectedly, or 
splendidly; to decorate. Pronken, 

Tear high wlf, 
Tte gnMMu Bmrk o* the hin^ yon have obscar'd 
With a iwaiii't veariogi "nd me, poor, lowly miiid. 
Moit mddeiMUce prwuPi ap. Wint. I^lf, ir. S. 

Bat Tb that mirade and q«een of Keiut, 
Itat aatare vraalt her in, attracts ny lonl. 

TVr//. y„ ii, 4. 
Some frmmek* their mffca, and others trimly di^t 
Their gay attyre. Sfem. F. Q., I, ir, 14. 

So Milton : 

Obtrndinje false mles prmmkt in reason's garb. 

Comms, L 759. 

Hence pranker was used for a person 
who dresAcd gaily. See Todd. 
PRANK is met with, but very rarely, as 
an fidjectivp. Frolicksome, full of 
tricks ; from prank, «. 

If I dii not seem pnmker now than I did in those 
days, rii lie hanged. Ungum, 0. ?U v, 810. 

Mr. Tudd rightly observes, that 
pranky a trick, was in earlier times 
more seriously applied, of which he 
gives examples. 
PRAVANT, a., probably for pravant. 
Anything supplied from military 

Ihey f«Se 10 the plaee. where they might descry two 
hsfttela readar ordeied for present skirmish, they 
eonid easily aiscorar the eokHus and prutU lireries 

mf aMWff4A CABRflMlfla 

B * j fw §§€ » MUrmrckie, lib. viii, p. K54. 

See ProvaKt. 
tPRAVlTY. Wickedness. Ut. pra- 

Sndi is the arsti^y and weakness of ma s nature, as 
witho«t iuilutij, art, and disetpline, he remaines 

hot the oacly dajpaeaf reasoa fnan a beast. 

VuCMden Fleeee. 1657. 
Why doth nnm blame the manners, and tlie timrs, 
iBputinf to their prmmtin his crimes ? 

Ow€n*» RpitfrtiMS, 1677. 

awkward and misplaced act of devo- 
tioD seems little reconci liable to 
modem notions of propriety; but 
there is abundant testimony, that it 
was long the ctistom, in our theatres, 
«l the end of each play, to offer a 

solemn prayer for the sovereign, or 
other patron of the house. This was 
done by one or more of the per- 
former8, actually kneeling on the 

My tonjrae is weary ; when my Iqrs are so too, I will 
bid you good night; and so huefdawm before yoat 
Itut indeed to pray lor the qoeen. 

Sh. Bpil to Hem. IT. 
Ttii» xhimc like kiweliHg after Ikeplaw. 

StidMeton't Mad W., O. PL, v, 896. 
Which he performes with as much xnle as an actor 
aftrr ihe i-nd of a play, when bee pniyes for kis 
majestie., the lords of' kis most konourahU pritie 
comneeU, and all tkal lore ike kima. 

mtus't miwuie* assi). p. 17. 
Many other examples are given by 
Farmer and Steevens at the end of 
Henry IV. See other references in 
O. PI., i, p. 291, at the end of the 
New Cu8t(>tne. See also Kneeling. 
f To PRE W). To pillage. 

I>r»«in^ after thnn nt their Uules great trainee of 
the iiiRniHil and lioii^rhuld servitors, Ukeunto erewes 
and tniupcs o{ nmUiHg hh^nnds. 

iMland's Ammianns MarteUimmSt 1609. 

PREASK, 8. Pre»8, or crowd. 

Grrat-helly'd women 
Tliat h.i<l not hHlf h wf rk to jro, likr rams 
In tlie old time of war. would shake the prMM 
And nmke them reel l>efore them. Hen. VJii, iv, 1. 

The modern editors take the liberty 
to read preM, Capell excepted. 

The kin); is at hand, stand close in the prease. 

Dawurn .f Pitk., 0. PI., i, p. 199. 
In case she be constrained to abide 
1 n prease of eompaay. 

kroner, f' Gism., O. PI., ii, p. 190. 
And hastinz to get out uf that same prease. 

She beckned Itim that after her he ride. 
Then went she thence, with mind inclin'd to peace. 

Har. Ariosto, xxxvi, 38. 
And tlirough the prease (agreed so) they brake. 

Fturf. Tasso, xix, 6. 

To PREASE, r. To press. 

No bumble suitors prease to speak for risht 

3 Hem. F/. iii. 1. 
And pnirr^ did preate before thv merey-aeat. 

Lookina 6lassfor Lomdon, Y 4k 
Fur any man to prease beyond tlie place. 

Hussw lyAmkns, ¥ 3. 
Ran prrasing forth (»n foot, and fongnt so then. 

Mirr.for Mag., 87S. 

PRECEDENT, *., for prognostic, or 

With this she seiietli on his sweating palm, 
Tlie prreedent of pith and livebhood. 

Sk. Venus #- Ad., dnnpl., i, 406. 

It was lifted also for a rough draft, or 
previous copy of any writing : 

My h>rd Melun, let this be copied otit, 
.4nd keep it snfe for our remembrance; 
lU;turii the precedent to these lords again. 

X. /uJU, V, 2. 

fPRECEL. To excel 

Thou shall be Janus, hard 'tis to prwd 
iliy father ; it thou equal'st him. 'tis well. 

Owen's EpigramM. 

PRECISIAN, M, A puritan, or precise 




He wu of lUIy, and that eountrj breedi not 
Preciiiant thul way, but hot libertinet. 

B. ^Fl.Cu»t. of Ciw,!. 
Verity, you braeh. 
The devil turn'd frtdnani Mass. New W., i, 1. 

A precisian well described : 

Hie mnii, aflTrighted at this apparition, 

Upon recox enr jcrew a great precisian. 

He boitvht h lulile of the new translation, 

And in liis life he shew'd great reformation. 

He walked uuinnerly. and talked meekly, 

He heard three lectures, and two sermons weekly. 

He voH 'd tu slinn nil companies unruly, • 

And in his speech he usea no oath but truly ; 

And xealously to keep the sabbath's rest, 

His meat for that day on the ev'n was drest. 

Harimgt4m*s Efig., i, SO. 
These men for all the world like our orecieuuu be, 
Wlio, for some cross or saint they in the windows see, 
Will pluck down all the church. 

Drayl. PolyoU., vi, p. 776. 

A very severe portrait of a prednan 
is ill f»ir T. Overbury*s Characters, 
Rigii. K 3, edit. 1630. There seems 
to be no assignable meaning for 
precisian , in the following passage of 
FalstafTs letter : 

Ask me no reason why I lore you ; for though love 
use reason for his ftreciriaH, he admits him not for 
his couiiscUor. Merry W. W., ii, 1. 

Physician has been conjectured, with 
great probability; and the more so, 
as Shakespeare has elsewhere given 
to Reason the same office : 

My reoson, the physician to my love, 
Angry thai his prescriptions are not kept, 
Hath left me. Sonnet 147. 

But Precisian is given by Johnson, 
in his Dictionary, and defined, '* one 
who limits or restrains;'' a sense 
which might easily be admitted, were 
there any proof that the word was 
ever so used at that period. 
The derivative, precisianism^ was also 
PRECONTRA'CT, s. A previous con- 

He is your husband on a prf contract, 
To bring you thus together is no sin. 

Meas.for M.,ir, 1. 
Abhorring sore tliis act, 
Because I thereby brake a better precontract. 

Mirr.for Mag., p. S78. 

It has been found also as a verb. 
See Johnson. 
PREDrCT, s. Prediction. 

Or say with princes if it shall go well. 
By oft' predict that I in heaven flnde. 

Sk. Scniut, 14. 

See Often, adj, 
fTo PREDOMINE. To predominate. 

So til' element in wint predomininff. 

It hot, and cold, and moist, and dry doth bring. 


PREEVE, or PRIEVE, v. To prove; 
a Chaucerian word, retained by 

Spenser, bat, I believe, no other pod; 
of his age. 

But bad him stay at ease till further 

Sp. Moik. Hmi. m^,llML 
Besides her countenance, and her lively hew. 
Matched with equal yeares, do sordy prwsir 
That yond same is your daughter, r. Q., VI, xii, Vk, i 

It wa8 used also in the Soottiili 
dialect. See to Preif^ Prieve, OTj 
Preve, in Dr. Jamieson'a Dictionaij. 
PRIEFE, «., of the same origin. Proo(j 

But readie are of anie to make sri^. 

Tell then. Olady. teU what (ktal fri^. 
Hath with so huge miafortnBe you appn$t. 

fPREFINED. Predestined ; 'fS'ed W- 

And whereas death is to all men mrdimed. 

KnaUes' Hist, of the 2Wi»,llQi 
That they should not before the time bv Him ^M| 
prefned, devour the reliques of the Greeke emyue.^ 

PREGNANCY, s. Ingenuity, wit ; from 
the metaphorical senses of Pkkonani^ 
which see. 

Pregnancy is made a ta|Mter, and hath his quick Ǥ 
wasted in giviut; reckonings. 3 Hem. IF, i, t 

Affeci the opinion vX pregnancy, by an impatient ttl 
catching hi-ariiig of the cimnsellors at the bar. 

Lord Bacon's Speech to Sir Biek. Hnttm. 
Not a dunce, captain ; but \ou miyht gire me knt 
it* niiftdouht that pregnancy in a soltuer, wliidi ift 
proper and hereditary to a courtier. 

B. 4- Fl. Honest M.F.,iit 

PREGNANT, a. Ready, or apt to pro- 
duce. The metaphorical senses oTi 
this word, by which it was applied to 
the productiveness of mind, genius, 
argument, &c., are now in general 
obsolete. Dr. Johnson has noticed 
three of them, but the last, at it 
seems to me, erroneously ; giving it 
the signification of free or kind 
{Pregnantj 6), where I think it means 
apprehensive, ready to conceive, or 
produce right intelligence. See hot 
No. 3. 

1 . Stored with information : 

Our cities institutions, and the terms 

For common justice, you are nfregnaml in. 

As art or practice hath enriched any 

That we remember. Mms. for Msas., i, 1. 

Tis very cleare the place is very pregmmnt. 


Hence the contrary, Unprbqnant, 
q. V. 

2. Ingenious, full of art or intelli- 
gence : 

Disguise, I see thou art a wickedness 
Wherein the pregnant enemy [i. «., the de\'ii1 4om 
much. T»e{flk y.,n,t 

How pregnant sometimes his rq>lMt are. BetmL, u, l> 

PBB 6 

rehenuTe, re»dy to undentMnd^ 
percept! ?e powers : 

a hltk BO roitd, iMij, Int to jour own moit 
ud TaaehnM mi. }Vi(. K., iii, 1. 

iftrked, however, in thia aeoae, 
lewhnt affected, for die foolinh 
Jrew immediatel; lake* it i»p, 
perfine term, fit to be Kinem- 
"Odoura, pregnant, and voneh- 
I'll get them ail three ready." 

ilied to an argiimeDt ; full of 
I, or full of proof 

'd lhj> voe here, O 'Hi p-ffiuiif , preommjitr 

ord waa, however, uaed with 
Azity, and lometimes abused, 
lionable terms are ; but geue- 
lay be referred to the ruhng 
»f being full, or productive of 
ing. Thu* ia Hamlet : 

k Ike y r w Mf liiiira or Iha knB, 

ililt luir fnUow bwaiug. Bmmi, ill, 1. 

I should not so much inter- 
quick, ready, as JohasoD and 
do;, bat artful, desigDiDg, full 
DIOUS. Serving as a prelude. 

1. iTutl'i bat k frttwMmj UiHfl i 
en Hidi picluariDE in ■ ki«H- 

CUinit^i Potmi, lUl, 

NOTB. To prognosticate. 

SaKKdtrf A^ii^iDnic, \tSS. 

CB, «. The word requires no 
itiou 1 bnt we ebould notice 
moiK legendary worthies, the 
nnlieet of London, formerly 
opniar heroes, in that place, 
•ir acts, there is an old play, 
lonias HeywDod, printed in 
ill 1615, Tliey were, Bccord- 
ihnl author, Godfrey, Grey, 
I, and Euttaee, the four sous 
earl of Itoloign, who was 
J to povcrtv by supporting 
iiliu bisiiivksioDof Euglsnd. 
!ons lie hnd bound to trndcs ; 
•y piei'erred the proft-ssioii of 
id went volunteers to the Holy 
wheie thev performed prodi- 
r valour. 'Reprinted O. PI., 

e,rl,-i' Micmr.. i ag, and Bliii-i Holt nfi^i U 

We sNoulJ remHrlc mIio the legal 
plirase preatiee, or apprentice nflato, 
for a barrister in ihnt profession. 
This was anciently tlipir regular title; 
see Blouni, and Cowell, who quote 
Selden as authority. They add, that 
the learned Plowi'len so styled him- 
self; niid that Finch, in bis Noi>ia> 
tecbnia, wrote bimself appreitliee d& 
/a ley- So Harington : 

For Fbiidea, Him >u father of the liiri, 
Wliicli ja ire md nnd nilnl \ij lii> cuililin(m, 
Dotli niiui kinueir m •mfia in lilt wrilioin. 

Bfigr.. B. Li. Ep. 7*« 

fPBEPARANCE. Preparation. 

■ 11 Ihii biu; pnjHiniiua (a wan. 

Marf-i (7(tj«i. 1E61. 

PREPAUB, «. Preparation ; from the 

Fembnlu ind Sulbrd, jou in onr behalf 
Oo le>y nini, uid iiimkc prnirc for «t. 

» Hm. ri, IT. 1. 

fTo PREPENSE. To contrive before- 

fTo PRKPORT. To forebode. 

ITiflili' Ucliaiari. td. ICH, p. S7S. 

To PREPOSTERATE. p. To render 
preposterous, or to disgrace. 

OT perrerlcd the gnod juJgmcDt tint tU the wofld 
P,;(e« ,!/■(■(«.„ lol. ii, S 7 h, 

tPREPOSTKROUSLY. Chapman uses. 
this w,.rd (Horn. II., V, .WA) in a 
very ptrdantic manner, in the sense 
of hind part foremost, or literally, aa 
we aav, bottom upwards, on one'a 
head. ' 

lied to the «uth. ud itajed 

A tuiguiy 

tPRESAGIE. A preMge. 


Irilii(tlH><icleB>tiKittohii>oord, end el» »hii. 

PRESCRIFP, a. Prescribed, or writ^ 

ten dowu before. 

Bj -lioit praeripl order 
WUiel. !• Uie pHierifl pn 

Noticed by Johnso 
PRESCRIPT, a., in 

a similar seoae- 

Order, direction in 


PRE 6f 

Tliia ia the reading of the e«rly 
quHrtui ; llie folio liai preceptt- 
Tine feme h exemplilied by JohDSon 
Ironi Milton ; niid nn inaUDce al«o 
given iif its Ixing used (or preterip- 
Cion, in llie iiiedicnl sense. 
PHKSEANCE, *., from the French. 
Piiorjly of plate, in sittiDg. 

TlKit 4iMI«[ jndnnielil in pMMilrlici: ind fraetmc. 

PRESENCE, for |>retteiioe-chRmher. 
The state room in a palace, where (he 
aoTereign usually RpprarK. 

KMHl S.f-FI. Nut. Gtml.. HI, I. 

That iB, like a king's. Heiice uard 
also for any grand state room : 

quick i 

tPRESENT. Immtdiate 

T> whkli Kt. SOBM m not iible lo niiiVe ■ ^«ni( 
iniwer, but after t loni aihI penilrx'd iktiue, vid- 

Axtm'i MimllM,,ia. II. TO. 
Thii ii Uic b«t «d prattUit nmaij IM hilpiBf 
Uk rhmiu. thil «.« 1 knt- m Ueard nf. 

Lofloul Tkimiaiii KoltUl Tiinfl. 

PRESENTLY, ade. At this present time. 

But iiiuaii't )r« |urt»iry. nn Snf.v, 1. 

fODKliI, but pranllf X if^iljut- 


See flitu tlie InBtancex in Johnson. 
PRIiS'l', part., from to press, in tlie 
senn of (o hapten. Used in the seme 
of I'CHdy, or rnrnest to do a thing; 
perhaps rather from prett, old French, 

Tlitirlijleibiniilvi|itp»«, that «obI hr fral, 
Wu triwlcrrd uj Ibe vooa uttotlirr tt-nr. 

F q.. VI. vii. i», 
Warlon, ill hisOhservaiionson Spenser, 
collects many umilar examples from 
the anme author. Vol.ii. pp. 41— 44. 

And BHke Tetunlofiind? meprfttf. 

»M>- Fi, O. Fl.. i, M. 

Where also see Mr. Reed's note. 

tOue Biomiai Tbctii fmn the Kt to liwrcB bir kITi 
drAh fral. Eemtr. ty JriluiT HaN. p. U <1»1). 

PRBST, ». A loan. This is slill used 
officially in some ca^es. Jolinson 
ni^mplifies it from Bacon. 

4 PVlfi 

fPRBST MEN. Hind men. ii 
sition to bond men. SceHr. H 
note to Chapman, Odyaa., it. 

P HESTER JOUN. that ia. Pr 
John ; from pretire, FrencI 
gritre. The suppoaed nam 
Ctiribtian king of India, mht 
minions vere larioualy placed 
information on thia aubject 
found in M. D'Aveiac's Intro 
to Plan de Carpin.] Son 
referred them to AbyaiinJa. G 
Mandeville places them in ai 
ctlled PenttEoirt, and treata ol 
large in IiIk 27tli chapter, edil 
The following account of tht 
of his title is in the 29ih chap 

koyiihl with biB inID p cbirebc in KnptT 
Suirnt4j lu Vv(t«iA wofct And lUr bt 
oidni And it [tbc npem] bcInU ■ 
tliE •cni ■ fiiHc ir«uaj ' ud l» akadc II 
knvhi. M IimL nii-ii en* Jif re tba teliDldni Ih 
pnlnlF kri Mbtu hiiii. &uil Uk kH»!)il 
Ukd ■rydr, tliAt tlid ■rlnlde bm pmirt. 
Uie cmpemir irydc. lUai lie viihle » I 
elt|HkjHpiietiiHin«Br.lintpnTff ; udtb 


uJolis. Aiuln 

Gibimn treats the whole as n 
and SHI*, "The fmne of pre. 
pretlit/ter John, lias long amii 
credulity of Eiiro[iei" aud th 
its long progress to Moaul, Jer 
Rome, Sc., the Mory etaporn' 
monnErons fable." Chnp. 47 
emperor, hnvever, imaginary 
WHS often alliidrd to by poet*. 

Tlinii>|ri< Knnce m tnniiqih, gr U>'ple'i 
Th< Sopbt ami imt Frrtlrr-Jaim l>«t1i( 
Iwouliliitimplil. n.X^h 

Ariosto lias n cuHoun tale of i 
king of .^lliiopia, wlinni lie 
the same a* Piriler Joku : 

Which Haringion tliiw irnnsli 

Wc »ll liiin FriU.r Jol.i,m Hrelri Jiii.v 

PRKTl^XUK, 1., for inientiou '; 
TESU, iiil'ra, for iiirend 

fur Ion or voo. wo hule unto m, rrirnd. 
H»lL niule me poMuher of tbi.^l.-r. 

Tbat is, of bis design to steal t 

Aiiiin» ilir iindivDiged pretaHf I Sfbt 

ro pirETIiNo"' To intend. Tt 




ornmon ib Shakespeare, tlint 
evens bus eveB asiserted that 
F used the word otherwise. 

tntlj 1*11 give her (ktker notiee 
lagHMhif and preteudrd flijclit. 

Two G«Ht. Ver., ii, 0. 

bliowiug passage, however, it 
ibtedlv used in the Gommoii 
itiou : 

let yon fnUni with that baae wretch, 
of alms, aad rottcr'd vith cohl dishes. 
p« o* the court), it i^ no contract, none. 

Cymb., ii. 3. 

le contract of Imogen with 
aas, to which the speaker 
was not one intended, but 
passed, and alluded to by her 
If to Cloteu*B suit. Shake- 
las not, in fact, often uaed the 
bat other demative words he 
i in the way alleged, 
md also in other autliors : 

a are abiised ; this cnalom feien'd too. 
you uf>wfret€wd most fair ai^d virtuous. 

B.Md Ft. Cttst. of Count., i, I. 
e, lest further niisciiief be pretended, 

Jew nfUmUa, 0. Pi., viii, 393. 
[ pntatd to Jetome and cone round, thoruw 
ODS of £an^. 

Dr. Borde, Introd., sign. H 3. 

SBD, pari. Intended, de- 

Thc fact, you say, whs done. 
tensed malice, hut l>v chniice. 

^ J. Otdc., u. t, Mai. Suppl., ii, 300. 

thereadin*; of the first quarto 
, and, couMdering tiie custo- 
tage of preteady may wetl be 
^iit the folio of 1664 changed 
}pen»ed. Mr. Steevens quotes 
MimtMd i^nlice of the queen ;" 
heat saying whence he took 

f- term, it means pretended, or 
; jua pr€e4en9um : and Todd 
M> exeinplifted it in similar 

they coonte the intfiite and fr«- 
poie as evell as the acte or dede itselfe. 

3Iore*s Utopi*, 1531. 

SNT, V, To go before; lite- 
ral prigvtniOi Latin. To ami- 

I know not how, 
jid it oowardly and vile, 
' wipat Diisht itU, so to prevent 
iflife. Jul. Gu., V. 1. 

1 1 pment the risin'^e sun to wait on you. 

Jnti^M., O. PI , X, 61. 

;he ll9th Psalm, ver. H8 : 
e^prevent the nijcht watches ;** 
the prayers, *' Prevent us, 

' Lord, in all our doings." See Jolin- 

fTo PREVIEW. To see beforehand. 

Him fast asleep in Gythers woods 
rie hide, or on fierce Idals holy hill; 
That none pretiew, and so prevent our skill. 

rirgil, by Yicart, 1632. 

PRICES. The prices paid in our old 
theatres were extremely low. It was 
a fashionable thing for some of the 
more gay gallants to sit upon the 
stage on stool'*, and these paid a 
ahilling for their superior accom- 
modation. That was then the highest 

The private stage's audience, the twdve-penny stool 
gentlemen. Roaring Girl, 0. PL, vi. 31. 

The same was also tlie price of a best 
box, which was called a room : 

But I say, any man that hath wit may censure, if Ue 
sit it) the twehepenny roow^. IdnleonL, O PI., iv, 13. 

This personage is afterwards invited 
to a private box : 

Good sir, will you leave the stngef I will help yoi» 
to a pritate room. Malcont, O. PI., iv, 14. 

If he have but twefve pence in lits purse, he will ^We 
it for the best room in a plny-house. 

Sir Tko. Owerbhry's Char^ 

Prynne thus recounts the necessary 
and contingent expenses of a play* 
house : 

How many are there, who, nrmrdina to their several 
qualities, a|icnd 2(/. U. Ad. 6d. \1J. ISd. 3«.iind aume- 
times fuiir or live shillings Ht n pUy-lii»iue day by 
day, if cusdi-liire, IxMie-hire, tobacco, wine. Iiei r. and 
such like vninc cxpences. which p!uy-housc9 do ni^uallr 
occaisiun, be cast into the reckoiiing. 

Histritm , p 82-2. 

Tliere was a time, too, when the pit 
and gallery paid only h. penny : 

Your jfruundling, nnd your gallery ciimmoncr buye* 
his sport by the penny. GhVm aornb., eh. Tl, p. 27.. 

See Groundling. 

At the same period there was only- 
one private bo:(, which was also called 
'* the lord's room." It seema ta have 
been a stage box : 

I mesne not into the lord's roome, which is now but 
the stale's suburbs. OhVs Hornb, 

The private box took up at the new plaj:» 
For me and my retinue. Mnss. City Madam. 

There were also nxpenny places. Jon-^ 
son speaks of 

The feces or grounds of your people, that sit in the 
oblique caves and wedges of your house, voursintul 
sijcpcnny mechanics. Ind. to Jtoffn. Lady. 

In 1612, when Bartholomew Fair was 
produced, the prices had risen in some 
degree ; for in the comic articles of 
agreement between the author iind 
the andic.ce, it is covenanted that, 

It shiill be lawful for any man to jud^e his six* 
pen'worth, his tu'elvc-pfn'Murtli, so to his eighteen* 
l>cnr('. two sliiliings, hull a cruwu, — to the v.ilne of 
isiii |»ai'e. Iwiiiaik 




It is certain, however, that the prices 
<iiffered at different houses. See 
Malone's Proleg., Suppl. to Shakesp., 
vol. i, p. 11. There was, undoubtedly, 
41 two-penny gallery in the Fortune 
playhouse : 

One of them ii a Nip: I took him once at the twO' 
pemnt gaUery at the Fortune. 

JloflHM^ ffiW, 0. PI., vi. 113. 

See many more particulars relating 
to the prices and accommodations in 
our earlv tlieatres, in Mr. Malone*8 
Supplemental Observations to Shake- 
speare, Suppl., vol. i, pp. 8 — 27. Also 
in Steevens*s notes to Henry VIII, 
act y, sc. 3. 
To PRICK, r. To ride briskly; from 
pricking the horse on with the spur. 
Literally, to spur. 

A gentle loiight was pricking on the plaine. 

Sp. F. q., I, i, 1. 
What need we any spur, but our own cause, 
To priek us to recfress. Jul. Cm., ii, 1. 

As mj ever esteemed duty prickt me ou. 

Lot^s L. X., i, 1. 

In all these cases, spur might be used 
instead ; even in the first. 

A gentle knight was spurring o'er the plain. 

Sometimes it seems to mean to shoot 
at a mark ; from the following word : 

This prayse belonxetli to stronge sliootmge and draw- 
iiige of niightye bowes, not to prick'inge, and nere 
shootin^c. Jack. Toxopk., p. 106. 

PRICK, 8, A mathematical point, or 
point in general. In the old English 
translations of Euclid, this word is 
regularly used where point now 
So Warner, exactly: 

13 8 

Arithmetike, geometry, and mnsicke do proceed, 

19 S 

From one, tLpricke, from divers sounds, 8cc. 

^ Jlb.Sngl.,B.xm,p.Z9S. 

That 18, arithmetic proceeds from 
unity, geometry from a mathematical 
point, sc. 

And made an cTcuing at the noon-tide srtci-. 

SHcn. ri,\,4. 
Stick, in their nnmb'd and mortify'd bare arms, 
Pins, wooden priekt, nails, sprigs* of rosemary. 

Lear, ii, 3. 

Here it means skewers, as also in the 
following : 

I gire to the butcliers, fcc. priekes iiiough to set up 

appear thicke and well, 
fedde. WyU of tke Devgll, hi. I 

their thin meate, that it may appear thicke and well 

It means likewise the point, or mark 
in the centre of the butts, in archery : 

Tliercfore seeing that which is most perfect and best 
in shootinse, as alwayea to hit the pricke, was never 
«eene nor hard tell on yet amon}cc« men. 

Jsck. Toxopk., p. 12-'). 

This point was also called the 
the marky the pin, &c. 

They inisse the marke, that ihoot their am 
Tiiey hit Wit pricke, that make iheir flight 1 
So licere the white, that shaft may light on 

Mirr.for Mi 


That be chiefe that have Ike fricke and pn 
thinfT, prim». Witkal^ Dielimtarie, ed. 16 
To wliicli end, we must be sure to be am 
with prick and praise of the deceased ; and 
inventory of our (pnods, and the groM st 
dowry p«r|N:tually m our mouths. 

Brome's Sort 

PRICK-SONG. Music written 
sometimes more particularly m 
parts ; from the points or do 
which it is noted down. See Hi 
ii, 248. 

He fights as you singpririr-Miiy.keejwtime 
and proportion. He rests his minim, one 
three in vour bosom. Bom. and 

I wquld have all lovers burin and end their, 
w ith lacrymsB. ilieroconnuM, O. r 

Hence the nightingale's song, 
more regularly musical tha 
other, was often termed prick-, 

Tereu, she crvs. 
And still her woes at midnight rise. 
Bnive prick-song I Alex. /* Camp^ 0. 1 

When opposed to plain-song, it 
counter-point, as distinguish^ 
mere melody. See Plain-son 
PRICKLE, *. A sort of baskei 
technically used in some bran* 

Rain roses still. 
Until the last be drupt; then hence and fill 
Your fragmnt prickles for a second shower. 
B. Jons. Masque of Pan., 

fPRICK-SHAFT. An arrow. 

Who with her hellish courage, stout and ho 
Abides the brunt of many zprickske^ shot 

Tkylor's Woi 

PRIDWIN. The name of A 
shield. It was common for the 
of a hero to have a name; 
seems that both the shield an( 
of Arthur shared that honour, 
are all named in these lines of 
ton : 

The tfmper of his sword, the trv'd Excalab* 
The bi>;ness and the length of Rone, his nol 
With Pridvin his great shield, and what 
cuuld bear. Polgolb., Song 

PRIKFE. See Pheip. 

The yarwh-priesi forgot that he was era 
this IS uieaut of proud starters up." Em 

ro P lU EVE, r.. for prove. See P; 
fPRIM. A neat girl. 

Aiioute all lyondon there was no propre prf 
But loiij; tyme had ben famylyer wita hym. 

Barct^t F^l/U M 




ST A. or PRl MI-VIST. A 

the cards; probably the 

Primero. This has been 

but the circumstance of the 

Dg counted in the same way, 

determine it. In both the 

)ned for eighteen, and the 


re like the cirda at primi-vUt, where six 

and seren tventy^onc; for thev never 

they sonnd. Earle's Microccs., Char. 12. 

ty be some of oitr butterfly judgments 

et at maw or prima-wiMta front them. 

RtMil friends, It-M (cited by Stee%-.) 

says, " Primero, and prima- 

games at cards;'' yet he 
one set of names for them, 

one reason for the names : 
first, and first scene, because 
;an shew such an order of 
St winnes the game." 
I. Original, first. 

1 taught us from iht primal state. 

Jut. and Cleo., i, 4. 
mwial, eldest curse upon \ 
murder. Haml., iii, S. 

Morning. It meant origi- 
still in French, the first 
hour of prayer. 

his boxe nye aliout the pryme, 

ty he is in iieren or even-song tyme. 


ed by Milton : 

», that sweet hour of prime. 

Far. Lost, v, 170. 

also spring : 

', that day is every prime. 

ea wont ao penance for their crime. 

Sp. F. Q., 1, ii, 40. 

ere interprets it morning; 
would be no sense in saying, 

1 day, that day is every morn- 

roirned with the prime, 
t time. L. L. Lost, t, 8. 

rime. 0. PL. ii. 162. 

rammers, winters, antomns, primes. 

Fansk. Lusted, v, 15. 

clear what is meant here by 
rime : 

\t gets lands, and spends as much time 
eh acre, as maids palling prime. 

Donne, Sat., ii, 86. 

also a name for Primeuo, 
m in the game itself: 

quickly. 0. PI., vii, 189. 

is French. 
5. To become renewed. 

ifol empress, though she often wain, 
ts her darkness, primes again ; 
r circling horns dotli re-enibmce 
's wealth, and orbs her silve* (aee. 

Quaries*s Emblems. 

Ready, or eager. 

Were they as prime as goats, as hot aa monkeys. 

Othello, iii, 8* 

It seems to have been particularly 
applied to goats : 

More prime than goates or monkeys in their pridea. 

Samp»on*s Vow-breaierf D 4 b. 

PRIME-TIDE. Spring. 

Huw winter gendreth snow : what temperature 
In the prime-tide doth season well the soyl. 
Why summer bumes. 

N. GrimomU, in Wart. Poet., iii, 64. 

fPRIME-TIME. The same. Repre- 
senting the French printemps. 

He who has seen tlie busie bees when prime-time 
first forth leaps. A. Hall's Homer, p. 26, 1581. 

PRIMER, a. First, primary. 

Began the goodly church of Westminster to rear. 
The primer Enjelish kings so truly zealous were. 

Drayt. Pol., xi, p. 865. 

A game at cards, said by some writers 
to be one of the oldest known in 
England. In French, prime. It is 
thus described by Mr. Daines Bar- 
rington, in the Archseologia, vol. viii, 
p. 132. From Duchat's Notes on 
Rabelais, by which I have corrected 
Mr. Bnrrington'd account : 

Each phiyer had four cards dealt to him. one by one ; 
the seven was the highest card in point of number 
that he could avail liiniseU of. whicli counted for 
twenty >one; the six counted for eighteen, the five 
for fifteen, and ace fur the same ; Iml the two, the 
three, and the four, for their respective points only. 
The knave of diamonds was commonly fixed upon for 
the qutHola, which the pluyrr might make what card 
or suit he tliought proper; if the cards were of dif- 
ferent suiti. tlie highest number wms ihe primero [or 
{mme] ; but if they were all of one colour, he that 
leld tliem won the fiask. 

I find the term, quinola, in the French 
game of Reversis (see Acad, des Jeux, 
p. 228), which is said to be borrowed 
from the Spaniards ; but in other 
respects primero seems most to re- 
semble the game called Vambigu, if 
it is not the very same. There are 
the terms prime, &c. (Ibid., p. 248), 
and there are the rules for vying, that 
is, saying ^^va de deux ou trois jettons 
davantage." P. 246. 
This description, however, will not 
fully explain the 99th Epigram of 
sir J. Harington*s second book; 
though it illustrates sufficiently the 
following couplet: 

At first he Uiought himself half wav to heav'n. 
If in his hand he had but got a sern. 

But sir John is too learned on the 
subject for most modern readers. 
The game was in high fashion. Gar- 
diner says that he left t\i« ^Vsk% ^^ ^ 

yrimero with the duke of Soffolk-" 
Uta. nil. V, 1. Sir John Haring- 
ton !<penks of his "over-watebing 
akwnlf KtprxMero." Jpol.farj^x, 

Inthemarquii of WorccBter's Century 
of luveiitioua, ooe i> ao contmed, 
" that playing at primero, at cards, 
OBe may, without clogging hit 
memory, ket-p reckoning oTall nzH, 
tnnu, and ace*, wliich he hath dia- 
cnrded." § 87- 

-It waa reckoned rallur ii (:anih)iDj; 

pmeM' H to pljiT >i iL 

ennu-i ni <> , 0. FL, ril, M. 
Fiimera vas often played bjF four 
pertoiia. See some veraes alluding 
to KUch a game. Hart. Cat. HSS., 
3787, i -n. 

T1l> lUtr or FniDcc u mm il tUuli 


Wlicn vxuF dor <;i, lud 1011111 doc Imu^d, 

Awl kru auurMl niijr lie Uw IhmIiI, kc 

Primero is introduced in several gram- 
matical dialoguea, from which aome- 
ihing may be learned rrapeeting it, 
but itjil imprrreclly. The following 
being in bnoka, the first of which, at 
leaat, 1 lielit-ve to be very acaree, I 
aliall (iivp diem as apedmens. 

■* Irl imirnofoiiriniK.irtil 

J- AflrcAt. ft Ip. ditninlc- 

JL 1 TK il, itill loa hailil 111 

J. In.iir IlHJilil.ii.iclrcnElt.bntdimUA. 

J. ruin hhI ■Mill. 1 |imw JBD. Taagntt mttttr 

1 niiii't Imr ■ ch cfc ntilE. 

^. AwllknitnwickiiKtntentaM. 

a. ViilianHiHtoiiK! 

^. VBu1»llllHll..hlU> 

S. Will •« iwlnir [nnlMkli. jitli, « tttnr oj 
jI. Tia At Irnil pun af ni Ihinitht. 
A. IriwyKitfwIhn, ifinuplnu. 
J- ] iHiHHlil, uliatit v4Mir rntf 

J. 1 an (bnrt tbd Anic: ud jtmP 
& O aithw lack. 1 hare loat it one an. 

J. noris-f Sicaa fMo, Uai, p. St. 

In Miushew'e Spsnisli Dialogoea, p. 
26, there ia aomething still more ex- 
planslory : 

«. I did lUt SB ue. 

X. Lei w rn. • 

Jf. T>»il>i1)ii>i 

L. Then ■kiiah 

c. KiHleiKblaliiUi 
■lldcnle. itnoill 

L. lemjdut. 

M. Ixiuldywvanaot. 

Ail Ihts agrees better with thad 
tiou of the Ambiga in the Ae 
Jeua, titan with any other, 
plain ibet« are four players, to 
0. deals firat two eanta a-piece 
they pass, or set. After a tin 
more cards are given, and the 
set. When the cards are sho* 
has prime, which is lour a 
different suitn, the other has ■ 
which is mitch beltrr, and 
Some of the terms of primero i 
in Howell's NomeQclalor, aul 
tu bis lexicon Tetragtottoii, ae 
The game was called alMo /in 
above noticed : 

S, Tkrt. sa Btwt. ia Omi. li 

The Couipleat Gamester (16 
uBlbrtiiiMitely too modern to t 
priMero. See Qviuola. 
tPRIMEVB. friiuval. 

itioi), aod Snl hei^ 

PRIMROSE WAY, or' pi^!' 
dentty the flowery, pleasaat «• 

I had ilKniiht Id harl Igt In auoia of all pr 

Ra lliv fr i mrcH wt^f \o Aa i 

Spenser uses It as if it mont 
rote, or best roaa, wharaaa it ec 
mean* flower of Um spring: 

3lie i> Iha pride aid frvmnm af Ika laA 

Spring i perbapa pMoliir to t 
lowing passage : 

t TialM ia Uia jwiMk Ufiiat sM si a. X 




PRINADO. A sharper. 

In • trice yoQ ihall lee him [the ballad-monger] 
gnuded with a janizarie of coeter-mongert, ~~ 


eoaatnj gooeeiinn; while bis uipps, inU, banga, 
and pruudoSf of iraom he holds in fee, ofttimeii pre- 
mat the lawyer by diTing too deep into hii client's 
podcet; while he girea too deep attention to the 
wonderfol ballad. ClUui^t Wkimsi<t, p. 13. 

Pimps, nips, and int»t prinados. be. 

H&H. Ghost, p. 231. 

?R1NC0CK, or PRINCOX. A pert, 
forward youtb ; probably corrupted 
from the heXin pr€Beox. See Johnson. 

You are a saocy boy. — — 

— — — Tonarea|»-iMCM;, go. 

Bom. /* Jul., i, 5. 
Yes, prinkoektt, that I haTc ; for foartie yeares agoe, 
I cooid smatter in a Dons — 
Better I am sore then an hundred of yon. 

iV«wC!w/..0. PL, 1,264. 
I will teach thee a leison worth the hearing, proad 
ffimcoeht how gentility first spruog up. 

Green^t Qmpfifr an Uptt. Or., B 4. 

The Cambridge Dictionary (1693) 

has, " Prineoek, Ephebus, puer prse- 


Also as an adjective : 

Ah, sirrah, hare I found vou ? are you heere, 
l[cniffincoek boy ? Dan. Hvm. Driumph., p. S13. 

To teach many proud, princoeke scholars, that are 
puffed up with the opinion of their learning, to pull 
dovne the high sailes (tf their loFtv spirits. 

Corjfot, CnuL, ii, p. 366, reprint 

To PRINK. To perk up, to hold up 
one*s self pertly. Dr. Johnson says 
it is a diminutive of prank; it is 
rather a jocular modification of it, as 
prit tie-prattle, tittle-tattle, &c. 

vo you not see howe these newe fangled pratling 

Frinit up so pertly late in every place P 

JV^ Cm/., O. Fl., i, 266. 

It certainly was joined occasionally 
with prank. Thus Coles: "To prink 
and prank, ezorno. They are all day 
prinking and pranking themselves. 
Dum moliuntur, dum comuntur annus 
est." This is also in Walker's 
Paroemiologia, p. 30. ^* , 

III PRINT. With exactness, in a precise 
and perfect manner ; from the exact 
regularity and truth of the art of 
printing, which was at first deemed 
almost miraculous. 

All tUt I qieak in pritU, for in print I found it. 

Two Gent. Ver., ii, 1. 
I win do ft, fir, in print, L. L. Lost, iii, 1. 

I am tore my husband is a man in print for all things 
eli«, MTe only in this. Honest Wh., 0. PI., iii, 257. 

That is, a man always in exact and 
perfect order. 

To hsn his ruffes set in print, to picke his teeth, and 
pliij with • puppet. Sarle's Microc., new ed., p. S69. 

FBISTINATE, a. Former; the same 
at pmtine. 


Beside the only name of Christ, nnd extemall con- 
ttfiiipt of their pristinate itlulHtrye, lie taught them 
nothing at all. llolinsh., vul. i, B 3, col. 2, b. 

PRIVADO, *. A private friend, a 
favorite. Spanish. See Steevens's 
Spanish Dictionary. 

When you consult with me about the personage that 
should flrst, or secuitd, or tertiate vour business with 
the king, 1 must answer as Demostneues did of action. 
My lord Thresorer, My lord Thresorer, and so again. 
We contemolate him, not only in the quality of his 
place, but already in some denre oi^pricndo. 

Sir H. Wot ton. Remains, p. 559. 

See also the other examples in Todil. 
PRIVATE, *. Privacy. 

Go off, I discard you t let me eiiioy my private. 

Twelfth N.,\n, A. 

Also private intimation : 

Whose private with me, of the dauphin's love. 
Is mucn more general than these words import. 

K. John, iv, 8. 

fPRIVATE. In privacy. 

In brief, I over heard a trusty servant 

Of his ith' camp come and declare your hi<;Itnes8C 

yitA private with Caropia. 

Chapman's Revenge for Honour, 1054. 

PRIVE, »., for deprive. 

For what can be said worse of slepe, if it, privin^ you 
of all pleasures, do not suffer you to feclc anyihmg at 
all. Barker's Fearf Fane., P 1 b. 

PRIZALL, s.t for prize. 

The greatest trophy that my travailes gain. 
Is to bring home Aprixall of such M-orth. 

Dft.tiel'j Works, E r 7 b. 

PROBALL, a. Probable. Apparently 
a contraction or corruption of that 
word. It appears only in the follow- 
irg passage, but as all the early 
editions concur in the reading, the 
last editor lias restored it. 

When this advice is free, I give, and honest, 

Froba! to thinking, and indeed the course 

To win the Moor again. Othello, ii. .'L 

It has not been found elsewhere. 
fPROCINCT, s. Girding, preparation 
for war. Todd could find no other 
example than that quoted by Johnson 
from Milton. 

lu all procint of war. Chaym. II., xii, 89. 

T^PROCLIVE. Prone to. 

For a woman is fraile and procUte unto all evils. 

Latimer's Sermons. 
To conclude this point, it may somewhat too truly be 
said, though not by way of discouragement, yet of 
caveat, wluit by the proclivitie and pronenesse of otf 
frailtie is warrantable^ Ford*s Line of lAfe, 1630. 

fPROCREATE, adj. Begotten. 

With condition, that if any issue male were procreate 
of tliat manage. UolinshetCs Chronicles, 1577. 

PROCTOR. A person appointed to 
beg, or collect alms for leprous or 
bedridden persons, who could not go 
out for themselves. By an act of 
Edw. I such persons were allowed to 
appoint these proctot^^ox Y^^tv\xv>.\.Qrt%, 




provided not more than two were 
appointed for one Lazar bouse. But 
by an act of 39 Eliz. sucb "Proctors, 
procurers, or patent gatberers, for 
<>;aol8, prisons, or bospitnls," were 
declared rogues and vagabonds. 
Hence tbey were excepted against in 
tiie regulations of Watts's almshouses 
at Rochester ; and not to be received 
as travellers. 

Toa're best get n clRp-disli, and say 
You are a proctor tu some spital-liouse. 

Hon. Whore, pnrt ii, 0. PI., iii, 442. 

See Archoeologia, vol. xviii, p. 9. 
fPRODIG. Prodigal, lavish. 

Then in n goodly gardeii'i alleis smooth. 

Where prodig nature seta abroad her booth 

Of richest beauties. Du Barttu. 

fPRODIGIAL, adj. Relating to pro- 
digies, or portents. 

Where, for many dayes together (as if God had beene 
offended) were seene many fearefull and stntn^e 
siyhts, the events whereof such as were skilfnit m 
prodiaial learning foretold and prophecied would be 
wofnfl and lamentable. Ammiannt MarceUiniUt 1609. 

PRODIGIOUS, fl. Like a prodigy, 
portentous, horrible, unnatural. 

Lame, foolish, crooked, swart, prodiaiout, 
Patch'd with foul moles, and eye-offending marks. 

K.John^ iii,!. 
Our {roods made prize, our sailors sold for slaves 
By h\B prodiffioM issue. Mass. Uhh. Comb., i, 1. 

Behold yon comet shews his head again I 
Twice uu he thus at cross turns thrown on us 
Prodigious looks. Honest Wk., O. Pi., iii. ?49. 

O yes, I wuB prodigious to thy birthnight, and as a 
blazing star at thine unlook'd for fuueral. 

Markk. EngLArc, 1607. 

PRODIGIOUSLY, adv. Portentously ; 
from the preceding. 

Let wives with child 
Pray that their burdens may not fall tliis day, 
Lest that their hopes prodigiously be crost. 

A". John, iii, 1. 

PROFACE. A familiar exclamation of 
welcome nt a dinner, or other meal, 
equivalent to *'much good may it do 
you;'' but from what language de- 
rived, was long uncertain. Sir Xc 
Hanmer said, from pro/aceia, Italian. 
But no such word appears in any 
Italian Dictionary. Mr. Steevens 
conjectures it to be from " Bon prou 
leur face," which is in Cotgrave ; by 
a colloquial abbreviation (t. e., I pre- 
sume, prou face, or fosse), " much 
good may it do." The conjecture 
was worthy of the sagacity of Mr. 
Steevens, and is very near the truth ; 
for, in Roquefort's Glossaire de la 
Langue Romane, we find, ** Prouface 
— tfoubait qui veut dire, bien voas 

fasse ; proficiat." It is plain, there- 
fore, that we bad it from the Norman 
romance language. Taylor the water- 
poet treats it as a French phrase : 

A French and English man at dinner sale. 
And neither understanding other's prate. 
The Freuchnun says aMit#«, pnff^ wtomsiemr. 

Tkt SemUer, J^pigr.4^ 

Taylor uses it also in his own person, 
in the introduction to his Pmise of 
Hempseed: "Preface; and prqfaee, 
my masters, if your stoma